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Full text of "The Artizan"

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2. END E L E V AT 1 O 



N , O N LINE A.B 



THE ARTIZAN. DECEMBER IV 1859 



ENGINES OF THE PACIFIC STEAM NAVIGATION COUP" STEAM SHIP 

" VALPARAISO"" 

CIWSTRTTCTEB BY MESS*? BAKDOLPM ,EJ,D£S & C? EJ£GmEERS, GLASGOW . 
PATENTEES. 




THE ARTIZAN: 

LIBRARY 

OP : U. S. P 

s 

CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEEKING, 

SHIPBUILDING, STEAM NAVIGATION, THE APPLICATION OF 
CHEMISTEY TO THE INDUSTRIAL AETS, Jk, &c. 

EDITED BY Wm. SMITH, C.E. 



VOL. XVII., PROM THE COMMENCEMENT. 
VOL. XL NEW SERIES. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED AT THE OEEICE OE THE "ARTIZAN" JOURNAL, 
19, SALISBURY STREET, STRAND, W.C. 

1859. 



T 
i 



LONDON: 
J. SIMPSON AND CO., PRINTERS, 5, SALISBURY STREET, STRAND. 



frA^l^- 



LIBRARY 



NDEX TO VOL. XVII. u. s. paten 



THE AETIZAN JOURNAL, 1859. 



Acadian Charcoal Iron Company, 82 

Accidents from Machinery, 26, 45, 52, 77, 107, 108, 

135, 160, 186, 235, 283, 309, 311 
Address to readers, 1 
Admiralty experiments with screw steam ships in the 

Royal Navy, 57 
Aerial navigation, 231 
Agricultural Machinery : 

Guide way Steam Agricultural Co mpany, 50 

Thatch fabricating machine, 234 

Mowing machines, 207, 234 

Moveable iron huts, 50 

Railways for agricultural purposes, 234 

Reaping machines, 181, 234 

Romanies' steam cultivator, 234 

"Warwick Agricultural Show, 234 
Amalgamating zinc, 70 
Alloying copper for coinage purposes, 87 
Alloys, new metallic, 186 
American cigar-shaped steam ship, 80 

notes, 17, 19, 61, 87, 165, 168, 277, 292 : 



294 



post office, 46 
railway bureau, 218 



Anchor lift, Newbon and Smith's pa tent,, 192 
Anchors for the Admiralty, 231 

Trotman's patent, 180, 207 

Rogers' patent small pea, 77 
Anderson, J., on some applications of the copying- 
principle in the production of wooden articles, 92 
Antwerp, fortifications at, 283 
Aqueduct at Spoletta, 309 

Armstrong's long range gun, 49, 127, 132, 186, 309 
Army clothing establishment at Pimlico, 22 
Arrows or bolts, vertical fire with, 257 
Arsenal at Woolwich, 105, 132, 133, 158, 184, 261, 

309 
Arsenal at New York, destruction of the, 24 
Arctic expedition, fate of the, 270 
Artesian Weils : 

Creuzot, Prance, 308 

Ostend, 81 

St. Louis, Missouri, 285 
Aetilleey : 

French operations at Sebastopol, 49 

Practice, Shoeburyness, 49 

Scuttling a burning vessel by, 49 
Auriferous quartz, spurious specimens of, 306 
Australia, population of, 46 
Australian Colonies, defences of, 310 
— — — — Mining Company, 167 
Austrian guns, 80 

B. 

Balloon attempt to cross the Atlantic, proposed, 307 

Balloons in warfare, use of, 211' 

Baltic, war-forts in the, 49 

Basting apparatus, self acting, 129 

Barometer as an engineering instrument, 35, 67 

Baths at Liverpool, 261 

Baths : 

Oxley's multum-in-parvo, 125 

Griffith's patent, 126 
Batteries, French floating, 184 
Battersea, steam-boat pier at, 283 
Bayonet, origin of the, 158 
Bayonets, Dennet's improvements in, 125 
Beacon on the Monkstone Rock, 283 
Bee's cell, the construction of the, 218 
Belgium, merchant shipping of, 131 
Bell buoy for the South Atlantic, 184 
Bells and clock at Westminster, 102, 155, 159, 160, 

192, 207, 298 



Bell founding, 237 

made of glass, 307 

of Sherborne, 21 

St. Stephen, 21 

Bessemer, H. on malleable fron and steel, 173 
Binnacle, Brown's patent gravity, 180 
Biscuit making, machinery for, 307 
Blasting, accidents from, 26, 284 

operations at Beaufort, 310 

Blast furnace explosion, 186 

furnaces at Wallsend, 82 

Bleaching and dying works, 102 

Blind Artizans of London, 102 

Blyth's improvements in flax machinery, 199 

Board of Trade, engineers to the, 208 

returns, 46, 77, 101, 108, 129, 160, 



213, 280 
Boat lowering apparatus, 180 
Bogue Forts, 106 

BoiLEES : 

Alarum for, 50 
Cast iron sleepers for, 157 
Giffard's feed apparatus for, 292 
Mann's patent safety apparatus, 195 
High pressure steam, J. Spencer on a new construc- 
tion of, 294 
Plan for cleansing, 204 
Rowan's improvements in marine, 194, 167 

BOILER EXPLOSIONS: 

Iron works and factories, 50, 81, 106, 133, 155, 160, 
185, 261, 279, 294 

Steamers, 106, 160, 261 
Bomb, new fulminating, 282 
Books, new, or new editions of, 18, 75, 100, 127, 153, 

177, 204, 229, 276, 305 
Boots and shoes by machinery, 129 
Boundary, surveying, 102 

■ between Constantinople and 



Montenegro, 211 
Boydell's traction engine, 113, 177, 232, 280 
Bray's traction engine, 77, 102, 129, 367 
Breakwater : 

The port of Blyth, description of the, 70, 12 

Holyhead, 310 

Portland, 310 
Brick making machine, 208 
Beidges : 

Blackfriars, 284 

Buffalora, 106, 159 

Charing Cross railway, 284 

Chelsea new, 106, 159 

Deep dale viaduct, 50 

Floating at Cowes, 284 

Iron girder, for Indian Railways, 3 

Kaffre Azzayat across the Nile, 212 

Kenny's balance rolling, 81 

Kehl over the Rhine, 159 

La Reina, 25 

London, 106, 134, 212, 235 

Minor bridges, 50, 81, 106, 134, 159, 160, 185, 212, 
235, 284 

Railway in India, 310 

Rhone suspension, 25 

Saltash, 50, 159 

Sarama, Spain, 25 

Suspension, 152, 284 

Swing bridge at Port Adelaide, 25 ' 

Var bridge, Sardinia, 25 

Victoria park approach bridge, 235 

bridge, Montreal, 25, 134, 159, 185, 212, 235, 

283, 284 

bridge Pimlico, 185, 212, 235 

Waterloo, 185 



Bridges : 

Wearmouth, 107 

Westminster bridge, 25, 112, 134, 191, 212, 217, 

235, 263, 284, 310 
York, 284 
British and Foreign Smelting Company, 82, 108 

and Irish produce, value of, 279 

isles, wreck chart of the, 193 

Bronze casting, 52 

aluminium, 160 



Browning gun barrels, 37 
Brunei, I. K. Esq., death of, 257 
Bullet, Morton's new rifle, 80 
Bullion for coinage, 107 

C. 

Cable for Malta harbour, 307 
Caliper rules, 88 
Canada p\iblic works in, 283 
Canals : 

Birmingham, 283 

Caledonian, 235 

Canadian canals, traffic of, 51 

Canals, in Spain, 159 

Canal basin at Grangemouth, 283 

Caspian, and Black Sea Canal, 283 

Crinan, 82, 185, 235. 

Erie, 51 

Greytown, and Nicaragua Canal, 124 

Kedrilris Canal for the navigation of the Danube, 51 

Madras Canal Company, 50, 310 

Mining Canals in British Columbia, 311 

Nicaragua Lake Canal, 185 

Ship Canal through the Isthmns of Krau, 51 

Suez Canal, 134, 159, 185, 235, 310 

Quebec and Montreal Canal 283 

Walsal, 235 
Candle Company, Price's patent, 208 
Cape of Good Hope, life boats for the, 24 

Colony, wool from, 102 
Carbon water filter, 184 
Cardboard from wood 77 
Cargo, a hazardous, 156 
Cartridge, newly invented blank, 105 
Norton's percussion, 132 



237 



Cement, for joining stone, 180 
Chatham Marine Barracks, 80 

Chemistry : 

Amalgamating battery plates 

Aromatic vinegar, 186 

Artificial rose water, 285 

Beer, adulterations in, 237 

Boron, a substitute for diamond powder, 26 

Bronzing process for brass, 26 

Coating zinc plates, 237 

Collodion process for photograph}-, 237 

Electro plating with silver, 213 

Enamel for earthenware, 135 

Fire proof composition, 237 

Gilding thread for weaving cloth of gold, 2 

Hardening copper-plates, 26 

Hydrochloric acid in road making, 261 

Iodine, for cure of corns, 52 

Leather tanning, 285 

Mildew in grain, 135 

Phonautography, 130 

Phosphate of lime, 160 

Photographic manipulation, 52 

Photography applied to wood, 52 

Printing goods, 108 

Sericine, 237 

Silicates of Potash and Soda, 52 

Silicating process for stone, 108, 160 



1Y. 



Index to Vol. XFIL, 1859. 



["The Aetizan, 
LjanuaeyI, 1860 



ChEMISTEY : 

Small pox, prevention of pitting in, 135 

Solvent for lignine, 213 

Teeth, new mastic for, 261 

Vinegar adulterations in, 237 

Waterproofing cloth, 285 
Chess and draughts for the pocket, 102 
Chimney at Glasgow, 307 
Chinese war tactics, 282. 283 
Clock and bells at Westminster, 102, 155, 159, 180, 

192, 207, 298 
Cloth cutting and sewing by machinery, 21 
Coal : 

Burning Welsh coal in locomotives, 117, 145 

Burning of, in locomotives, D. K. Clark, on 
smokeless, 272 

Coal and coke in locomotives, on the relative 
value in, by B. Fothergill, 143 

Coal boxes for steamers, 260 

Exportation of, 51, 82, 155, 185, 213 

Metropolitan sunply of, 284 

Mines of, 26, 82, 107, 114, 134, 160, 185, 213, 237, 
261, 284, 310 

Substitute for, 108 

Coast defences, English, 24, 49, 80,132,158, 183, 
211, 236, 261, 282, 283, 309 

Coast defence, Austrian, 106 

Coal whippers of London, strike of, 22 
Coining presses for the Mint, 107 
Coinage of New South Wales, 307 
Coke and coal in locomotives, B. Fothergill, on the 

relative values of, 143 
Colliery accidents, 26, 45, 51, 52, 107, 134, 160, 236, 
306, 310 

Inspection Act, 279 

Colliers' strike at Yorkshire, 26 

Collisions at sea, 80, 234 

Colt's revolving Rifle, 256 

Committee on steam-ship performance, 58, 268, 341 

Compass corrector, Pinhey's, 104 

Contraband machinery of war, 155 

Cooking apparatus, new military, 210 

— — — stove, Captain Grant's, 236 

Copper gauze, fire proof, 231 

mining in the south of Spain, 29 

— — — smelting, H. Clarke on, 37 

Cort, Henry, appeal for, 213 

Cotton in Africa, cultivation of, 308 

— — twist, duty on, 130 

Cowes, steam-boat pier at, 283 

Craddock's improvement in steam-engines, 201, 205 

Cranes for hoisting coals, 231 

, steam, at Portsmouth, 129, 155 

Clyde, ship building on the, 90, 169, 230 
Cylinders, Tredgold's formula for the thickness of cast 
iron, 287 

D. 
Davy lamps, tampering with, 82 
Decimal coinage commission, 129 
Decks of iron steamers, 309 
Deep sea pressure, effect of, 22 
Dennet's improvements in bayonets, 125 
Derrick, the floating, 181 

, and the Great Eastern, the, 80 

Designs registered for articles of utility, 54, 84, 110, 

136, 162, 188, 214 
Dies, how they -are made, 31 
Distilling fresh water, apparatus for, 311 
Diving bell, and apparatus for the Madras govern- 
ment, 308 

apparatus, 156, 258 

Docks : 

Brentford, 235 

Birkenhead, 81, 212, 283, 310. 

Bristol, 81 

Chatham dockyard, 81, 105, 134 

Dock gates, relative merits of, 283 

— — — — , repairing, 87, 195 

Docks in relation with railways, 211 

East and West India, 212 

Falmouth, 81 

Fecamp Docks, 25 

Government dockyards, 51, 105, 107, 134, 159, 182, 
211, 235, 280, 283, 310 

Greenock, 134, 184 

Jarrow, 51, 107 

Liverpool, 50, 81, 209, 211, 310 

London, 212, 235 

Mauritius, 67, 81, 82 

New docks at Greenwich, 50, 134 



Docks : 

Mersey, 25, 50 

Milford dock, 50 

New dock and harbour hills, 82, 134, 185, 212 ; 235. 

Thames graving dock, 159, 234 

Northfleet, 107, 184, 211 

Russian dock yard at Villafranca, 25 

Southampton, 82, 106, 159, 283, 310 

Swansea, 25, 283 

Toulon dockyard, 185 

Tyne, 172, 184 

Victoria dock, 25, 149, 310 
Drainage of London works, 22 
Dredger, proposed for, the River Tyne, 291 
Dredging machine for Liverpool, 22 
Dynamometrical experiments on the screw propeller, 

296 

E. 
Earth's internal temperature, W. Hopkins on the, 273 
Eastern Steam Navigation Company's, Great steam- 
ship, 24, 48, 79, 105, 207, 231, 233, 257. 258, 260, 

276, 283, 303, 307, 309 
Electro-galvanism a cure for the cholera, 309 
Electric conducting power of metals, 67 

clocks, 160 

light, 52 . 

power light Company, 231 



Embankment of the Rhine, 82 
Embrasure, new description of, 236 
Enamel without lead or iron, 70 
Engineers and artillery for India, 24 
Engineer's college, floating marine, 236 
Engines : 

Beam-pumping, 51 

Cheap steam-engines, F. Young on, 275 

Craddock's improvements in, 201, 205 

Great Eastern, 260 

Harriet Lane, 192 

H.M.S. Retribution, 307 

Lima and Bogota, 254 

Nominal horse-power of, 309 

Rowan's improvements in marine, 194 

Silver's governor for marine, 86 
Exhibition of arts, proposed, 22, 207, 258 

of patented inventions, 102 

•, Rouen industrial, 176, 197, 208 



Expedition to the Niger, 24 
Export trade to the east, 22 

F. 
Factories, inspection of, 207 
File cutting machine, 181 
Fire alarum, pneumatic, 280 

apparatus, F. Silas', indestructible, 258 

damp, explosions of, 51, 237, 284 

engines, experiments with steam, in America, 

266 
Fires, 22, 77, 78, 102, 104, 106, 131, 155, 156, 179, 

180, 183, 208, 209, 231, 307 

FlEE-AEMS : 

Breech loading rifles for the navy, 105 

Colt's revolving, 256 

Enfield, 132, 184, 211 

Prince's new rifle, 44 

Prussian needle musket, 132 

Rifle shot and iron plates, 153 

Terry's breech loading, 49 
Firing, rapid vertical, 106 
Fitzmaurice's new military light, 211 
Flax-making machinery, 155 

machinery, Blyth's improvements in, 199 

Flotilla for the Danube,. 105 
Forges, Howe's patent, 108 

Formula, for extracting the root of any given num- 
ber, 217 
Foul air, explosion of, 231 
France, imports of, 77, 155 
French floating batteries, 80 

improved gunpowder, 80 

military works, 49, 80, 283 



Fuel, consumption of, in the mercantile steam trans- 
ports, 252 

G. 

Galway Boat Works at Newcastle, 256 
Gas: 

Baking oven, 134 

Calcutta, 184 

Companies in London, 134, 184 

Constantinople, 25 

Explosions of, 25, 50, 81, 106, 184, 258 



Gas: 

Frauds in supply of, 236 

Gasometer for Rome, 25 

at Bethnal Green, 25 

In steamboats, 25 

In Hong-Kong, 184 

Improved burner, 81 

Lighting galleries with, 184, 236 

of, by electricity, 159 

Manufactory of dry meters, 81 

Meters, uniformity in, 134 

Metropolitan supply, 25, 50, 133, 184, 211 

New bills, 81, 133, 134, 184, 211, 236 

material for, 25, 211 

Parisian company, 159 

Patent kitchen, 236 

Redcar, 25 

Reductions in price of, 133, 211 

Sliding chandelier, 310 
Gates, repairing dock, 87, 195 
Giffard's feed apparatus for steam boilers, 292 
Glasgow Steamboat Wharf, new crane at, 77 

, trade at, 231 

Glass blowers' strike, 103 

trade in the north of England, 46 

Gold shipped from Melbourne, 307 

dust separator, 107 

Governors, Jensen's marine engine, 142 
Government dockyards, 51, 105, 107, 134, 159, 182. 

211, 235, 280, 283, 310 

rifle factories, 106 

Granite blasting, 26 

Granite cement for ship's bottoms, 180 

Grant's new military cooking apparatus, 210, 236 

Grape shot, improvements in, 158 

Great Eastern steam ship, 24, 48, 79, 105, 207, 232. 

233, 257, 258, 260, 276, 283, 303, 307, 309 
Griffith's patent bath, 126 
Gun foundry at Woolwich, 24, 49, 105 

proof cave, 24 

boats at Haslar, 48, 80 

boats for the Spanish government, 266 

Gunnery accident at at Vincennes, 24 
Gunnery school at Shoeburyness, 80 
Gunnery experiments, 200, 224, 283 
Gunpowder gas engine, 282 

— , manufacture of, 49 

, explosions of; 129, 133, 155, 156,231, 307, 



308 
Guns : 

American rifled, 260 

Armstrong's, 49, 77, 106, 132, 158, 160, 211, 236. 
261, 282, 309 

Chinese, description of, 310 

Conversion of smooth ordnance to rifle bore, 261. 

• 308 

Freeby's chain, 211 

French rifled, 49, 114, 158, 181, 211, 236 

Government contract for, 80 

Horsetail's great gun, 132 

Jeffries' long range, 282 

Rifled guns, management of, 158 

Russian rifled cannon, 236 

Spanish ordnance for Morocco, 309 

Trade of, 236 

Warry's breech loading, 49, 105 
Gutta-percha life-boat, 22 
Gutta-percha, new tree for producing, 308 

H. 
Hall's apparatus for working railway breaks, 11 
Hammers, steam, 102 

Hand combing, substitution of machine fox, 307 
Hakboubs : 

Boulogne, 51 

Cairnlough, Ireland, 283 

Galway harbour, 82 

Harbour and coast lights, 212 

Harbours and ports, receipts of, 283 

Harbours of refuge, 24, 107, 159, 212, 283. 

Kingston 51, 107, 

Malta, 107, 212 

New harbour and dock bills, 82 

Smyrna, 81 

Victoria, 212 
Heat of different qualities through gases of different 

kinds, J. Tyndell, on the transmission of, 274 
Hockin's apparatus for repairing dock gates, 87, 1'95 
Hooks for life boats, 79 
Hopkins's patent journal box, 59 






Th: 

January 1, 1860. 



Artizan,! 
'.J 



* Index to Vol. XVII., 1859. 



Horseshoes by machinery, 102 

How's patent stop valves, 69 

Hull, progress of steam navigation, £72 

Hydraulic Machinery : 
Cornish. pumping engines, 24 
Fire-engine, for the Temple, 211 
Irrigating hydraulic engine, 24 
Hydraulic lift for ships, 49, 234 
Hydraulic purchase for Cronstadt, 211 
Mont Cenis hydraulic machinery, 80 
Palmer's marine wrecking pump, 24, 133 
Patent hydraulic cranes, 283 
Patent long stroke pump, 211 
Pumping engine at Brynock, 133 
Pumping station for the new drainage, 24 



Ice carriage, steam, 208 
Incendiary shell, Norton's, 80 
India transport service, 22 
India tramroad, North of, 156 
Industrial museum, Scotland, 231 
Indus steam flotilla, 80, 131, 259 
Inventions, exhibition of 102 
Inventors and manufacturers, 204 
Ireland, tramways in 77 
Iron : 

Cast iron girders, experiments on, 300 

Cast iron columns in America, 22 

Coating iron with brass, 185 

Engine house for Chili, 46 

Export trade of, 21, 52, 135, 185 

Immense iron cylinders, 135 

Iron cased ships, 105, 132, 142, 282 

Iron, for medicinal purposes, 135 

Iron palace for the Viceroy of Egypt, 207 

Iron works of Scotland, 52 

Malleable iron and steel, Bessemer on, 173 

Moveable iron huts, 50 

Paris, consumption of, in, 22 

Plates of, and rifle shot, 153 

Refining cast iron, 213 

R. Mallet, on the co-efficients of elasticity, and of 
rupture in wrought iron, 97 

Steel and iron amalgamation of, 160 

Strong room for the gold field, 21 

Tredgold's formula for the thickness of cast iron 
cylinders, 289 

Wrought iron and steel, experiments on, 255 



Japanese war steamers, 260 
Jensen's marine engine governor, 142 
Journal box, Hopkin's patent, 59 

K. 

Kaleidoscope, adapted for figuring on silk, 25S. 

L. 

Laboratory at Woolwich dockyard, 133 

Land from the sea, reclamation of, 212 

Land drainage in Greece, 22 

Launceston Quartz Company, 310 

Law: 
Attorney-General v. Barry, 76, 129 
Attorney-General v. South Yorkshire Railway, 76 
Birkett v. Whitehaven Junction Railway Company, 

129 
Bowling v. the South Eastern Railwaj-, 77 
Brazier v. the Polytechnic Institution, 128, 155 
Brooks v. Alton, 76 

Bruff ii. the Eastern Counties Railway Company, 21 
Case v. Midland Railway Company, 207 
Churton v. Tyne Improvement Commissioners, 76 
City Gas Company v. the Corporation of London 

128 
Coventry Canal Company v. the Queen, 76 
Designs Registration Act, 76 
Diverting water courses, 180 
Eamonson v. Cheshire Junction Railway Company, 

Effluvia from oxalic acid works, 155 

Engine-drivers, liability of, 76 

Engineers and contractors, 20 

Equitable Gas Company, 279 

Everhard v. Sawyer, 77 

Factory Act, breaches of the, 45, 77, 155 

Farmer v. North Western Railway Company, 279 

Fisher a. Thomas, 21 

French Law as to collisions, 306 

Gabriel v. the Vestry of St. James's, 179 



LAW: 

Gayler v. the Eastern Counties Railway, 76 

Gisbone v. Anglo French Steam-ship Company, 77 

Halfpenny Steam-boats v. the Board of Trade, 128 

Hasley v. South Western Railway Company, 101 

Hardcastle v. River Dunn Railway Company, 4-5 

Hodgson v. North Eastern Railway Company, 101 

House property, action for damages to, 231 

Leaving a train while in motion, 20 

Liability of pit owners, 155 

Liverpool waterworks dispute, 76 

Magnus v. Pitts, 206 

Maitland v. Great Northern Railway, 20 

Manure factories nuisance, 101 

Martin v. The Eastern Steam Navigation Company, 
20,45 

Masters' lock out, action from the, 279 

Masters and workmen, 76 

Mellor v. The North Western Railway Company, 21 

Metropolitan Works, 20 

Morton v. South Western Railway Company, 45 

Nalden v. Clayton, 76, 179 

Newall and Company v. Submarine Telegraph Com- 
pany, 76 

North London Railway Company v. Board of 
Works, 206 

North British Railway Company v. Lady Montague, 
45 

Norton v. Nicholls, 20 

Parish rating of telegraph wires, 45 

Patent, infringement of, 101 

Patent Type Founding Company v. Richards, 207 

Phillips v. North Western Railway Company, 101 

Poor rates, liability to, 206 

Protection of Watch makers Act, 306 

Railway gangers, liability of, 77 

Railway train, attempt to upset a, 47 

Responsibility of road surveyors, 20 
Rhymney Railway Company v. Taff Vale Railway 
Company, 76 

Schofield v. Schunk, 45 

Sewing machine strikes, 101 

Smith v. Great Northern Railway Co., 21, 206 

Smoke Prevention Act, infliction of fines, 22, 77, 

179, 257, 279 
Sneed v. Ford, 76 
South Coast Railway Company v. South Western 

Railway Company, 45, 46 
South Eastern Railway v. South Western Railway, 
179 •* 

Spence v. Clay, 45 
Trade marks, infringement of, 101 
Turnbull v. Tallis, 77 
Turnpike Act v. Threshing Machines, 45 
Uncoupling trucks, 20 
Waterloo Bridge toll, 180 
Wear and tear of machinery, 101 
Weighing machines, nuisance of, 179 
Whitfield v. South Eastern Railway Company, 45 
Wilde v. Great Northern Railway Company, 21 
Wood v. North Western Railway Company, 76 
Wright v. North Eastern Railway Company, 206 
Lead shot making, 30, 85, 114 
Leather Company, the Seamless, 102 
■, new process for currying, 207 



Life-boats, 22, 24, 46, 49, 79, 102, 103, 128, 131, 139 

180, 207, 208, 231, 280, 293 
Life preserving raft, 22 
Lighthouses : 

Coast of Texas, 185 

Great Isaac's, 280 

In the Mediterranean, 185 

Mexico, 185 

Roberts' floating, 100 

Straits of De Fuca, 283 
Light, on the cause of colour, and the theory of, 301 
Lights and fog signals, 104 

, Royal Commissioners, 307 

Lillovet route, New Caledonia, 102 
Locomotives : 

American wood-burning, 7, 30 

Boiler explosion on the Lewes Railway, 279 

Burning Welsh coal in locomotive engines, 117, 146 

Coal v. Coke for, 78, 143 

Locomotive engine shed, 117 

Proposed tolls for, 207, 231 

Smokeless coal burning in, D. K. Clark on, 272 
London Flint Glass Company, 179 
Long's marine salinometer case, 294 
Ludhim's patent lifeboat, 293 



M. 

Machinery, contraband of war, 155 

, exportation of, 155, 207, 280 

, increase in supply of, 307 

-, for the navy, 105 



Madras irrigation company, 258 1 

Main drainage works, 78, 102 

Malta, military works at, 158 

Mann's patent safety apparatus, for steam boilersv 

195 
Manosuvering of screw vessels, Admiral Paris en th", 

270 
Maremme marshes, Tuscany, drainage of the, 310 
Marine engines, necessity for governing, 86 
;unnery, 236 



Melbourne assay office, 82 

Mercantile steam economy, as affected by the con. 

sumption of fuel, 254 
Metal exports from England, 213, 237 
Metals separated by centrifugal power, 108 
Military academy at Woolwich, 184 
Military bridge building, 158 
Milan, fortress at, 49 

Military tent, Major Rhodes' improved, 21U 
Mineral discoveries in Newfoundland, 261 

, supply of, 261 

Mines : 

Copper, 160, 284, 285 

Exploded by electricity, 106 

Firing mines by magnetism, 133 

Frazer's River mining, 82, 284, 311 

Gold, 26, 51, 52, 82, 107, 134, 160, 212, 236, 261, 
284, 285, 310, 311 

Mineral discoveries in Victoria, 52 

Miners' safety lamp, 82 

Mining purposes, application of machinery to,, 175, 
226 

Mining in Turkey, 52 

Serf miners in the Ural, 26 

Tin mines, 186 

Mining Companies : 
Clunes Company, 82 
Dun Mountain Mining Company, 82 
Great Central Mining Company of Devon, 135 
Mariquita Mining Company, 311 
United Mexican Mining Association, 82, 23X 

Mining and engineering college, 285 

Mining prospects of India, 261 

Mint, new engine at the, 87 

Money, how it is made, 9 

Mortar, the Mallet, 133 

vessels at Chatham, 283 



Museum of practical geology at Boston, 156~ 



N. 
Naptha tank, explosion of a, 232 
Nasmyth's steam pile-engine, 180 
National Patent Steam Fuel Company, 77 
Naval Architecture, E. J. Reed on, 14 
Navy: 

American, 48, 209 

Austrian, 24, 49, 210 

British, 14, 21, 46, 48, 77, 79, 80, 104, 105, 117, 131 
132, 155, 157, 158, 180, 182, 209, 233, 260 .303 

French, 49, 79, 104, 117, 182, 260 

Portuguese, 48, 260 

Russian, 182, 209, 233 

Turkish, 210, 233, 260 
Niger expedition, arrival of the Sunbeam, 79 
Nitrous, acid gas, fatal effects of, 52 
Norfolk Estuary Company, 258 
Norton's, Captain, concussion fuzee, 133- 

Elongated rifle shot, 49 

Frictional igniting bolt, 133 

Incendiary shell, 80, 132, 158 

New rifle bullet, 80 

Percussion cartridge, 132 

0. 

Oiling a vane at Salisbury, 208 
Omnibus, exhibition of a new, 307 

■ — Subway Company (proposed), 22 

Organic colouring matters, researches on several, 305 
Organic matter of air, R. T. Smith on the estimation eS 

the, 219 
Ossiferous caverns of Devonshire, 221 
Oxley's multum-in-parvo hath, 125. 
' Improved wheel plate, 198 



VI. 



Index to Vol XVIL, 1859. 



TThe Abtizan - , 
1 January 1, 1860. 



Paper from textile plants, 130 
Paris military school, 49 
Patents : 

Provisional protection obtained, 26, 52, 82, 108, 135, 
160, 186, 213, 237, 261, 285, 311 

Applied for, with complete specifications deposited, 
28, 54, 84, 110, 136, 162, 188, 214, 262, 286, 312 
Pavement cleansing, 184 
Peake's, Captain, life boat, 139 
Pearls, French artificial, 46 
Percussion bolt signal, Norton's, 80 

— ' cap factory explosions, 231, 306 

Phosphorescence, Professor Faraday on, 223 
Photographic engraving in relief, 237 
Photography by artificial light, 22 

— in warfare, 236 

Pieks : 

Eyde, 212 

Stokes Bay, 235 

Swanage, 283 
Pile-driving machine, 155, 189, 308 
Pilots, Trinity House, 231 
Plate glass, large sheet of, 307 
Plumbago crucibles, 305 
Pneumatic Parcels Delivery Company, 22, 231 
Polytechnic Institution, 207 
Pontoons across the Ticino, 210 
Port of Suez, 82 
Postal Sekvice : 

Mauritius Steam, 22 

Australian, 22 
Projectiles, velocity of, 236 
Pbopellebs ; 

Dynamometrical experiment on the screw, 296 

Griffith's patent, 132, 166, 182, 193 

Screw propeller experiments, 264 

Who invented the screw propeller, 7 
Prussian forts in the Baltic, 49 
Public drinking fountains, 25, 49, 50, 81, 106, 133, 184, 

211, 234, 257, 261, 279 

works, 102 

works in Indin, 156 

Pump valves, an improvement in, by J. Hoskin, 116 

R, 
Railways : 
Accidents on railways, 20, 22, 23, 46, 47, 78, 101, 
103, 123, 130, 157, 179, 181, 185, 207, 209. 232, 
258, 281, 308 
Alexandria to Suez, 47 
Amalgamation of railways in Lombardy 23 
American railways, 23, 78, 208, 259, 280, 308 

— railway bureau, 218 

Assessment of railways in England, 232 

Australian railways, 47, 130, 157, 308 

Austrio-Italian railways, 23 

Bahia and San Francisco, 308 

Battersea to Norwood, 208 

Breaks, Hall's apparatus for working, 11 

Brighton railway, 209 

Broad and narrow gauge, 258 

Brussels to Namur, 232 

Buffalo and Lake Huron, 78 

Cairo to Suez, 308 

Calais to Boulogne, 156 

Canadian railways, 232, 280, 308 

Cape Town railway, 46, 103, 208, -232, 280 

Central Swiss railway, 78 

Ceylon, 78 

Charing Cross and. London-bridge 103, 130, 156, 

208, 232, 280 
Charleville and Sedan, 47 
Chester and Holyhead, 308 
Cornwall railway, 130, 156, 159 
Danube and Black Sea railway, 22, 156 
Dividends of railways, average rate of, 258 
Don Pedro Segunda railway, 23 
Dundalk and EmriskilleaJ 46 
Dutch lines, loans for, 230 
East Suffolk railwa}', 18 i 
Edinburgh and Glasgow;, 46 
Egyptian lines completed, 47 
Employes on railways, 103, 258 
English and Irish railways, receipts of, 78, 181 232 
Europe and India, 308 
Foreign railways, 78, 208, 232, 258, 280, 308 
French railways, 23, 47, 78, 156, 181, 232, 258 
Galena railway in Canada, 284 
Galveston to Houstoti,78 



Railways : 
Geneva and Lyons, 181 
German railways, 104, 130, 156, 181 
Glasgow and South Western, 308 
Grand Trunk of Canada, 131 
Great Northern, 308 

Western, receipts of the, 78 

Greenwich and Woolwich, 181 

Guillaume Luxembourg line, 78 

Hainault and Flanders, 156 

Halifax to Quebec, 47 

Hanenstein tunnel, 179 

Honduras Inter-oceanic railway, 103, 130 

Indian railways, 23, 46, 47, 78, 103, 130, 148, 156, 

208, 232, 259, 280, 308 
Irish railways, 103 

Iron girder bridges for Indian railways, 3 
Italian railways, 130, 158 
Jamaica railway, 46, 208 
Kustendje Turkish railway, 23 
Lake Superior to Red River, 47 
Lausanne to Fribourg, 130, 156 
Lombardo -Venetian railway, 208 
London and Brighton, 47 

to Bury St. Edmunds, 23 

Lucca to Pisa, 47, 281 

Luitz to Badwis, 78 

Lyons and Paris, 279 

Madras and Beypore line, 78 

Manchester and Milford Haven, 310 

— — — — and Oldham, 46 

, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Raiiway 

Company, 307 
Marseilles to Toulon, 103 
Metropolitan Railway, 23, 78, 130, 232, 308 
Melbourne and Hudson's Bay, 78 
Mezidon to Argentan, 47, 78 
Mont Cenis tunnel, 46, 156, 181, 308 
New railwav bills, 208 

South 'Wales Railway Loan Bill, 78 

York railway companies, state of, 47 

North of Spain, 46 

Western Railway, 47 

Ottoman railway, 130, 308 
Planen and Reichenbach 308 
Panama and Tehnautepec, 47 
Paris and Lyons, 22 
Railways in Chili, 22 
Railway curve resistance, 46 

loans, 181, 258 

signalling, new system of, 308 

Railways in streets, 46 

Railroad track and cast iron pavement, 47 

Railway traffic (English), 23, 78, 103, 130, 208 

Rajmahal to Delhi, 30S 

Rates on Railways, 306 

Rennes to Brest, 47 

Rolandseck to Cohlentz, 23 

Roman railway works, 103 

Russian railways, 232, 280 

Salerno and Toronto, 46 

Saragossa to Madrid, 208 

Sardinian railways, 130, 156, 181, 280 

Saveney to Redon, 78 

Seville to Cadiz, 46 

Sicilian railways, 22 

Simplon railway tunnel, 281 

Snow on rails, 208 

South Durham and Lancashire, 25 

Devon Railway, 78 

Eastern Railway, 103 

Spanish Railways, 78, 103, 130, 156, 181, 208, 308 

Speed of trains, 131 

Strasbourg and Kehl, 284 

Strategetic railways in England, 103, 130 

St. Quentin and Rouen, 23 

Subway railway carriage, 103 

Suez Railway, 23 

Sni3'rna and Aden, 78 

Testimonial to Mr. C. Francis, 103 

Traffic on railways, 103, 181, 208, 258 

Tramway in Ireland, 131 

Tram roads in Paris, 103 

Trebizond to Erzeroum, 209 

Troops on railways, 130, 157 

Toulon and Nice, 78 

Victoria and Pimlico, 50 

Pimlico Station, 208" 

Victorian railways, 78 
Vienna to Linz, 47 



Railways : 
Virginia Central Railway, 308 
Wear and tear on railways, 280 
Wellington to Cape Town, 130 
West Flanders Railway, 23 

Reviews and Notices op Books : 

Aberdeen, Earl of, K. T. — An inquiry into the 

Principles of Beauty in Grecian Architecture, 

305 
Adcock's Engineer s' Pocket Book, 74 
Architect's and Mechanic's Journal, 276 
Armstrong, R. — High speed steam navigation, 176 
Bailey, D. — The truck system, 153 
Bormann, Major-General. The Shrapnell Shell in 

England &c, 203 
Burnell, G. R. — The Rudiments of Hydraulic En- 
gineering, 18 
Carpenter's and Joiner's Assistant, 75, 153, 203 
Carriage Builder's Art Journal, 177 
Clark, D. K.— Recent practice in the Rai 

Locomotive, 75, 152 

, Hyde, D.C.L. — Comparative Philolog}', 1-8 

Clegg, S. — Manufactureand Distribution of Coal 9as 

276 
Delamotte, F. — Examples of Modem Alphabets &v. 

304 
Dubois, E. P. — Cours d'Astronomie, a l'Usage des 

Officiers de la'Marine Imperiale, 74 
Fairbaim, W., C.E. — Progress of Civil Engineer::, x, 

176 
Giffard and French. — The Life and Times of 

Samuel Crompton, 304 
Hennessy, H. — A discourse on the Study of Science, 

153 
Holmes, T. W. — Engineers of the Royal Navy, 229, 
Isherwood, B. F. — Engineering Precedents, 126, 

152 
Lasham, J. H. — Construction of Wrought-iron 

Bridges, 74 
Lewes, G. H. — The Physiology of Common Life, 

153 
M'Kay, Donald — A practical Refutation of the 

Englishj Prejudices regarding the Durability of 

American Built Ships and American Timber, 304 
Meuuier-Joannet. — Cours Elementaire d' Analyse, a 

l'Usage des Eleves de l'Ecole Navale et de l'Ecole 

Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, 18 
Page, T., C.E.— Report on the Eligibility of Milford 

Haven, for Ocean Steam Ships, and for a Naval 

Arsenal, 305 
Paris, Contre-Amiral. — Dictionnaire de Marine a, 

Vapeur, 305 
Perigal, F., C.E.— Chart of Naval History, 203 
Rankine, W. J. M. — A Manual of the Steam Engine 

and other Prime Movers, 276 
Reid's mental Arithemtic, 177 
Sang, E. — Fire place Logarithms, 18 
Scott, Michael. — Breakwater at the Port of Blyth, 

203 
Smith, J. — The Problem of Squaring the Circle, 153 
Soul, M. — Description of Griffith's Patent Screw 

Propeller, 74 
Stevenson, D. — Sketch of the Civil Engineering of 

North America, 153 
Thomas, F. — Theory of Compound Interest, 229 

, LynalL— Rifled Ordnance, 229 

Timbs, J., F.S.A. — Stories of Inventors, and Dis- 
coverers in Science, 305 
Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines, 

304 
Weale's Engineer's and Contractor's pocket book 

for 1859, 18 
Whitworth J. — Miscellaneous papers on Mechanical 

Subjects, 74 
Revolvers for Sardinia, 106 
Rhode's, Major, improved Military Tent, 211 
Rifle Factories, 106 

range at Chatham, 282 

Road making in India, 129 

Roberts' floating lighthouses, 100 

Rockets, coloured signal, 184 

Rock-drilling machine, 237 

Rogers's deep sea telegraph cord, 24 

Rope for mining purposes, 51 

Rouen Industrial Exhibition, 176, 197, 208 

Rowan's improvements in marine engines, 167, 

194 
Royal Agricultural Society exhibition, 231, 234 
— — mint, 168 



The Artizan,! 
January 1, 1860.J 



Index to Vol. XVIL, 1859. 



vn. 



s. 

Sails of sheet metal, 181 

Salinometer case, Long's marine, 29-1 

Saw mill at Ballinshoe, 207 

Screw steamers, cheese couplings for, 260 

— — tenders for conveying life boats, 128 

vessels, Admiral Paris on the manoeuvring of, 

270 
Sculling machine, 22 

Sebastopol, French artillery operations at, 49 
Serpentine, plans for cleansing the, 234 
Sewers, ventilation of, 307 
Shells, Armstrong's improved, 132 
Shell practice, accident from, 236 
Shipbuilding : 

Admiralty experiments with screw steam-ships in 

the Royal Navy, 57 
Amour, steamers on the, 104 
Clyde, on the, 91, 157, 169, 230 
Coating ship's bottoms, 180 
Granite cement for ship's bottoms, 180 
Liverpool and Canadian steamer, 48 
New York, at, 292 
Statistics of, 207, 231, 233 
Steam ship, economic performance of, 31, 62 
Steering fore and aft, 158 
Steering of vessels, 260 
Sunderland and Shields, at, 24 
Wave line, system of, 19 
Winans steamer, 18 
Ship Launches: 
Ariadne, 26 guns, 183 
Charybdis, 21 guns, 183 
Delta, 210 
Galatea, 260 
Great Eastern, 233 
Hood, 91 guns, 157 
Jeddo, 48 
Nepaul, 24 
Salto, 48 
Seine, 183 
Shannon 105 
Slieve Donard, 49 
Sloop, No. 1 (American), 210 
Thames, 307 
Skips (Steam) Dimensions op : 
Amona — Harlan and Co., 61 
Artizan — Stothert and Marten, 59 
Baltimore— J. A. Robb, 61 
Cleopatra — J. Scott Russell,. 9 
Clyde — J. Henderson, 169 
De Soto — Lawrence and Co., 278 
General Admiral— W. Webb, 278 
Hudson — Palmer, Brothers and Co., 8 
Indianola— Messrs. Haslan and Co., 168 
Kensington — Birely and Lynn, 61 
Lima — 141 

Nora Creina — Campbell and Co., 192 
Ocean Queen — Morgan Works, New York, 17 
Omeo — Andrew Leslie and Co., 5 
Orlando — Oliver Laing, 260 
Peiho— T. CoUyer, 168 
Steamers built on the Clyde, 90, 169 
Weser — Palmer, Brothers and Co., 8 
White Cloud— T. CoUyer, 62 
Ships, Trials of : 
Alai, 75 
Bogota, 265 
Cleopatra, 139 
Clio, 260 
Colombo, 183 

Doris, 32 guns, 24, 157, 166, 182, 193 
Ermima, 268 
General Admiral, 183 
Great Eastern, 233, 260 
Himalya, 166, 182 
Icarus, 37 
Lord Panmure, 183 
Mersey, 105 
Nepaul, 79 

Neptune, 91 guns, 183, 210 
Orlando, 260 
Paramatta, 167, 183 
Sahel, 73 

boukssou, 166, 182 
Thunder, 290 
Topaze, 51 guns, 24 
Trafalgar, 158, 210 
Winans Cigar steamer, 182 
Windsor Castle, 260 



Ships, Accidents to : 
African. 309 
Ardent, 105, 129 
Avon, 79 

Black Diamond, 282 
Bombay, 309 
Bride, 282 
Canada, 233 
Collision at Cartsdyke Bay, 48 

in the Channel, 24, 52, 79 

Clyde, 24 

Mersey, 24 

Dnieper, 48 
Edinburgh, 182 
Emeu, 157 
Endeavour, 233 
Firefly, 233 
Formidable, 101 
Gorgon, 282 
Harbinger, 233, 282 
Indian Empire, 24 
Indian Queen 208 
La Place, 79 
Lapwing, 104 
Narwhal, 157 
Pera, 48 

Perseverance, 132 
Persia, 282 
Pioneer, 282 

Princess Frederick William of Prussia, 104, 128 
San Sevando, 132 

Scuttling a burning vessel by Artillery, 49 
Sedon, 282 
Shamrock, 309 , 
Supply, 157 
Urgent, 45 
Ships, Losses op : 
Alma, 210, 233, 279 
Argo, 210 

Cape of Good Hope, 132 
Czar, 132 
Dom Affonzo, 24 
Duke of Richmond, 306, 309 
Dunedin, 210 
Eastern Monarch, 179, 207 
Empress of India, 157 
Erebus, 279 
Express 306 

General Williams, 132, 155 

Heron, 282 

Jaseur, 129, 132 

Lord Panmure, 183 

Madinia, 49 

Northam, 282 

Olive, 282 

Paramatta, 210, 233, 282 

Preston, 132 

Rose of Sharon, 179 

Royal Charter, 307, 311 

Scotia, 104 

Shipping losses of France, 77 

of the United Kingdom, 102, 167, 

208 

Shipwrecks in the Royal Navy, 46 

— — — and the shore, communication between, 
46 

Silestria, 210 

Sir Henry Lawrence, 183 

Tenor, 279 

Thalia, 105 

Thebes, 309 

Volunteer, 157 
Shipping trade returns, 46 
Shot and shell making at Woolwich, 158 310, 

proof vessels, 236 

— — filled with molten iron, experiments with, 282, 

310 
Signal apparatus, Ward's naval, 231 
Societies, Proceedings of : 

Association of Foreman Engineers, 37, 67, 87, 120, 
139, 174, 199, 218, 256, 275, 298 

British Association, 10, 121, 268, 341 

Engineer's Debating Society, 176 

Geologist's Association, 37 

Institution of Civil Engineers, 10, 41, 70, 93, 122, 
148, 172, 225 

Institution of Engineers in Scotland, 98 

Literary and Philosophical Society, 43, 99, 120, 151, 
300 

London Mechanics' Institution, 102 



Societies, Proceedings OB: 

Polytechnic Institution, 207, '2:31 

Royal Institution of Great K.-itain, 99, 218, 273 

Royal National Life Boat J us.titution, 139 

Society of Arts, 46 

Spinners' wages, increase in, 258 

Spiral heat diffuscrs, 155 

Spontaneous combustion, ] 80 

Square, Ame's universal, 68 

Standard hundred of timber, 21 

Stars and meteors, J. Gladstone ou the colours of, 
221 

Steamer route to Ireland, 260 

Steamship economy, 302 
Steam. : 

All temperatures, experiments to determine thc- 
density of at, 271, 281 

Boat pier at London Bridge, 81 

Communication with India, 259 

Engines on roads, 180 

Engines, F. Young on cheap, 275 

Engineering in 1859, 111, 137, 163, 189, 215, 239, 
287 

Factory department at Sheevness, 132 

Fire engines, experiments with, in America, 266 

Hammers, 117, 231, 237 

Jackets and cut-offs, 257 

Navigation at Hull, progress of, 272, 

v. the slave trade, 131 
Steam Navigation Companies; 

Atlantic Royal Mail Steam Company. 24, 49 

Atlantic Steam Navigation Company, 209 

Austrian Lloyd's Steamers, 210 

Collins' Line of Steamers, SCO 

Cunard Steam Line,_104, 210, 260, 309 

European and American, 132 

Galway Steamers to America, 49 

North of Europe Company, 127, 210 

Oriental Steam Navigation Company, 22, 24, 80, 
132, 233, 308 

Pacific Steam Navigation Company, 141, 265 
Steel conical shot, experiments with, 283 

puddled, 185, 186 

Steering apparatus, trial of a new, 22 
Stephenson, George, monument to, 156, 231 

, Robert, C.E., death of, 278 

Stone-cutting machine, 307 

, cement for joining, 180 

shot-resisting qualities of, 282 



Street tablets. 103 

Strikes and lockouts, 102, 103, 130, 135, 156, 180, 207, 

231, 235, 236, 280, 284 
Submarine salvage boat, 307 

tube "between Liverpool and Birkenhead, 



proposed, 307 
Sugar from paper and rags, 108 
Sulphuric acid works, accident at, 45 
Sunderland life boat, 24 
Superheated steam, 153 
Superheating steam apparatus, 80, 157 

T. 
Targets, iron and cotton, 158 
Telegraph Engineering : 

Alexandria and Constantinople, 79, 281 

to Cape Hellas, 23 

Allen's new submarine cables, 78 

Anglo-Austrian line, 79 

Atlantic Telegraph, 23, 47, 79, 104, 131, 181, 209, 
259, 281 

Atmospheric telegraph, 182 

Australia to India and China, 309 

Australian telegraph, 48, 281 

Barrackpore Telegraph Line, 259 

Bombay to Kurrachee, 23 

Boston and Halifax, 23 

Cable across the Humber, accident to, 309 

Cagliari and Malta, 48, 79, 131 

Calcutta and London, 156 

Canadian Telegraph Companv. 131 

Candia to Alexandria, 23, 309 

Cape Hellas to Constantinople. 23 

Cape Town to Mauritius, 23 

Chess match by electric telegraph, 48 

Chio and the Dardanelles, 23 

Colonial telegraph lines, 309 

Constantinople and the Dardanelles, 48, 181 

: and Smyrna, 281 

Cowes and Newport, 281 

Deep sea telegraph cord, 2 1 



VI11. 



Index to Vol XVII, 1859. 



["The Abtizan 
L January 1, 1860 



TeLEGEAPH EnGINEEEING : 

Dover to Calais, 259 

Electric cables, action of salt water on, 104 

Electro telegraphing across water without wires, 

182 
England and Denmark, 234 
England and France, 79, 209, 234 
England and Gibraltar, 156, 182, 209, 234, 281 
England and the Isle of Man, 259, 281 
Experiments with telegraph cables, 79 
■Folkestone and Boulogne, 234 
Foreign telegraphs, 181, 209, 281 
Fortifications of Paris, telegraphic communication 

between, 23 
, France and Spain, 259 
Galle to Madras, 23 
Great Ocean Telegraph Company, 47 
Greek lines, 282 

Greenland and and Iceland telegraph, 281 
Gutta percha as insulator, 182 
Holyhead and Liverpool, 23, 131, 234, 309 
Independent submarine telegraphs, 209, 
India and China, 281 
India rubber as an insulator, 104 
Indian telegraph system, 131 
Indian and 'Australian Submarine Telegraph, 47 
Isle of Syria and Phalera Harbour, 48 
Isle of Wight Telegraph, 23 
Jersey and Guernsey, 281, 309 
Lightning, effects of, on telegraph wire, 209, 281 
London district telegraph, 23, 104, 259 
Malta and Cagliari, 104, 156, 234 

to Sicily, 182, 209, 234, 281 

Magnetic Telegraph Company, 48 
Marseilles to Ajaccio, 131 
Melbourne and Hobart Town, 48 
Melbourne to Tasmania, 309 
Metropolitan and Junction, 2 
Military telegraph lines, 281 
Naples and Malta, 104, 181, 281 
New telegraph bills, 209 

companies, 23, 79 

Over-house telegraph system, 182 

Portable electric telegraphs in war, 211 

Eel Sea Telegraph Cable, 79, 104, 131, 156, 181, 182, 

209, 281,309 
Singapore to Australia, 259 
South Atlantic Telegraph, 24 
Spain and Portugal, 158 
Stokesley and Picton, 79 
■ .Sty Petersburg and the Amoor, 156 

— 1 and Pekrn, 309 

.Submarine cables, relative merits of, 234 
-■ r' , permeability of, 47 



Telegraph Engineering : 

Submarine Telegraph Company, 131, 259 

lines laid in 1858, 131 

Sydney and Bathurst, 79 

Syra and Crete, 282 

Telegraphs, effects of the aurora borealis on, 259 

— in France, 23, 156, 234, 281 

— — — — in Japan, 259 

at the Mersey Dock, 104 

■ prevention of railway accidents, 79 

Transmundane Telegraph, 309 

Turkish telegraphs, 23, 309 

United States and Cuba, 48 

Van Dieman's Land and Victoria,- 104 

Weyboume to Tonning, 209 

Zinc and acid for telegraphic purposes, 48 
Thames, plan for cleansing the river, 237 
Thames water, test of, 50 
Tigris, navigation of the, 260 
Timber trade of Canada, 21 
Timber mast for Windsor, 77 
Timber for the Ordnance, 24 
Timber from sawdust, 21 
Traction Engines : 

Boydell's, 113, 177, 232 

Bray's, 77, 102, 129, 307 

Taylor's, 165, 193 
Trade marks, imitation of, 102 
Transports for troops, 106 
Trotman's patent anchor 180 
Tunnel driving, 307 
Tunnelling deserts, new project for, 21 
Turntables at the Gateshead Station, 117 
Tyne, proposed dredging scheme' for the river, 291 
Type-composing machine, 129, 207 

U. V. 

Unsinkable ships, 303 
Valves, How's patent, 69 
Vegetable wax from Japan, 155 
Vegetable leather, 307 
Ventilating appratus, Dr. Reid's, 180 
Victoria, revenue for 1859, 77 

W. 
Wages of dock yard artificers, 102 
Warfare, use of balloons in, 211 
War, secret patents for improvements in instruments 

of, 105, 133 
Washing machine, 102 
Washington hydrant, 17 
Watch clocks, 89 
Water-proofing stuff, 70 



Water SuppLf : 

Chatham, 234 

City of Bordeanx, 211 

Crystal Palace, 25 

Dublin, scarcity of water in, 234 

Fresh water for ships at sea, 50 

Glasgow waterworks, 310, 311 

London and Paris compared, 50 

Lyons, bursting of a pipe, 285 

Metropolitan water supply, 25, 285 

New waterworks bills, 81, 133, 184, 234 

Reservoir for Halifax, 261 

Shepton Mallet waterworks, 285 

Water, decomposition of, 186 

Water, nature of, 277 

Water pipes of the Vehar waterworks, 159 

Water power, churning machine, 280 

at Lisbon, 261 

in progress, 106 

, Trafalgar Square, 298 

Wens from impure water, 311 
West Indies, 81 

Weaving patterns by electricty, 135 
Welsh coal for locomotives, 117 

Westminster Bridge, 25, 112, 134, 191, 212,217, 263 
Wheel plate, Oxley's improved, 198 
Winans American steam ship, 80 
Winds, force of, 102, 307 
Winter temperature of the British islands, 390 
Wire guage, hand saw of, 155 
new standard, 87 



rope bob staj r s, 104 

Wood carving by machinery, 46 

Wood, duty on foreign, 102 

Wooden articles, J. Anderson on some applications 
of the copying or transfer principle in the produc- 
tion of, 92" 

Woods and forests, cost of, 103 

Wood for ornamental work, 130 

Wool from Cape Colony, 102 

Woolwich Arsenal, 105 

•, engineer's official department at, 133 



Workmen, combination of, 102 
Wreck chart of the British Islands, 193, 280 
Wrecks of the United Kingdom, 102, 280 
Wrought iron and steel, experiments on, by R. Napier 
and Sons, 255 

Y. Z. 
Yacht Fairy, experiments with, 265 

, the Cleopatra steam, 139 

Yarn meters, 89 

Zinc, an algamating, 70 

Zinc roofs, durability of, 108 



LIST OF PLATES. 



136. Warren Girder Bridge for the Scinde Railway. 

137. Wood Burning Passenger Locomotive. 

138. Side-elevation of Wood-Burning Passenger Locomotive. 

139. Plan and Elevation of Shot Tower. 

140. Engines of Screw Steam-Ship " Artizan." 

141. Plans and Sections of Sorting and Finishing Rooms, &c, of Shot 

Tower. 

142. Copying Machinery. 

143. Illustrations of Pump Valves. 

144. Locomotive Engine-Shed and Turntables at the Gateshead Station. 



145. R. Roberts' Floating Lights. 

146. Shot Tower — Details of Sorting Machinery, &c. 

147. The Steam Yacht " Cleopatra," built by Mr. J. Scott Russell. 

148. J. Taylor's Patent Portable or Traction Engine. 

149. Engines of the " Harriet Lane," U.S. Revenue Cutter. 

150. Plans and Details of Piers, New Westminster Bridge. 

151. Lines of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company's Steam-ships 

" Lima" and " Bogota." 

152. Half Plan of Superstructure and Details of Westminster Bridge. 

153. Engines, of the Pacific Mail Company's Steamship. " Valparaiso." 



TO THE BINDER. 
Plate CLIIL, Engines of the " Valparaiso," to face title page. 



36 18»» 



I 



© d a 



WARREN 




W Srrut.: 



I€l H IE 1 A LW A Y, 
WARREN CIRDER BRIDGE. 




THE ARTIZAN 



No. 192.— Vol. 1/.— JANUARY 1st, 1859- 



"ARTIZAN" ADDRESS, 1859. 

In entering upon another year, we avail ourselves of the privilege, 
which we haVe for some time past annually assumed, of addressing to 
our readers a few observations at this period. We now pass in review 
some of the events and occurrences of the year 1'858, and some of our 
own efforts during that period to cater for our friends and supporters. 
Let us hope such efforts have not been without considerable success, 
— indeed, we venture to believe that such has attended them. 

We have also on former occasions availed ourselves of the opportunity 
thus afforded, to make some announcements as to our intentions for the 
further promotion of the objects and extending the sphere of usefulness 
of The Artizax. 

Of what appears to us "looming in the future," and which we 
considered interesting to our constituents, we have, on like occasions, 
availed ourselves of the opportunity to say a few words. Not that we 
aim at affecting the prophetic, or even a greater share of ability to see 
further into either the future or a mill-stone than our intelligent peers ; 
but we have occasionally, whilst indicating what to us appeared the 
possibles and probables of the coming time, shadowed forth matters 
which have, we believe, been usefully applied and made available in 
aid of advancement and material progress. 

First, then, we have to express in unqualified terms our sincere 
gratitude to our greatly-enlarged circle of substantial supporters — con- 
stituents who have not merely voted for us, but have nobly come 
forward and paid the cost of our election. To these, our annual sub- 
scribers, we return our best thanks for their very prompt response to 
our invitations. To our subscribers generally we desire also to convey 
our thanks. To our world-wide- spread and highly-valued contributors 
and correspondents we are more than ever indebted, for their many and 
great kindnesses, and for the readiness with which they have during 
the past year imparted their quota of knowledge and useful information: 
such has, through the medium of our pages, been made useful to 
thousands of their fellow-labourers in the onward march of practical 
improvement and every-day life. We sincerely trust that we may 
continue to be favoured with their highly-esteemed communications. 

To our very numerous friends who during the past year have availed 
themselves of us as a medium for acquiring information upon " a thou- 
sand and one " subjects, we say, right glad are we to find their faith in 
us, and in our responses, so well founded — whilst, however, we ask them 
never to spare us when we can be really useful to them, and by all 
means to avail themselves of our disposition to aid and assist whenever 
and wherever we can— we must beg some of our young friends to think, 
search, and work a little more for themselves before they claim our 
assistance ; a very slight amount of pre-consideration would, in very 
many cases, render it unnecessary to make inquiries such as sometimes 
come to us of trivial, elementary, and, indeed, schoolboy character. The 
self-discipline and mental industry we here recommend to our young 



friends will, we can assure them, be highly beneficial to them. Without 
such inquiries at all the editorial postal replies to judicious corres- 
pondents in all parts of the world ordinarily involve twenty-five to 
thirty letters per month, many of considerable length, and often neces- 
sitating some research, frequently many inquiries, and always some 
consideration. All this is a pleasure to us when the objects sought are 
of a practically useful and serviceable character. 

We are happy to be able to congratulate our friends and ourselves on 
our continued increase of circulation. 

During the past j'ear we have felt justified in increasing the number 
of pages, by which, and reducing the size of the types throughout, we 
have very materially increased the quantity of matter introduced in 
each Number. . 

The collation of the " Notes and Novelties " has had devoted to it, 
almost exclusively, the services of one of the editorial staff; and we are 
glad to perceive, from the numerous letters received from all parts of the 
world, that the introduction of this feature has been hailed with great 
and general satisfaction. We trust that those who have kindly volun- 
teered the expression of their gratification, and others who have 
promised their quota of information — home, foreign, and colonial — will 
not fail to aid us in our endeavours to make this department of The 
Artizan still more useful. We assure them that every scrap of 
thoroughly reliable scientific information is highly prized; and let us 
add a reminder to willing individuals that, although items of information 
may by the parties themselves be thought to be only of local interest 
and of but small value, yet the continued and systematic collection and 
recording of such items are productive of the greatest benefit to a vast 
number of our inquiring fellow-workers. We say, therefore, to our readers, 
wheresoever they may be, and distributed as they are over the face 
of earth and sea, — Send us every scrap of information you can lay your 
hands upon, and as soon as you obtain it— there cannot be too many 
hands (aye, and heads too) engaged in " a good work." A good cause 
we well know it to be, and we do not hesitate in requesting this aid, nor 
will we falter in our efforts both to circulate its results and to render 
those results beneficial to our friends and the profession in general. 

During the past year, as compared with any previous year, we have 
given with the twelve Numbers of The Artizan a greater number of, 
and larger-sized, copperplate engravings, of subjects which for interest 
have only been equalled by the plates (exclusively given by us) of 
the Great Eastern ship during the year 1857. We find on reference to 
our plate list for 1858, that twelve very large and expensive copperplate 
engravings were given. To this list we may add two other copperplate 
engravings of the same size as The Artizan page, which prior to 
the year 1855 was the ordinary and general size of the plates given; 
those, too, were generally, if not exclusively, but lithographs, pos- 
sessing neither the fineness nor the accuracy of delineation which can 
be and has been attained by us in copperplate engravings. In addition to 
the twelve extra-large and two ordinary-sized copperplate engravings, we 



THE ARTIZA !•: IA_N I ST. 185! 




woib-ishdisikidki© p&ssekkbeib o.@©©ii5!©Triw. 



By W? Mason & C9, .Taunton. Mass. U.S. 







FlC I. LONCITUDINAL SECTION. 



Fi c 2. Sectiona l Plan 



"Artizan" Address, 1859- 



r The AitTizAK r 
L January 1, 1859. 



have given five large (principally double and frequently treble, and 
extra large) lithographs. In addition to the foregoing we gave with 
the' Numbers for May and December a large sheet of transfers of illustra- 
tions, with the object of economising the letterpress portion of the 
Journal; for had we given as wood-cuts, in the body of The Artizan, 
the several illustrations, we should have deprived our subscribers and the 
public of from three to four pages of letterpress, which it would have 
been hard for us to have spared— hence our adopting this policy, These 
large sheets of lithographic transfers may have been mistaken by 
some of our less well-informed readers for very indifferently executed 
"Artizan plates;" but, as we explained on a former occasion, these 
sheets, although necessarily very inferior to the plate illustrations given 
by us, are useful, because, whilst they convey such a general idea 
of the subject as wood-cuts usually give, they economise our type 
space. 

As to our future arrangements for extending the sphere of usefulness 
of The Artizan, and of carrying out more fully that which we under- 
take, we shall be materially guided by the extent of progressive support 
which we hope to receive during the current year. It is our desire 
either to further increase the dimensions of The Artizan in future 
(which must enhance the price), or publish a mid-monthly supple- 
ment on the loth or 16th of each month, by which we shall 
be able to find an outlet for the vast fund of materials which 
each month is collected, and which at present requires the 
most ruthless excising, and an amount of selection and rejection 
which it is exceedingly difficult to perform with satisfaction to ourselves. 
On this, however, we shall hereafter, and at a very early period, take 
the opportunity of again communicating with our subscribers, and shall 
be materially guided in the course on which we shall determine by their 
opinions, which we now invite. 

"We now pass to a brief, and it must be but a very brief, sketch of the 
more important events of the past year, and a hasty glance at what we 
conceive will probably be the most interesting or chief features of the 
present year, in connection with engineering and general scientific pro- 
gress. 

"We noticed the progress of the Great Eastern steam-ship step by 
step, including the unsuccessful attempt to launch her in the first in- 
stance. The beginning of the last year, however, saw her safely 
launched, although after considerable delay and enormous expense. 
The unfinished condition in which she has remained has been due to 
the great excess of outlay incurred in building and launching her, and 
the want of public spirit, which has prevented her completion and 
equipment for sea ; but it is now anticipated that after the sacrifice 
which has been made by the original proprietors, no difficulty will be 
found in obtaining the funds necessary for sending her to sea. Indeed, 
whilst we write, we are informed that the capital of the new Com- 
pany has been subscribed for, and a considerable amount paid up. 

The Atlantic Telegraph Cable, which was successfully laid in the 
latter end of the past summer, has failed to maintain that condition of 
perfect insulation which is absolutely necessary to render it available 
for the purpose intended. It has been argued that the form of 
the cable is not that which is best suited to the conditions under 
which it has to be treated in the course of removal, stowage, shipment, 
and paying out ; and although we do nob say that no better form can be 
found, we decidedly say that no better form has yet been exhibited or 
made public. The question of Light and Heavy Cables was discussed 
in able Papers read before the Institution of Civil Engineers during the 
past year ; abstracts of these Papers will be found in our columns. If 
our readers will refer to the volume for 1858, they will find several 
papers and communications upon the subject. Whatever form of cable 
may hereafter be adopted, whether protected by a series of wires laid 
spirally around the electric conductors, or plaited or braided round 
the core, the means of paying out the cable at sea must be re-considered. 

In the War Department, considerable progress has been made in the 
manufacturing works and buildings requisite for producing in the best 
possible manner ordnance and war material of every kind. The Iron 



Ordnance Poundry has been at work for some time, under the able 
direction of Mr. John Anderson, the inspector of machinery to the 
"War Department, to whose talent and ability we have on several pre- 
vious occasions referred. It is hoped that a degree of excellence and 
scientific uniformity of production will be attained by the working of 
the Woolwich establishment, which, like the Small Arms' Pactory at 
Enfield, rather aims at excellence and exactness of production than 
competitive construction in rivalry with commercial contractors, who 
will, however, be held in check, whilst they are aided by the experience 
gained in these public establishments, which should be esteemed by them 
as models, or examples to be followed. 

In India the progress of public works has been resumed, and whilst 
the Directors of the late East India Company deserve the highest credit 
for the liberal spirit with which they had lately fostered public improve- 
ments in their dominions, it is to be hoped that the new Council of 
India under Her Majesty's Government will with still greater energy and 
promptitude foster and encourage the execution of useful and necessary 
public works ; for in no part of the world can they be more usefully con- 
structed, and with a fairer prospect of ample remuneration to justify 
the expenditure of capital; as by their means the extraordinary richness 
and productiveness of that enormous Empire will be opened out and made 
available ; and in this we see an immense field for the employment of the 
talent and skill of the Engineer. We are encouraged in our anticipations 
of an enlightened spirit of Governmental administration by perceiving 
such eminent practical men as Sir Proby Cautley in the administra- 
tion of Indian affairs. 

Railway construction goes on, though slowly, yet steadily, throughout 
the Continent of Europe, and in the Eastern as well as the Western 
Hemisphere, and one of the chief fields of operation for railway engi- 
neers in Europe will be Spain and Portugal, after Eussia and Germany, 
in which latter countries a vast amount of railway works have been 
projected, which are chiefly in the hands of foreign engineers. 

Of bridges and viaducts in connection with railway works, nothing 
very novel is deserving of note beyond the approaching completion 
of the Saltash Bridge, and the Victoria Bridge at Montreal. The 
latter is progressing rapidly, and will be completed earlier than was 
expected. 

In locomotive engine building and working :— Mr. D. K. Clark having 
again taken up his pen upon this subject, whatever is new and worth 
reading will be found in his new work now in course of publication. 
The coal-burning experiments still go on, and successfully, as it appears 
by Mr. Pothergill's report; and we may add that not the least successful 
are Mr. Beattie's experiments, witnessed by us, for substituting coal 
for coke as locomotive-engine fuel. 

In permanent-way construction nothing very novel has been recently 
introduced. The necessity for roads being constructed entirely of iron 
continues to become manifest in an economic point of view; and when 
the necessary elasticity shall be imparted to the structure, by the inter- 
position of permanently elastic material between the chair and the 
sleeper, by which the objectionable vibration will be checked, roads 
entirely of iron will become universally adopted. 

The execution of tunnelling works by mechanical means is receiving 
practical trial in the piercing of Mont Cenis ; and we have recently- 
witnessed some practical experiments with machinery, designed for 
cutting stone of almost any degree of hardness', at a very rapid rate, and 
suited for the tunnelling and cuttings of railways and other works, 
which bids fair to succeed perfectly. 

In Naval Architecture nothing very novel or interesting has occurred 
during the past year but that will be found in our " Notes and Novel- 
ties." An extremely interesting Paper upon Naval Architecture, by 
Mr. Reed, was recently read at the Society of Arts, and a very lengthy 
abstract of it will be found in our present Number. The introduction 
of steel plates, in the building of ships, is, we are glad to find, progress- 
ing; and several vessels of light draught are now building in the Mersey, 
in which Clay's puddled steel is being employed for the frame as well , 
as the plating. 



TnE 
January 1, 



ArtiZan, "1 
1859. J 



"Artizan" Address, 1859- — Iron Girder Bridges for Indian Railways. 



The various novelties in Marine Steam Machinery have been noted 
by us during the year, and we now call attention to what has been done in 
this branch of industry during the last few months; more particularly 
by Mr. J. Scott Russell, with his three-cylinder engines, worked at an 
increased steam pressure — by Randolph, Elder, and Co.'s engines and 
machinery of the John Bell, the Valparaiso, and other ships — by R. 
Morrisson and Co.'s Omeo— and J. B. Palmer and Co.'s Hudson and 
Weser — as indicative of the direction in which improvements in marine 
steam machinery are progressing. "We may assume that the employ- 
ment of increased pressure with cut-off and expansion, steam jacketings, 
surface condensation, feed-water heating, and superheating apparatus, 
together with a construction of boiler better suited to the more rapid and 
more economical generation of steam, at still higher pressures than 
have even recently been employed in connection with condensing engines, 
will be practically worked out and applied in combination. It is, how- 
ever, to the sources of power — the boiler and its furnaces — that special 
attention should be directed. 

The British Association have appointed a committee of scientific men 
of eminence, to consider and report what is in their opinion desirable for 
the more accurate recording of facts connected with the performance of 
steam ships, and which will involve investigations of considerable interest. 
If fully carried out this report will, we believe, prove of lasting benefit 
not alone to the constructors of marine steam machinery and steam ship 
builders, but also to the proprietors of steam ships. 

In the application of steam machinery to agricultural purposes con- 
siderable progress has been made, and we may look forward to an imme- 
diate practical solution of the question of the respective economies of 
the various systems of steam tillage and cultivation. We consider that 
too much attention cannot be paid by agriculturists and growers of 
colonial produce throughout the world, to the thoroughly practical and 
very economic steam cultivator introduced by Mr. Romaine, as it per- 
forms with extraordinary rapidity and perfection the turning over of 
the soil, similar to, and as a perfect substitute for spade husbandry. 

The meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
held at Leeds in the month of September, was, to mechanical nien, and 
others connected with the applied sciences, one of the most interesting 
meetings which has been held since the meeting at Glasgow. The next 
meeting is to be held in Aberdeen. 

Those of our readers who are interested in the Metropolitan Drainage 
schemes will be glad to learn that there is some chance of the works 
being immediately commenced, and, it is to be hoped, prosecuted with 
vigour. The arrangements for pumping the sewage matter from one 
level to another involve the requirement of steam engines and pumping 
machinery, for which designs have been invited. 

It is to be hoped that the lines of railway around the metropolis, and 
particularly the inner circle, by which the leading thoroughfares of the 
town will be greatly relieved, will be forthwith executed. 

There are many other subjects on which we should like to add some 
remarks, if but a few words upon each, but the amplitude of our monthly 
budget of general scientific information, " Notes and Novelties," classified 
as it is under the various heads, for easy reference, renders it much less 
necessary than we formerly considered it, to take such an opportunity 
as the present, for entering upon any more extended review of past and 
passing events. 

One sentence more and we have done. Let us assure our friends and 
supporters, that during the year 1859, no exertion shall be wanting on 
our part, to keep them well and early informed upon all subjects which 
may concern their interest or merit their attention ; and it will remain 
with themselves to afford us such substantial support, as will enable us to 
do this, to the fullest extent we can desire. "We may add, in conclusion, 
that we have in reserve for our immediately succeeding numbers, 
a valuable series of copper-plate engravings, now in course of execution, 
of important engineering works of the highest interest. 



IRON GIRDER BRIDGES FOR INDIAN RAILWAYS. 

(Illustrated by Plate No. 13G.) 

The importance of rapidly completing the Indian railways has .de- 
veloped many ingenious contrivances for saving labour and time; and 
none of them has stood more prominently forward for overcoming the 
difficulties and delays attendant upon crossing the rivers than the 
Warren Girder Bridge. 

The accompanying illustration refers to spans of 80 ft., although by 
arrangement of material they may be constructed for openings varying 
from 50 to 200 ft. 

By permission of Mr. Yarrow, the engineer to the Scinde and Punjaub 
Railways, we are enabled to place before our readers the Plan and 
Specification under which a large number of these bridges have been 
prepared for India. 

The chief advantages of the girder are — facility of transport and 
erection, and the perfect uniformity of parts. So completely is this 
system carried out, that portions of various girders, indiscriminately 
taken from the bulk of material, are fitted together in the required 
spans. 

A large number, constructed for the Scinde railway, were lately tested 
at the works of Messrs. Lloyds, Fosters, and Co., of Wednesbury ; and the 
deflection averaged a quarter of an inch for each 30 tons placed upon 
the bridge. 

The maximum load was 120 tons, and the greatest deflection 1 in. 

Upon the removal of the weight the bridge recovered itself to within 
l-32nd of an in., which set was fairly ascribed to the tightening of the 
pins, and bringing the parts to their proper bearing. 

The late Mr. J. M. Rendel (no mean authority) in a " Report to the 
Directors of the East Indian Railway," stated—" I prefer bridges for 
India on this principle to those formed of tubular girders; and as the 
result of the experiments, made in my presence, proved to be entirely 
satisfactory, I am now in a position to recommend this description of 
bridge, without qualification of any kind." 

Mr. Brunei, in his "Report upon the Victoria Bridges," observes, 
after referring to the trellis-bridge system,—" I cannot see any advan- 
tages that are not equally obtainable by Warren's girders, while the 
latter have the merit of disposing of the material theoretically in the 
most economical manner, and of being of a portable construction. 
Warren's girder is, I think, admirably adapted for many circumstances : 
it consists of many parts, which although they require some nicety of 
workmanship, may be finished at the manufacturers, taken to pieces, 
and sent to countries or localities where workshops could not be erected 
or artisans obtained capable of working metals, or even of doing boiler 
work, which is the simplest possible metal working." 

Colonel Kennedy, the talented consulting engineer to the Bombay and 
Baroda Railway, has extensively adopted this description of bridging 
in connection with Mitchell's screw piles, and credit must be awarded 
to this gaftant officer for promoting a system more calculated than any 
yet brought forward in aid of the economical and rapid completion of a 
network of iron which will shortly cover the face of India, beneath the 
magnitude of which the English railways sink into comparative in- 
significance. 

SPECIFICATION FOR "WROUGHT-IRON -WARREN GIRDER BRIDGES, SO FEET 

SPAN, FOR THE SCINDE RAILWAY. 

T. A. Yarhow, Esq., C.E., Engineer. 

General Description.— This specification refers to the construction of 
wrought-iron girders for 80 ft. spans, each span being formed of two 
wrought-iron girders, 83 ft. 4 in. long in the top flange, 8 ft. o} m. deep, 
and 14 ft. apart from centre to centre, the ends being arranged to slide 
on cast-iron bed-plates fastened to the masonry piers. Each girder is 
divided into nine 9 ft. equilateral triangles. Each pair of girders is con- 
nected together by wrought-iron transverse girders 14 in. deep, cross- 
braced with X iron. 

Wrought-Iron Work. 

Roll'd Bars for Horizontal Flange and Tension Diagonals.— The iron 
for the rolled bars forming the bottom flange and tension diagonals to be 
of such quality and make as shall be specially approved by the engineer, 
and the strength must be such as to withstand without breaking a 
tensile force of upwards of 25 tons per square inch, and of 12 tons per 
square inch without taking any appreciable permanent set. Sample 
bars will be selected by the engineer to be torn asunder in the presence 
of himself or his assistants, and should any of them break with a less 
strain than 25 tons per square inch, all bars similarly made will be 
rejected. Each bar must also be tested in a properly-constructed 
hydraulic machine up to 12 tons per square inch of section, and should 
the most careful observations show that any permanent set has taken 
place, such bar will under no circumstances be allowed to be used in the 

"Thenars are to have their heads and central eyes rolled out of the 
solid bloom, and be of precisely the same thickness throughout. Under 
no circumstances will any welding on of the heads, or forming them i by 
up- setting, or flattening out, or in any other manner, be permitted. Ine 



Iron Girder Bridges for Indian Railways. 



p The Autizajt, 
L January 1, 1859. 



contractor shall also guarantee that the heads and pins are sufficiently 
strong to withstand the same strain as the bar. The holes for the 
main-pins to he bored with extreme accuracy to gauge. 

No bar having an error in the length between the holes amounting to 
s ' ? of an inch, or in the diameter of the holes amounting to -^ of an inch, 
will be permitted to be used. 

Top Flange Girder Struts and ™ and |_ Irons. — The top member of 
the girder and the diagonal struts are to be formed of bars and plates of 
best iron, or of other iron of such quality and make as the engineer shall 
approve. The top of the girder is to be formed of plates and angle 
irons riveted together in lengths as shown on the drawings, but jointed 
with joint plates attached by bolts. 

The struts are to be formed of bars with "f irons on the sides, riveted 
together, and shaped at the ends, and some of the rolled tension bars to 
have similar f irons riveted on them. 

The holes for the main-pins in both top and bottom of struts are to be 
bored with' the same accuracy and under the same conditions as 
described for the tie-bars. 

Holes to be true with each other. — The holes in the two sides of the top 
are to be in true line with each other, so that the pins may be exactly 
at right angles with the plane of the girder. 

Cast-iron Distance Pieces. — The cast-iron distance pieces between 
side plates are to be formed and connected with bolts as shown. All 
butt joints under compression are to be accurately and truly fitted, and 
care taken to allow them to bear well against each other over the whole 
surface. 

Main-pins. — The main-pins are to be forged out of the very best 
scrap, Low Moor, Bowling, or other iron, approved by the engineer, , 
and it must be attested by the certificate or invoices of the firms sup- 
plying the same. 

They are to be turned perfectly parallel and exact to gauges ; no error 
of more than jl jd of an inch in diameter will be allowed ; the ends to be 
secured with split cotters and washers, and to be the exact sizes shown 
on the full-sized drawing. 

Cross Beams. — The cross bearers supporting the roadway are to be 
made of the best Staffordshire plates and angle irons riveted together. 
The bracket pieces supporting the cross bearers are to be soundly forged 
out of good iron, and bored to fit the pins. 

Diagonal Bracing. — The horizontal diagonal bracing is to be formed 
from best description of f iron, of the section shown on the drawing 
full size, the ends being carefully formed, punched, and provided with 
holts and washers. 

All bolts to be made of Low Moor or Bowling best iron, or such other 
iron as shall be specially sanctioned by the engineer. They are to be 
carefully forged and screened. All rivets shall be of S. C. Crown iron, 
or such other as shall be specially approved by the engineer. 

The riveting generally is to be executed in a careful and workmanlike 
manner, the rivets thoroughly fitting the holes. Great care m*st be taken 
that the rivet holes exactly correspond ; should any of them not be so 
they shall be rhymered out, as no drifting will be allowed. 

The engineer may require any holes to be drilled, and the bolts turned 
for the same, or he may order bolts to be used in the place of rivets, or 
other changes of this kind, in any such places as he may consider 
necessary, without any extra charge. 

Cast Iron. 

Cast-iron Sliding Plates. — The cast-iron sliding plates to be made to 
the exact form shown on drawing. The cheeks or vertical parts are to 
he planed or filed to a perfectly even surface, each face being exactly 
parallel with the other, and of the width shown on drawing. The holes 
for the main-pins to be bored with great precision, to fit them, and be 
quite horizontal. The under side of this casting to have three project- 
ing pieces \ in. deep, which shall be planed truly horizontal to the 
cheeks. The slightest flaw or defect in the material or workmanship 
will cause absolute rejection. 

_ Bed Plates. — The cast-iron bed plates to be of the form and dimen- 
sions shown on the drawings. Each plate to serve for the adjoining 
ends of two girders. Projecting pieces to be cast corresponding with 
the projections on the sliding plates, and these are to be planed per- 
fectly even, and fixed truly horizontal. 

Distance Pieces. — The distance pieces for the top member of the 
girders are to be cast and fitted as per drawing; and, if required by the 
engineer, a proportion of the holes on them shall be cast small, and 
afterwards bored to the required size. 

Wood Platform. 

Bolts and Hoop Iron. — The wood platform and guard rails are in- 
cluded in the contract; and all the bolts necessaiy for fixing the same 
must be provided. 

Miscellaneous Work. 

Threads. — All screw-threads used throughout the work shall be 
Whitworth's patterns. 

Gauges. — Proper gauges for the sizes and distances of the main-pin 
holes in the various bars, for the main-pins themselves, and for any 
other parts which require accuracy and uniformity, shall be prepared 



by the contractor at his own expense, and submitted to the engineer for 
his approval, after which they must be carefully worked to. 

Testing Apparatus. — The apparatus for proving the power of the 
resistance of the various parts to tension and compression, and for 
pulling asunder the sample tension bars, and of any other description 
required by the engineer, shall also be provided by the contractor at his 
own cost and charge; and he shall find all assistance necessary for the 
processes of testing, or for any other experiments the engineer may 
desire to try upon the works. 

Erection a?id Proofs. — The engineer is to have the power of calling on 
the contractor to put every span together, complete, prior to shipment 
for India, if he thinks it desirable to do so ; but, at the same time, if from 
his own opinion of the accuracy and uniformity of the work he may 
choose to dispense with the full carrying out of this condition he may 
limit the number erected. It is to be so arranged that each girder, 
when erected, and without other than its own weight, shall have a 
camber of 1^ in. 

Each of the spans so erected must be proved, in the presence of the 
engineer or his assistant, in the following manner: — A temporary plat- 
form to be laid on the cross girders, upon which bridge-rails are to be 
fastened ; upon these rails six trucks (not exceeding 10 ft. in length 
from extreme ends of buffers, and loaded to 20 tons each) to be pulled 
backwards and forwards over each span, as the engineer may direct, 
and the effect on the bridge to be carefully observed. Should this be 
unsatisfactory the Company may call upon the contractor to take any 
means their engineer may consider advisable, to correct defects existing 
in the work. 

The contractor is to provide, at his own cost, proper foundations for 
erecting the spans upon, and all necessary arrangements and labour for 
the above operations, as the engineer may direct. 

Marking. — The several parts of each span shall be distinctly and 
legibly marked with punch marks, or in any other form the engineer or 
his assistant shall define, so as to facilitate the putting together of the 
work in India. Complete references to the marks relating to all shall be 
prepared and forwarded to the engineer. 
• Painting, Protecting, and Packing. — The whole of the work must be 
carefully protected and packed, in such a manner as is satisfactory to 
the engineer, in order to preserve it from injur y during a sea voyage to 
India. 

The main-pins, and all other bright work, must be carefully coated 
with a composition of white lead and tallow, or such other preparation 
as the engineer shall approve; and these, as well as all other small or 
minute parts, must be packed in strong boxes well secured. 

The heavier portions of the work must be painted immediately after 
being formed (and being previously well cleaned) with one coat of thin 
red lead paint, and subsequently with a strong coat of stone colour. 
General Conditions oe Contract. 

Completeness. — The contract is intended to include the entire comple- 
tion of the bridges and fixing them in India, and the provision of the 
whole of the ironwork necessary for the same. It is, therefore, expressly 
to be understood that all bolts, rivets, washers, and other mjnor parts, 
which may not be shown in the drawings, or mentioned in the specifi- 
cation, but which may reasonably be considered as being requisite for 
the proper completion of the work, are to be provided by the contractor, 
and included in the contract sum. 

Quality of Materials and Workmanship. — The whole of the materials 
shall be of the best quality of their respective kinds, and shall be subject 
to the special approval of the engineer, who shall have power to prohibit 
any materials being used which he may consider unfit for the purposes 
for which they are intended. 

The quality of the workmanship throughout, and more particularly 
in regard to the fitting of the main-pins, is to be of the most perfect de- 
scription, and is to be more of the nature of that known as engine work, 
than such as is ordinarily employed on girder bridges. 

Contract. — The whole contract is to be executed in every respect in 
perfect conformity with the drawings to be furnished and this specifica- 
tion, and to the entire satisfaction of the engineer, who shall have the 
power to inspect, or of appointing a person to inspect, the entire 
manufacture, and of testing the work at any time during its progress in 
any manner he may think fit, and of rejecting all such portions as in 
his opinion are incorrectly made, or inferior in strength or quality; and 
in case any doubt or dispute should arise as to the meaning of any part 
of the drawings or specification, or as to the quality of work or materials, 
or any other matter or thing connected with this contract, the engineer 
shall have the power of deciding the same; and his decision shall be final 
and binding on both parties. 

The contractor shall attend to and forthwith execute all directions in 
reference to the construction of the work which may from time to time 
be given to him by the engineer; and in case any slight deviations from 
the drawings or the specifications shall be considered advisable, the 
engineer shall have the power of ordering them to be done, and no c xtra 
charge shall be allowed for the same, unless the engineer shall agree to 
such extra charge in writing before the work it refers to is executed. 



The Artizan, 1 
January 1, 1859. J 



Screw Steam-ship " Omeo," with Specification of Ship and Machinery. 



THE SCREW STEAM-SHIP "OMEO." 
In The Artizan for last month we recorded the trial trip of this 
ship, and gave her general dimensions. We are now enabled to give the 
accompanying indicator diagrams, which were taken during the trial 
trip referred to, in the presence of Mr. W. Langdon, C.E., of the firm of 
James Watt and Co. ; Mr. Beckwith, on behalf of the owners ; Mr. 
Leslie and Mr. Morrison also being present. 

The indicator diagrams tell their own story, it being understood that 
as to diagram No. 1 and 2 the average pressures indicated, and the other 
details, are appended to the respective diagrams. 

4J f 5 ~40 55 50 15 20 15 10 5 (fr 5 10 15 




The line marked thus 

shows perfect expansion. !«»■ 

Pressure in boiler 60 lbs. 

14-5 

\acuura 22j :n. 

No. of strokes per minute . . 80 f f 

Velocity of piston 360 ft. 

Indicated H.P 542 n < 

7. 

Average pressure ,. 2T.3-5T 



42 40 



30 15 




The line marked thus *-- 

shows perfect expansion. 

Pressure in boiler 55 lbs 

Vacuum 22J in 

No. of strokes per minute .. 70 

Velocity of piston 315 ft. 

Indicated H.P 420 



Average pressure 



We have thought it would prove interesting to a considerable portion 
of our readers if we published the specification of the Omeo. We now 
present the entire specification of the ship and her machinery, and 
■we make good our promise to supply the indicator diagrams and 
calculations made during the trial trip before referred to. 



The chief features in the performance of the ship on trial were the 
employment of steam at 60 lbs. per sq. in., and expanding it to a minus 
pressure of 9 lbs. per sq. in., or 6 lbs. below the atmosphere, with the 
engines going 70 strokes per minute. 



In. 



6 

6 





SPECIFICATION OF AN IRON STEAM SCREW VESSEL OF THE FOLLOWING 
DIMENSIONS, AND CONSTRUCTED TO CARRY 000 TONS OF DEAD WEIGHT, 
UPON A DRAFT OF WATER 13 FEET. THE VESSEL TO BE PROPELLED 
BY A PAia OF DIRECT ACTING MARINE STEAM ENGINES OF THE 
COLLECTIVE NOMINAL POWER OF 100 HORSES. 

Built by Andrew Leslie and Co., Hepburn Quay, Gateshead-on-Tyne. 

PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS. 

Ft. 

Length between perpendiculars 212 

Beam, moulded 30 

Depth, moulded 17 

Draft of water, with 900 tons dead weight 13 

Keel. — Of best scrap bar iron, 7 £ X 2| in., to be in as great lengths as 
can be procured, and to be connected together and to the stem and stern 
post by means of neatly fitted scarphs, not less than 22 in. in length. 

Stem. — Of best scrap bar-iron, of same dimensions as keel, viz., 
7\ X 2|, moulded to the form of bow, which will be clipper. 

Stem Post or Screw Frame. — To be forged in one solid piece, with a 
suitable boss for receiving the screw-shaft. The main post to be 
8 X 5 in.; the after post to be 7£ X 2| in.; and the bottom to be 
8X5 in., tapered to meet the thickness of keel, and be so constructed 
as to admit of the propeller being lifted on deck. 

Frames. — To be angle-iron, 4| X 3 X 1 in., each side to be in one 
piece, and to be properly butted over the centre of keel. The frames to 
be spaced 18 in. apart throughout the vessel. 

Reverse Frames.— Of angle iron, 3 X 2J x f s in., to extend on every 
alternate frame to the upper deck, and on the intermediate frame to the 
upper part of bilge. 

Floors.— Of plate iron 17i in. deep in the centre by ^ in. thick, one to 
be placed upon every framej and to have a proper limber hole for water- 
course. 

Keelsons. — To be formed of plate iron f s in. thick and four angle irons 
4^ x 3| X | in., two on the top and two on the bottom edge, by means 
of which it "will be firmly riveted to the double angle iron on the top of 
floors. 

Side Keelsons. — To be placed at the floor ends, and to extend as far 
forward and aft as the shape of the vessel will allow ; to consist of two 
angle irons 4| X 3^ x \ in. placed back to back, and riveted to the re- 
verse frames and to the angle iron o-i the floors. 

Beams.— Of patent bulb iron ty in. deep X 2> in. thick, with two angle 
irons 2£ x 2J x 5,% in. on the upper edge, to be placed upon every alter- 
nate frame and well secured to ship's side by means of knee plates \ in. 
thick, and 20 in. deep. 

Stringers— A. stringer plate, 2 ft. wide by 9^ in. thick, to run all 
round the ship on the top of deck beams, to be well riveted to the angle 
irons of every beam, and to be connected with outside plating of vessel 
by means of an angle iron 4f X 3J X \ in., which angle iron will also 
extend all round the vessel. Both plate and angle iron of the stringer 
plates to be in as great lengths as possible, and the butts to be well 
shifted. There will be a stringer plate of same dimensions riveted to 
the top of hold beam, and extending all round the ship. 

Hold Beams. — To be placed, according ~ 
nine years' class. >1 

Stancheons.—Oi round iron, 3J in. diameter, placed where necessary, 
and to extend from the centre keelson to the uppe? deck beams. 

Bulkheads. — To be "our in number; viz., one at each end of engine- 
room, one about the centre of the ship to divide the two cargo spaces, 
and one at the foreside of the forehold. All these bulkheads to be made 
of § in. plate iron, and stayed with angle iron, 3 X 2 J x T 7 g , to be attached 
to the ship's side by a double frame, and the whole to be caulked and 
made watertight. 

In addition to the above there will be a stuffing-box hulked aft, and a 
peak bulked head forward, running up to the lower deck. 

Tie Plates.— To have a row of plates, 12 in. broad by f s in. thick, 
secured to the top of the deck beams. At width of the main hatchway 
these plates will be continued right fore and aft, and will be riveted to 
the stringer plate at bow and stern. To have on the top of hold beams 
an angle iron, 4J X SJ X h placed at the middle line, and running all fore 
and aft where practicable. 

Bulwarks.— To be of iron, 3 ft. 6 in. high; the stancheons to be formed 
by every third frame of the ship being carried up, and to be plated with 
J-in. plate iron; to have an angle iron 3 X 3 X ^ -in., riveted to the 
top edge for fastening the rail to. 

Plating.— Garboard strake to be 2 ft. broad X 11& in. thick; thence to 
upper part of bilge § in.; from bilge to shear strake to be f 3 in. ; shear 
strake, § in. thick, and bulwarks \ in. 



with Lloyd's regulation for a 



Specification of Inverted Direct- Acting Condensing Screw Expansive Engines. ["janu^yT 1 ^ 



1859. 



The garboard strake to be connected with the keel by a strong angle 
iron 4X4X7% in. • 

Riveting. — The keel, stern, stern-post, shear strake and bottom, up to 
turn of bilge, to be double riveted ; also all stringer plates, tie plates, 
and vertical butts; all the rest to be single riveted. 

WOODWORK. 

Decks. — Main deck of yellow pine, 6 in. x 3 in., well seasoned and 
free from sap, shakes, or other blemish; to be secured to the beams with 
bolts and nuts. 

Poop deck to be 6 in. x 2J in. 

Forecastle deck to be of yellow pine, 6 in. x 2| in.; the decks to be 
caulked, planed and played in the usual manner. 

Ceiling. — The fore and after holds to be ceiled up to the upper part of 
bilge with Baltic red wood 2 in. thick. 

Waterways. — Of red pine 12 in. broad and 6 in. thick, secured to stringer 
plate with bolts and nuts, with felt between. 

Rail. — Of American elm, 12 in. wide and Z\ in. thick. 

Hatchways. — To have two large cargo hatches; the coverings to 
be of oak, 10 x 4 in.; all necessary hatch covers, bars, &c, to be 
provided. 

Catheads. — Of oak, 13 in. square, with three sheaves. • 

Knighiheads. — Timber heads, bitts, mooring chocks, belaying pins, 
cleets, &c, of suitable size and strength for the vessel. 

Scuppers. — Four at each side, to be of large size and properly 
fitted. 

Windlass. — Of English oak, with patent purchase of an approved 
principle. 

Capstans. — To have one capstan on quarter deck and one forward, 
for warping the vessel, if practicable. 

Pumps. — To have hand pumps to all the compartments of the ship, 
exclusive of engine room pumps ; to be fitted with all necessary spears, 
breaks, &c, complete. 

Compasses. — To have two neat mahogany binnacles, one on poop and 
one on deck house, with properly adjusted compasses. 

Bell. — A large bell, to be supplied with handsome cast-iron stand, and 
ship's name engraved. 

Steering Gear. — The steering apparatus to be of an improved pattern, 
with patent barrel, &c. ; steering-wheel to be of mahogany, with brass 
mountings, rims, &c. 

Boats. — To be supplied with four boats of suitable sizes, to be built of 
larch, and well finished ; to have iron davets, falls, masti, oars, boat- 
hooks, &c, complete. One of these to be a life-boat. 

Anchors, Chains, fyc. — To be of the best quality, and properly tested, 
of number and size according to Lloyd's regulations for a vessel of this 
description and class ; to be supplied with two mooring chains, \ in., 
30 fathoms each ; on 7 in. hawser, 90 fathoms ; one warp, 5 in., 90 
fathoms ; one warp, 2J in., 90 fathoms. 

Chain Lockers. — To be fitted in fore compartment of sufficient size, 
with chain pipes, &c, complete. 

Galley. — An iron galley, to be provided with cooking apparatus and 
all necessary utensils for sixty people. 

Water Tank. — An iron tank for fresh water, to be fitted under the 
forecastle or cabin floors, of as large size as the space will admit, with a 
pump, air-pipes, &c. 

Ballast Tanks. — One amidships and one aft, to be built of | in. plate, 
and properly stayed with angle iron, and to be- capable of containing 
sufficient water to ballast the ship. 

Coal Tubs. — To have six iron coal tubs for discharging cargo, to hold 
1 ton each. 

Rigging. — The vessel to be rigged as a barque. The standing to be 
patent galvanized wire rope, to set up with lamyards and dead eyes. 
All running rigging to be of the best Kussian hemp, or Manilla, and of 
such sizes as are suitable to the vessel. All necessary gearing, such as 
blocks, sheaves, tackling, &c, to be supplied by the builders, and the 
whole to be of the best quality. 

Sails. — To have one complete suit of sails, including Coningham's 
patent topsails, two topmast studding sails, two lower ditto, and one set 
of boat sails — all to be of the best long flax canvas, with galvanized 
thimbles, one complete set of tarpaulins, masts, coats, &c. 

Bunting. — To have one white ensign, one blue ditto, Burges' Union 
Jack, Blue Peter, and one complete set of Maryatt's signals. 

General Arrangements. — The vessel to have a raised quarter deck, 
extending forward to engine-room; a neat cabin, to be fitted up for 
captain and officers, with table, sofa, seats, stove, looking-glass, &c, &c; 
a steward's pantry, with the usual fittings, utensils, &c; a round house, 
to be built on deck, with accommodation for engineers and officers, having 
two water-closets, lamp room, store room, paint locker, &c. Accommo- 
dation to be provided for crew in forecastle. 

Painting. — All the ironwork to have three coats of paint; woodwork 
to be neatly painted and grained in the usual manner. 

In short, the vessel to be made complete and ready for sea in every 
respect, except the following articles; viz., bed and table linen, plate, 
nautical instruments, &c. 



SPECIFICATION OF A PAIR OF INVERTED DIRECT-ACTING CONDENSING 

SCREW EXPANSIVE ENGINES, 100 H.P. 

By R. Mokrison &Co., Ouseburn Engine Works, Newcastle- upon Tyne. 

Cylinders. — To be 34 in. diameter; stroke, 27 in. Pistons to have 
metallic spring packing; slide valves and expansive valves in one steam- 
chest between the cylinders, or otherwise, as maybe arranged; piston 
rods to have the guides forged solid upon them. 

Condensers. — To be formed in the two back upright frames. 

Air Pumps. — To be lined with brass, with brass buckets and valves, 
and to be of sufficient capacity : the, valve and bucket cover to be of vul- 
canized india rubber, and the pumps to be provided with air valves. 

Pumps. — To have feed and bilge pumps of sufficient capacity, and to 
be provided with vulcanized india-rubber valves and air valves. 

Reversing Gear. — To be what is termed the link motion; the eccentric 
to have brass straps and malleable iron rods, and the engines to be 
reversed by wheel and screw, or otherwise, as may be arranged. 

The Centre Shaft. — Will be what is termed a double crank axle, and 
will have four bearings, distributing the strain of the engines more 
equally than three. This shaft will be 8^ in. diameter, and will be made 
of the very best scrap iron: the aftermost bearing will be corrugated, to 
take the thrust of the shaft. 

The Running Propeller Shafting. — Will be of best scrap iron, the 
couplings being forged on, running in suitable bearings, and having a 
proper metal stern bush, lined with white metal, to take the weight of 
the screw. 

Bed Frames. — To be provided with strong cast-iron bed-frames, to 
carry the upright frames, cylinders, and air-pumps, and in which will 
be formed the bearings for the crank shaft. 

Propeller. — To be of cast iron; diameter and pitch to be left for after 
consideration ; to have lifting gear complete. 

Boilers. — To have four cone-flue boilers, 5 ft. 3 in. diameter outside, 
and 17 ft. high, with domes, complete. The conical fire-boxes to be of 
the best Low Moor or Farnley iron, § in. thick ; the shell of best 
crown plate, § in. thick. Chimney to be 36 in. diameter, of sufficient 
height, and double, to receive the feed-water for heating before enter- 
ing the boilers. The chimney to be the same strength as the boilers 
where double. The bottom of the chimney to be provided with mud 
doors and blow-off cock. The boilers to be mounted complete, each with 
two safety-valves, one scum cock, one glass water gauge, two gauge 
cocks, one 3-in. blow-off cock, separate and distinct from all other pipes 
communicating with the boilers and the sea, and all necessary sludge 
and manhole doors ; one of Bourdon's steam indicators, and tested to a 
pressure of 80 lbs. per square inch before leaving our yard, and to work 
at 50 lbs. per square inch permanently. Boilers and double chimney to 
be covered over with felt and wood, and neatly hooped. 

The Funnel. — To be of moderate height, to suit rigging, and 36 in. 
diameter, of the same rake as masts of ship. 

Waste Steam Funnel. — Of copper, of suitable diameter, and length 
same rake as masts. 

Donkey Pump. — Cylinder 10 in. diameter, plungers 5| in. diameter 
and 9 in. stroke, provided with brass or vulcanized india-rubber valves, 
brass 'glands and bushes ; to be supplied with steam from the engine 
boiler, and to be connected with the bilge, the boiler, ballast tanks, the 
sea and fore and aft bulkheads, and provided with a hose pipe of suffi- 
cient length. 

Sundries. — The cylinders to be provided with escape valves; the con- 
densers with blow-through valves and vacuum gauges. Each boiler to be 
furnished with fire bars and bearers; feed, steam, and donkey pipes to 
be of copper; all cocks of brass, with brass glands and packed keys; all 
working bearings and stuffing boxes to have oil cups; the cylinders to 
be carefully covered with felt, wood, and brass hoops. 

Steam Cranes. — Two steam cranes, each with two cylinders, 8J in. 
diameter, and 9 in. stroke, with malleable iron post, deck plate, and 
chain complete, copper steam and exhaust pipes, with turning-round 
gear. Boiler to be cone-flued, 3 ft. 10 in. diameter, and 10 ft. high, with 
chimney and mountings complete, consisting of glass water gauge and 
Bourdon's steam gauge, safety, steam, feed, and blow-through valves, 
and small donkey to feed same, with tank for water, all fitted on board 
complete, ready for use. 

Conditions. — The builders to prepare the engine, boiler, and donkey 
seats to our plans, and have the same ready, complete, before sending 
ship to crane for machinery ; build coal bunkers, all hatches and comb- 
ings, &c. ; be at the expense of towing the ship to and from the Corpo- 
ration crane to receive the machinery, and also be at all expense and 
risk (except breakage of machinery through defective material or work- 
manship) during the trial trip, except coals, oil, and labour in engine 
room, which will be furnished by us, for working the engines. The 
builders to furnish us with plans and sections of the ship, to enable us 
to arrange our boiler funnel and pipes as soon as possible, and have the 
ship at the said crane four weeks before the time of delivery. 

List of Outfit. — One vice and bench, six cold chisels, four smiths' 
chisels, six assorted files, one cast-iron oil tank in two divisions, one set 



The Artizan, "t 
January 1, 1859. J 



American Locomotive. — Who Invented the Screw Propeller 1 ? 



/ 



of oil cans, assorted sizes, one tallow kettle, one engine-room lamp, four 
gauge glass lamps, four coal trimmers' lamps, one hanfl lamp, one set of 
fire tools and three shovels, one set of spanners and one shifting spanner, 
one lead, one iron, and one copper hammer, two scaling hammers, two 
scrapers and two tube brushes, three dozen assorted bolts and nuts, two 
ash buckets, one water bucket, one hose for engine-room, one hose for 
deck, connected with donkey, 60 ft. long, one set of pipes and cocks for 
watering bearings, one syringe, one salinometer, one spare screw, tank 
for waste water from waste steam pipe, portable forge and anvil. 



AMERICAN" WOOD-BURNING PASSENGER LOCO- 
MOTIVE. 

Constructed by Messrs. W. Mason and Co., Taunton, Massachusetts, U.S. 
Illustrated by a large folding Plate, No. cxxxvii. 

We regret to be compelled, at the last moment, to omit- until next 
month the textual description of the above interesting Plate ; we shall 
then be enabled to give a second Plate, illustrative of the same subject. 



WHO INVENTED THE SCREW PROPELLER ? 

Nearly two months ago we received a pamphlet thus entitled, " Who 
Invented the Screw Propeller ? Were the Patented Propellers of 
Prancis Pettit Smith (formerly farmer, at Hendon, Middlesex), in every 
respect direct Plagiarisms ? " 

This title would naturally excite curiosity to learn the drift of these 
interrogatories, and so induce a perusal of the eighty-five pages of some- 
what closely printed matter, which the author (a Mr. James Nicol, of 
Glasgow) devotes to the consideration of the subject. On proceeding 
to peruse the pamphlet, the first notable passage is a quotation from the 
treatise on the screw propeller, by John Bourne, C.E. ; and then we dis- 
cover, from the statement of the author which follows, " the object 
of the present publication is to prove, that the great merit heretofore 
ascribed to Francis Pettit Smith had never any foundation in fact." 

This, then, is the avowed object of Mr. James Nicol's laborious effort. 
Nearly ninety pages of closely printed matter, accompanied by two large 
sheets, containing lithograph views of various descriptions of pro- 
pellers and gearing, — and to what end we hope to be able very speedily 
to show. 

We had thought that the excellent and elaborate historical works 
devoted to the subject of the screw propeller, by two such eminent men 
as John Bourne and Bennett Woodcroft, had placed before the world all 
that could be written or said truthfully and usefully, and that those who 
have sought to acquire reliable information, historical and practical, re- 
lating to this and other forms of marine propelling instruments or appa- 
ratus, had become familiarised with the prominent part which Mr. F. P. 
Smith has performed in connection with the introduction and gradual 
extension into use of the screw propeller; it has become "familiar as 
household words." 

On proceeding with the perusal of the pamphlet it is difficult to say 
which feeling predominated, — surprise, disgust, or pity; but assuredly we 
felt pity, and regretted that any sane man should lend himself to the 
publication of a work so full of absurd and unfounded charges based 
upon imaginings of some distempered mind, without disclosing the 
slightest grounds for the inferences drawn, and upon which so grossly 
scurrilous a mass of fevered ranting and raving has been strung 
together. 

The fate which we were at first inclined to believe this work merited at 
our hands was to consign it to the waste-paper basket, or if preserved 
therefrom, then only to be retained as a record of the extent of the abuse 
of the liberty of the press practised in England in the latter half of the 
nineteenth century, and also as evidence of the extent to which insanity 
in individuals is permitted unrestrainedly. Surely if Mr. James Nicol, 
whose name and address appear on some of the earlier pages, and else- 
where in the work, is not already properly cared for and under re- 
straint, it must be that he has had that peculiar shrewdness which 
belongs to a certain character of insanity, to have sent all the copies of 
his pamphlet far south that his friends might not discover the truth ; for 
unless Sir. Nicol is labouring under that terrible malady, which it is only 
humane and charitable towards him to suppose is the fact, he would 
certainly deserve the infliction upon him by the several parties libelled 
in his pamphlet of the legal consequences to which the grossly scurrilous, 
libellous, and defamatory statements therein contained should subject 
him. 

After due consideration, we arrived at the conclusion, — that whether 
Mr. Nicol be mad or not, he has most industriously circulated his 
pamphlet extensively amongst those who are not perhaps so familiar 
with the facts connected with the introduction of the screw propeller, 
and with the important part which Mr. P. P. Smith has by all competent 
men of eminence in the engineering world had assigned to him indis- 
putably in connection therewith, we have felt it a duty to take up the 



subject and deal with the charges which Mr. Nicol (whether sane or 
otherwise) has made against some of the parties more prominently 
mentioned in the pamphlet. 

To expect Mr. P. P. Smith to condescend now to answer the charges 
made against him for that which more than twenty-two years ago any 
inventor who considered himself aggrieved or injured by the granting of 
letters patent to Mr. Smith had the opportunity which is afforded to 
all who chose to avail themselves of it, by opposing the granting or 
sealing of the letters patent ; and, moreover, after Mr. Smith has 
remained in undisturbed possession for so long a time of the merit which 
was awarded, after due investigation by competent authorities, as justly 
belonging to him, we can thoroughly understand that he would be in- 
disposed to take any trouble to disabuse the minds of those who may 
choose to attach any credence to the unfounded pretensions put forth by 
Mr. Nicol on behalf of others, and in detraction from Mr. Smith's just 
and indisputable claim to be considered as the meritorious and first 
introducer and able and persevering and successful advocate for the 
introduction of the screw propeller as an efficient substitute for the 
paddle-wheels in steam- propelled vessels. Without desiring to be thought 
officious, or of seeking the office of champion on behalf of Mr. F. P. 
Smith and others, we have deemed it our duty to put on record so much 
of what we of our own personal knowledge know of the early history of 
the screw propeller as will meet some portion of the allegations contained 
in the pamphlet, and we have further taken steps to obtain written state- 
ments under declarations from the several parties charged by Mr. Nicol, 
and also have searched amongst the records and proceedings of the 
Society of Arts and elsewhere for refutary evidence in support upon points 
with which we are not prepared to make statements from personal 
knowledge. 

It should be premised that Mr. Nicol in the three sections into which 
he has divided his scurrilous effusion, first charges Mr. F. P. Smith 
" with incapacity to invent, and inability to introduce the screw pro- 
pellers ascribed to him;" he then gives what he describes "a narrative of 
the origin, development and primary introduction of a series of screw 
propellers in Irvine, Ayrshire;" and next sets forth "the manner and 
evidence of the extraordinary piracy of these propellers by Andrew 
Smith, Engineer, London, who is believed to have been the real author 
of F. P. Smith's patent." Now, as to the first section, we need only refer 
such of our readers as are not already familiar with the history of the 
introduction of screw propellers, to the excellent works of Mr. John 
Bourne, C.E., and Mr. Bennett Woodcroft; in each of which the subject 
has been so ably and fully treated historically and practically, as to fully 
and fairly put that part of the subject in an indisputable and entirely 
reliable position, and nothing which Mr. Nicol brings forward in his 
pamphlet in anyway disturbs; — the conclusions which he desires to 
arrive at, he altogether fails in supporting; and of this we shall here- 
after afford some conclusive evidence. 

As to the second section, much that is contained therein is irrelevant 
to the real questions involved, and which if entirely true simply 
amounts to this — that Mr. James Steadman, a carpenter and cabinet- 
maker, in Irvine, unacquainted with what had been done by others long 
before the date which Mr. Nicol selects as the period of Steadman's 
experiments with a theoretical screw propeller, conceived the idea that 
a screw might be employed for propelling a vessel through the water; 
and he states that, in 1827, an experiment was made with a three- 
bladed propeller fixed in the stern of a model-boat; and that this was 
effected with the co-operation of a Mr. McCririck and a Mr. Maxwell 
Dick, of Irvine. However, it is by no means made evident or satisfac- 
torily proved that the date of these experiments was as early as 
Mr. Nicol asserts : it is however stated, at page 43, " that the working 
model with which most of the experiments were made, was at an early 
period of the work christened the 'Archimedes' by William Muller, Esq., 
a gentleman unconnected with the invention, and who is still living." 

At pages 44 to 51 an account is given of the first attempt made by 
Mr. Dick (one of the parties associated with Mr. Steadman) to introduce 
the screw propeller to Captain Ross, in the years 1S28 and 1829; and it 
is stated at the end of the latter year, a model with three kinds of screws 
was sent to the Eoyal Scottish Society of Arts, Edinburgh, accompanied 
by a descriptive paper, from which passages are cited, and copies of 
correspondence, dated January, 1830. It is next stated, that after the 
rejection of the model and paper by the Scottish Society of Arts, 
Mr. Dick visited London, and, through the introduction of Mr. Andrew 
Smith, a model of a boat fitted with a screw propeller was submitted to 
the Society of Arts, in the Adelphi, about December, 1830 ; that 
they were submitted to the Mechanical Committee of the Society of 
Arts, and the plan was reported upon unfavourably. 

In the third section, Mr. Andrew Smith, who had introduced Mr. Dick 
and the screw model to the Society of Arts about the middle of De- 
cember, 1830, is stated therein to have invented Ducks'-foot Propellers 
— the patent for which was sealed 22nd January, 1831 ; and several of 
the patent inventions of Mr. Andrew Smith (such as for wire-rope, 
dated 1835, and other inventions equally unconnected with screw pro- 
pulsion), and the charges made against Mr. F. P. Smith and Mr. Andrew 



8 Who Invented the Screw Propeller. — " The Hudson" and " Weser" Iron Steam-ships. 



tTHE ARTIZAlf, 
January 1, 1859. 



Smith are brought forward, quite irrespective of any relation to the 
gravamen of the charge of conspiracy and collusion between Mr. Andrew 
Smith and Mr. F. P. Smith, as will be evident when we cite the solemn 
declarations of each of these parties, that they were and still are, as the 
fact is, personally unacquainted with each other. 

After giving extracts from a number of the Patents for Inventions by 
Mr. Andrew Smith, Mr. Nicol endeavours to prove— but by what process 
of reasoning he does not favour us by stating, but in the most unjusti- 
fiable manner proceeds to charge Mr. Andrew Smith; first, "with inti- 
mate and long participation in the invention patented in the name of 
F. P. Smith, and asserts that he had a substantial interest in its practical 
introduction ; and it is argued that because Mr. Andrew Smith obtained 
a patent for the Ducks'-foot Propeller that therefore he had availed 
himself of the knowledge of the Irvine model, and communicated to Mr. 
P. P. Smith an accurate description of it; and, it is suggested, induced 
him to patent it in the year 1836, — more than five years, be it remem- 
bered, after the model of the Irvine propeller had been exhibited at the 
Society of Arts. 

It is furthermore asserted; first, "that Andrew Smith constructed at 
least one of the models of F. P. Smith, and fitted it with the necessary 
gearing and propeller :" second, " that Andrew Smith was the custodier 
of what seems to have been the exhibition model of F. P. Smith as late 
as the summer of 1841." 

Furthermore, it is attempted to prove, " that Andrew Smith framed, 
or at least had a very important hand in the framing of F. P. Smith's 
novel and comprehensive specification," &c. : "that Andrew Smith, at 
and immediately subsequent to the date of the patent, possessed sufficient 
personal influence to obtain for the invention the co-operation of in- 
fluential men, and particularly of the Lords of the Admiralty; while 
F. P. Smith, on the contrary, seems to have possessed none of the means 
necessary therefore;" and finally, " that Andrew Smith had anticipated a 
substantial interest in the whole screw-propeller invention." 

In support of these grossly fabulous assumptions Mr. Nicol proceeds 
to cite a number of documents, which have about as much relation to, 
and bearing upon, the question as they have upon the cause of the 
failure of the Atlantic Telegraph Cable, or any other subject; and their 
connection with, and the attempts to apply them as evidence in support 
of the charges made against Messrs. F. P. Smith and Andrew Smith are 
so self-evidently illogical, not to say absurd, that no sane man would for 
one moment admit their applicability. But to put beyond a doubt, and 
for the purpose of making apparent the total absence of truth in Mr. 
Nicol's statements respecting the two gentlemen who are so grossly 
assailed, we have in this instance stepped out of our usual course as 
journalists, and applied to Mr. F. P. Smith and Mr. Andrew Smith 
respectively, for answers to a series of questions submitted to them 
relative to the matter. We have, also, sought information elsewhere, 
upon such other points as we thought likely to be elucidatory of truth. 

The following are the replies which Mr. F. P. Smith has forwarded to 
us, under a solemn declaration : 

Declaration of F. P. Smith, in Answer to certain Questions 
put to him. 

1st. — That I was born in 1808, and brought up in the seaport town of 
Hythe, Kent, and not in any inland county, as stated in Mr. James Nicol's 
Pamphlet, page 30. 

2nd. — That I was always addicted to the making and sailing of model 
boats. 

That I preferred, from my earliest years, the study of mechanical subjects to 
other amusements; — that I became, in consequence, aware of the principles and 
power of the screw as applied generally in mechanics ; and, from personal ob- 
servation, its effect in raising water on a large scale during the construction of 
the foundation of a bridge in the Military Canal, at Hythe.* 

3rd. — That I was in the habit of spending much of my leisure time in a wind- 
mill, whilst at a school in Ashford, Kent (the Rev. Alexander Power, pro- 
prietor), and that I there took particular notice of the contrivances for turning 
the mill-cap and sweeps to the wind. ■ 
• That the frequent consideration of these and other circumstances, combined 
in later days with occasional trips in the London steamers, led me to think that if 
a screw of suitable dimensions could be so applied to a vessel as to be totally 
submerged and driven at a considerable velocity, it would, by its peculiar action 
on the water, force the vessel forward or backward according to the direction 
in which the screw was turned. 

4th. — That I constructed, as early as 1822, a model boat with paddle-wheels, 
moved by a roughly-contrived clockwork. 

5th. — That I constructed a second clockwork model on a larger scale, with 
paddles, in 1830, at Hythe. 

6th. — That I used the same experimental model from time to time at Hythe 
and at Hendon (situated about 6 miles from London), till 1834; during which 
year I re-arranged the said,;clockwork t to [suit another boat, which I had 
made and fitted with a screw of 2^ turns, taking as my pattern that portion of 
the Archimedes screw pump, which I had formerly seen at Hythe, placing it in 
the after part or deadwood of the said boat ; the first experiment with this 
particular screw having been made in an oblong box, in the month of May, 
1835, on my horsepond at Hendon. , 

* The instrument I then saw was called the Screw-pump of Archimedes. 
t The springs and other portions of two old roasting jacks. 



7th. — That I continued making experiments at Hendon and other places 
with various modifications of screws, adapted to an improved and larger clock- 
work model (still m existence) till May, 1836 ; when 1 was enabled by the 
pecuniary assistance of John Wright," Esq., banker, of Henrietta Street, 
Covent Garden, and Charles Andrew Caldwell, Esq., to take out a patent in 
my own name, on the condition that those gentlemen should claim jointly 
one-third of the proceeds of my said patent. 

8th. — That I had never seen or read, or heard of any kind of screw being 
applied as a propeller to vessels at the date of my own experiments in 1834 and 
1835, nor at the time of the sealing of my patent in 1836. 

9th. — That the most eminent man of the day, on patents (Benjamin Botch, 
Esq., of Furnival's Inn), was consulted by Messrs. Few & Co., solicitors, Covent 
Garden, as to the novelty and general merits of the invention prior to taking 
out my said patent. That the drawings and specifications of such patent were 
prepared by that gentleman, and to the best of my belief submitted to 
counsel, prior to their being finally deposited at the Patent Office. 

That the disclaimer, memorandum of alteration, or reduction of my claims in 
the patent, were advised and carried into effect by the said Benjamin Rotch, 
in conjunction with Messrs. Few and Co., on behalf of myself, Wright, and 
Caldwell. 

• 10th. — That I had not the slightest knowledge of the existence of any person 
by the name of Andrew Smith, until he was employed by Mr. Henry Wims- 
hurst, contractor for the building and fitting of the Archimedes, to supply 
the wire rigging of that vessel ; and I believe that Andrew Smith was equally 
unknown to each and every one of my friends at the time I have just 
referred to, and is still unknown by them. 

11th. — That Andrew Smith had nothing whatever to do, directly or indirectly, 
with the drawing of or the alteration of the specification of my patent. 

That I never received from Andrew Smith, or through his 'means, nor did I 
from any other person receive the suggestion, either in all or in part, of the 
idea of the application of the Archimedean screw to the propulsion of vessels. 

That Andrew Smith was never employed or requested to make any drawing 
or model for myself or my friends associated in the patent; and that Andrew 
Smith, referred to, was on no occasion or pretence whatsoever entrusted with the 
care or charge of any model or models belonging to myself o. others in any 
way connected with or interested in my patent. 

12th. — That Messrs. George and Sir John Rennie had nothing whatever to 
do with myself], or my patent, or the undertaking in any other way, until 
applied to by me on behalf of the Directors of the Ship-Propeller Company, 
as their manager, to make a set of engines for the Archimedes in the spring- 
of 1838, at which time those gentlemen took ten shares in the Company of 
£100 each. 

13th. — That each and every model of boats' screws or machinery were, up 

' to 1837, arranged and constructed by my own hands, including the first screw 

! of two entire turns, as fitted to the 6 tons boat ; * and that after that time I 

was greatly assisted by my firm friend and adherent, Mr. Thomas Pilgrim, in 

all matters connected with my undertaking. 

14th. — That Andrew Smith was not in any way, directly or indirectly, con- 
nected with or interested in the Ship-Propel'er Company, beyond the supplying 
of certain wire rigging to Wimshurst's order, as before stated. 

I further, and lastly, declare that I had never seen, read or heard of any 
experiments on the propulsion of vessels being made at Irvine or elsewhere 
by Steadman, McCririck, Dick, or others, until I read of tiiem in certain 
Scotch papers which were sent to me by a friend in London in the months of 
June or July last. 

I desire, also, to state that no alteration, experiment or trial whatever of the 
6 tons experimental boat were made, except in my presence and under my own 
personal superintendence. 

That no alteration, experiment, trial or voyage whatever of the Archimedes 
was made by, or on behalf of, the Ship - Propeller Company, except in my 
presence and under my own personal superintendence. 

That from the formation of the Ship - Propeller Company I invariably 
fulfilled the office of its acting manager, aud that I at no time retained a less 
amount of interest in its affairs than one-fifth in the shape of shares and 
anticipated proceeds. 

That I was almost constantly employed between the years 1840 and 1851 by 
the Government in the superintendence of the construction and fitting of 
screws to Her Majesty's ships, in addition to a large number of ships of various 
classes in the Merchant Service. That Her Majesty's warrant for my pension 
on the Civil List states—" Whereas we are graciously pleased to grant and 
allow to Mr. Francis Pettit Smith a yearly pension of two hundred pounds, in 
consideration of his great, and for a long period gratuitous exertions 
connected with the introduction of the screw propeller into our naval service." 

Guernsey, Nov. 22nd, 1858. Francis Pettit Smith. 

[We regret that we are obliged to postpone the completion of the 
notice of this subject until our next.] 



THE « HUDSON " AND THE " WESER " IRON STEAM SHIPS 
In our "Notes and Novelties" for December, an error occurs in describing 

the Hudson steam-ship, burnt at Bremen-haven, as an American-built ship. 
The Hudson was built by Messrs. Palmer, Brothers & Co., with engines and 

machinery by Messrs. J. B. Palmer & Co., of Jarrow-on-Tyne ; she was 

delivered in August last, and had made one very successful voyage to New 

York and back, and was about to proceed on a second voyage, when the fire 

occurred. 
A sister ship, the Weser, of exactly the same dimensions, lines, and power, 

was built and engined by the same firms, and was delivered on the 8th of 

* This screw, which measured 2 ft. diameter and 4 ft. in length, was cut out of a solid 
piece of elm timber grown on my farm at Hendon. 



The Artizan, "I 
January 1, 1859.J 



Steam-Ship " Cleopatra." — How Money is Made. 



November last. The following are some of the principal dimensions and parti- 
culars of the Weser: 

m. 

Length over all 345 

Length between poops 318 

Breadth 40 

Extreme depth 34 

First saloon, 70 berths; second saloon, 105; emigrants, 397. 
Engines — two cylinders 90 in. diameter, 3 ft. in. stroke ; tubular boilers, 
working pressure, 25 lbs. per square inch 

On the official trial-trip, of 40 nautical miles, this vessel averaged 13^ knots, 
and the certificate given by the owners' agents and engineers was, that the 
vessel had for a run of 40 miles averaged 13^ knots per hour, at the consumption 
of coal of 3,689 lbs. per hour. The bunker-doors were shut, and watched by 
agents of the Company, and all the coals consumed on the three hours' run were 
weighed and lowered from the upper deck to the stoke-hole. The vessel was 
partly laden, having 1,500 tons of coal and iron on board, drew 18 ft. 6 in. water, 
with a displacement of 3,427 tons. 

The following are the accurate details of the trial-trip measured runs just 
referred to : 

The run was made from the mouth of the Tyne to Coquet Island, against the 
tide which flows along the coast to the south at flood, and back from Coquet to 
the Tyne with the tide ; in turning the vessel the engines were kept at full 
speed, so as to test accurately the consumption of fuel. The total time was 
3 hours 10 minutes, at full speed . The distance from the Tyne to Coquet was 
measured 19J knots. The tide was flowing south, and the vessel ran north 
against and back with, and arrived at the mouth of the Tyne about half an hour 
before high-water, so that, if anything, the tide was more against than with 
the ship. 

The vessel was on an even keel, 18 ft. 6 in., and the greatest immersed mid. 
sec. was 606 sq. ft. The engines are of the direct-acting inverted kind ; the 
cylinders are merely covered with many thicknesses of felt, and secured with 
mahogany. The steam-pipes and boilers are likewise coated ; the feed-water 
is taken from hot-wells of air-pumps ; the steam was, on the trial-trip, 
25 lbs., always cut off 8 in. or £. The connecting-rods are five times the 
length of the crank ; condensers, extra large; vacuum steady at 28 in. There 
were four boilers, each with six furnaces. The total area of fire-grate was 
330 sq. ft. The tubes were 3| in. outside diameter, 7 ft. long. Total heating- 
surface of boilers, 11,500 ft. The consumption of coal was nearly perfect and 
free from smoke. 

It may be worthy of note, that these vessels were contracted for under stipu- 
lations of speed and economy of fuel of no ordinary kind. No official trial-trip 
of the Hudson took place similar to that of the Weser, now described, owing 
to unfavourable weather. The Company agree that the trial-trip of the 
Weser was to be binding on both vessels. 

It is needless for us to mention that in these very stringent contracts every 
point was watched by the Company's agents to get at the true result, and 
they have certified those now proved. 

We consider the above trial to be highly interesting, and certainly most 
satisfactory to all parties concerned. 



STEAM-SHIP " CLEOPATRA." 

This vessel is the property of the Prince II Hamy, Pasha of Egypt 
and Constantinople. She is one of a fleet of steam-ships belonging to 
one of the most enlightened and enterprising among the young Turkish 
princes. The vessel is remarkable for its form, its structure, and its 
machinery, as well as for its destination. 

II Hamy Pasha is the son of the late Viceroy of Egypt. He it was 
who landed in this country for a few hours, only to hear of his father's 
death, and to return to Egypt, where he possesses extensive private 
property and large landed estates, on which he encourages the culture of 
sugar, cotton, and corn, and by an enlightened system of management 
obtains a princely revenue. No man is more beloved by his people, 
or takes a deeper interest in their welfare than II Hamy Pasha. 

It will readily be understood from this description that the Sultan in 
selecting from among the youth of his empire the most eligible matches 
for his daughters, should have fixed on His Highness for one of his sons-in- 
law, and in the beginning of last year his nuptials were celebrated with 
great pomp by the Sultan at Constantinople. 

It will thus be seen that His Highness is one of those Turkish princes 
who still retain the dignified position of living on their own independent 
revenues, without burdening the finances of the State. But he does 
more than this ; he has become the owner of large steam vessels, which 
he employs in the commerce of Constantinople, and which have been 
conducting a large and profitable trade. 

The Cleopatra is, we believe, the third steam vessel which has been 
constructed for His Highness by Mr. Scott Eussell. She is a passenger 
vessel, intended to run between Constantinople and Alexandria, for the 
purpose, it is understood, of keeping up the communication of His 
Highness with his properties in Egypt, and which he frequently wishes 
to be able to visit in person. 

The Cleopatra is 440 tons, and has paddle-wheel engines of 150 horses- 
power. Even with this moderate proportion of power to tonnage she 
has a speed of about 17 miles an hour, being the greatest speed hitherto 
obtained by any vessel of her class. 



The peculiar shape of the ship is that known as the wave form con- 
structed on the principles of Mr. Scott Eussell, the builder of the vessel. 
Her structure is that called the longitudinal system, which adds great 
strength to a vessel in the longitudinal direction where she is most 
subject to strain. This system has been introduced by the builder in 
many previous vessels which have now stood the test of years, and 
among others iq the Great Eastern, where it is carried out to the greatest 
extent. The advantage of this structure is shown in the Cleopatra by 
the fact, that, although driven by powerful engines at great speed, the 
vessel seems hardly to feel the strain of the engine. 

The engine of the Cleopatra is of an entirely new construction, known 
as Mr. Scott Eussell's patent three-cylinder engine. It has been long 
known that three cylinders would give the most uniform and effective 
development of the power of steam : but the complexity that would 
result from the employment of three several engines, with all their crank 
shafts and appendages, has hitherto prevented their general adoption. 
In this case all complexity has been removed, and three cylinders are 
applied through a single crank, so as to occupy smaller space, and have 
fewer working parts than usually go to form the ordinary pair of 
engines. 

The practical result is, that the uniformity of the action is manifest. 
The rapidity of the strokes is unusual; the steam is worked with great 
economy of fuel, and the ship attains high velocity with small consump- 
tion of coal. 

The small engine, of 150 horses nominal power, works up to 900 horses 
actual power, and with a consumption of less than 2J lbs. of fuel per 
horse power; and the absence of the usual vibration is remarkable, 
considering especially that the hull of the vessel is unusually light, so as 
to have a small draft of water. Although the vessel is a strong sea-going 
ship, and contains engines developing so large a power, the draft of the 
ship, when ready for sea, is not more than 5 ft. 4 in. 

The ship is commanded by Captain Johnston, an Englishman, of great 
experience as a sailor, who has superintended her equipment, and takes 
her to Constantinople. The cabins are beautifully fitted, and are deco- 
rated and furnished with the well-known taste of Mr. Crace, of Wigmore 
Street. 

His Highness may be congratulated on having added to his fleet the 
fastest and handsomest vessel of her class. 

At some future time we propose to give the practical details of the 
ship, and her engines, boilers, and machinery. 



HOW MONEY IS MADE. 

We have been asked by more than one correspondent to furnish them 
with a brief description of the process of making money practised in 
the British Mint, and in complying with this request we propose to give 
but a sketch thereof, and refer such of our readers as desire further 
information to " Ure's Dictionary of Arts, &c." 

There appears to exist a considerable amount of misconception as to the 
manner in which money is made— not in the Barnum sense, but literally. 
Many persons imagine, for instance, that coins are, as it were, soldered 
together in two halves, and that the head is struck at one press, and the 
tail at another ; but this is quite a mistake, the impressions being given 
to a plain disc of metal, or "blank," and the edge "milling" at a single 
blow. Ingots of gold or silver are first thrown into melting-pots and 
reduced to fluidity. After this they are cast into bars of various sizes, 
proportionate to the kind of coins to be produced from them. These bars 
are next passed forward to rolling-mills of great power (we speak here 
of the English Mint), and laminated, or drawn out by pressure to a state 
of attenuity marvellously different to the rigid form in which they left 
the moulds. The bars, in fact, are now converted into ribands, flexible as 
the wand of Harlequin ; and these, being beautifully adjusted in thickness 
for the pieces to be obtained from them, are passed to a set of punching- 
presses, where they are perforated — honey-combed — from end to end. The 
discs of metal thus obtained are blank sovereigns, very much resembling 
shankless brass buttons ; or blank sixpences, as it may happen to be 
sovereign or sixpenny " ribands " which are being dealt with ; and are 
then carried forward to the weighing machines. These select the sheep 
from the goats — the light and heavy from the medium, or standard, 
blanks. The accepted candidates for coinage are now taken to the 
marking-room, whilst the rejected are doomed to the purgatory of the 
crucible again. The marking machines raise partially the protecting , 
edges of the future coins, which are then again submitted to a fiery 
ordeal in the shape of an annealing oven. This operation softens and 
tempers them. They are made — as young ladies are said to be — sus- 
ceptible to impressions, and are then pickled, or blanched, in a weak 
solution of sulphuric acid. This gives them a bright surface, and 
removes all impurities. Drying is the next process, and this is per- 
formed over a hot iron plate — a la muffin and crumpet. The blanks are 
now ready to receive the " image and superscription " of the Queen — 
God bless her ! This finishing touch j is given in the press-room. The 



10 



British Association. — Institution of Civil Engineers. 



r The Artizan, 
LJanuary 1, 1859. 



pieces are now weighed out to a number of boys, who attend and feed 
the presses with them. On one side of the presses blanks are put into 
tubes, and on the other they are thrown out coins. They get, however, 
a mighty hard squeeze in the " middle passage," between two beauti- 
fully-engraved head and reverse dies, and are at the same time pre- 
vented expanding unduly by means of a collar of steel, fluted or milled 
on its inner circumference, which encompasses each individual piece at 
the moment the dies strike it. The outer circumference of the piece of 
gold or silver becomes thus serrated, or milled, at the instant of coinage. 
The finished sovereigns or sixpences, or whatsoever coins may be in 
process of manipulation, now tumble out from the presses in rapid and 
glistening succession, and slide down inclined planes into trays placed 
to catch them. They are examined on the surfaces and edges to ascer- 
tain if they are perfect, and then sent out into the " wide, wide world " 
to do their missions of good or evil, as the good or evil dispositions of 
their possessors may determine. 

Such is a hasty and very familiar description of money-making ; and 
if any of our young friends, for whom it is intended, do not feel quite 
satisfied with it, but wish to judge of the art for themselves, why, there 
is little doubt that Professor Graham, F.K.S., who is Master of the Mint 
(and a most worthy master too), would, in answer to a polite application 
made at this holiday season, give them permission to view the establish- 
ment on Tower-hill, and see some money made. This latter statement 
we venture upon without authority, be it known, but with much confi- 
dence, nevertheless. At any rate, we trust that none of our friends — 
young or old — may, in the New Year, or any year succeeding it, be 
destitute of specimens — yellow as well as white — of Mint workmanship 
— current coins of the realm. 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION.— LEEDS MEETING, 1858. 



DOUBLE CYLINDER EXPANSION MARINE ENGINES. 

At the meeting of the British Association, at Leeds, the following- was 
Mr. Elder's introduction to bis description of drawings of double cylinder 
•expansion engines, constructed by Messrs. Randolph, Elder, and Co., engineers, 
Glasgow : — 

Before describing the plans of the double cylinder expansion marine 
engines, I may mention that these engines are constructed with the view of 
getting- the greatest amount of power from a given quantity of steam at a 
given pressure, with less total weight of engines, boilers, and water, and 
occupying less total space than that occupied by the ordinary class of steam 
engines on board of steam ships ; and, consequently, these engines are expected 
to have the following properties, if the above objects are successfully obtained, 
it being understood that the boilers have the usual efficiency : — 1. That with 
these engines a steam-ship can steam the greatest distance possible with a given 
quantity of coals. 2. That a given distance can be performed in the shortest 
time, on account of the small weight of coals necessary to be carried. 3. That 
the greatest amount of cargo and passenger accommodation is obtained, from 
the small room occupied by the boilers and coals. 4. That where a given capa- 
city of cargo and passenger accommodation is required, a smaller and, conse- 
quently, less expensive ship is necessary. 5. The boilers being less than the 
usual proportion, are less expensive to replace when required. 6. The number 
of firemen and stokers is reduced, and, consequently, the space occupied by 
them can be otherwise engaged, and their wages saved To accomplish these 
objects, the construction of these engines have followed the course we now 
describe. The cylinder capacity is so great as to admit of the steam being; 
expanded to within two pounds of the pressure in the condenser, at the end of 
the stroke, while the engines are working full power. In order to reduce the 
violent shock of high-pressure steam on such a large piston, a cylinder with a 
piston one-third the size is placed close to it. This small cylinder receives the 
steam direct from the boiler during one-third of its stroke, and then cut off; 
this steam is consequently reduced to one-third of its original pressure at the 
end of its stroke, and then enters the second cylinder, where it is expanded 
three times more, — thus 36 lbs. steam is expanded to 4 lbs., viz., from 36 to 
12 in the first. It then enters the second at 12, and is expanded to 4 lbs. ; but 
as the second piston is three times the size of the first, the load will be the 
same on both pistons, and the piston-rods, cross-heads, and connection-rods 
may be duplicates of each other. The steam and eduction slide-valves are 
wrought with eccentrics. The steam valve is a gridiron with large lap ; the 
eduction-valve, which serves for both cylinders, has no lap, and the eduction- 
ports remain open during the entire stroke of the piston, thereby giving a free 
egress for the steam, and ample escape for water should it form. In reversing 
the engines, the eccentrics are made to overrun the -shaft till they arrive at the 
backing catch — a plan which is less likely to cause accident than the ordinary 
methods. The cylinders are steam-jacketed completely, and then covered with 
felt and wood. There is a small engine pump for forcing the distilled freshwater 
from the jackets into the boilers, or to the fresh water tanks if necessary. The 
boilers we are now making for such engines are tubular, with three large 
superheating uptakes, 2 ft. diameter and 15 ft. high, leading up through an 
oval steam-chest to the funnel ; this makes a strong form of takeup, where 
it joins the tube-plate, especially in boilers firing across the ship. The feed- 
pipe of the boilers has twelve spiral convolutions inside the funnel, to heat the 
feed water— this may be shut off when desirable. Then, again, as. to the 
economy : several may certify- that this kind of engine has been thoroughly 
tested and found successful. The first was of 160 H.P. ; has been working 
for four years with a consumption of about two-thirds the usual quantity of 
coal, and the expense of repairs during the first eighteen months was somewhat 



under £100. — The second and third pairs of such engines were supplied to 
the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, for carrying Her Majesty's mails from 
Panama to Valparaiso. That company appointed, along with the engineer, 
neutral parties to test and report on the performance of the larger vessel, Val- 
paraiso, compared with another steamer, the Pride of Erin, the two steamers 
having the same kind of flue boilers, and the machinery of the Pride of Erin 
being of the first class of the ordinary kind, and in first-rate order. These 
parties, one of whom, Mr. M'Naught, of Manchester, certified that during 
the run from Glasgow to Liverpool the consumption was 2 - 98 lbs. per indicated 
H.P. per hour for the Valparaiso, while the Pride of Erin, during a five 
and a half hours' run, consumed 4-27 lbs. per H.P. per hour; in both cases 
the surface blows were open, and other circumstances duly considered ; and 
the following is an extract from a report of Mr. Daniel Kinear Clark, C.E., 
on the same trial, in which he concludes : — " In brief, while the engines of the 
Pride of Erin exert only 4-25 indicated H.P. per square foot of fire grate, 
the engines of the Valparaiso exert 6 - 22, or nearly one-half more actual duty 
from the same fire, owing to the superior efficiency of the engines of the 
Valparaiso. If the Pride of Erin were to be fitted with engines of the 
same class as those of the Valparaiso, her indicated power would be 1,340, 
instead of 917, with the same boilers. It is determined, therefore, that the 
engines of the Valparaiso consume about a third less coal to do the same 
work, or will do a half more woric with the same coals as ordinary engines." 
I may also mention that the Valparaiso has been found to maintain her 
character on the west coast of South America. She has been there now two 
years. She consumes on the voyage from Panama to Valparaiso and back 
640 tons, while the other ships consume 1,150, carrying the same cargo, 
passengers, &c, in the same time and in the same circumstances. And, as 
further evidence, I may mention that they are bringing home, 9,000 miles, two 
steam-ships, with first-class ordinary machinery, of modem construction, to 
have that machinery replaced with engines the same as the Valparaiso, but 
with such improvements as the engineers may be pleased to give. These 
improvements will be — the partial superheated steam, the hot feed, and the 
complete steam-jackets, which in the Valparaiso were only in the bottom of 
the laree cylinders, and all the cylinder covers which are hollow. I may also 
add that this company have now about ready for trial another new steam-ship, 
of the same model, same engines— with the improvements referred to— as 
the Valparaiso; and if any member of this Association could be present at 
the trial trip, the contractors would be happy to see them, in order that 
they might examine for themselves. I may also add that the ships above 
referred to as coming home to be refitted will return with 30 ft. length of 
space gained amidships for passengers and cargo, in consequence of the saving 
of room by reducing the necessity of boiler and coal space, and that the vessels 
are expected to consume 500 tons less on the voyage, which, at £4 per ton, is 
£2,000 ; and the ship will have 20 per cent, more accommodation, which in 
itself should be valuable. For further evidence I could refer to any other of the 
ships, among them to the steam-ship Admiral, lately constructed by James 
Napier, Esq., for a Russian company. This ship was tested by Professor 
Rankine, and found to consume exactly the same as the Valparaiso, namely, 
2-98 lbs. per indicated H.P. per hour. Since the arrival of that ship at her 
destination there have been repeated letters received, showing a remarkably 
small consumption of coal compared with the work done. The last accounts 
were, that she had 450 tons dead weight on board, going about 11J knots, 
with a consumption of 19J cwt. per hour. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 
November 23, 1858. 
Joseph Locke, Esq., M.P., President, in tbe Chair. 

The Paper read was On the Successful Working, by Locomotive 
Power, over Gradients of 1 in 17, and Curves of 300 feet radius, 
on Inclines in America, by Mr. T.S.Isaac. 

It was stated, that the road which had decidedly taken the lead m the 
United States, in the application of Locomotive Power to steep gradients, and 
had been generally the pioneer of improvements, was that extending from 
Baltimore, on the Chesapeake Bay, to Wheeling on the Ohio River, a distance 
of 380 miles, through a region of considerable difficulties, especially in the 
various ranges of the Alleghany Mountains. This Company was incorporated 
in 1827, being the first chartered in America, and a portion of the road was 
opened in May, 1830. At first it was worked by horses, but locomotives were 
employed as early as August, 1830, prior to the opening of the Liverpool and 
Manchester Railway. Leg-illative and financial difficulties prevented the com- 
mencement of the western section until the year 1849, and it was not untd 1851 
Z Three years previous to the opening of the Sbmmenng incline, that the great 
incline over the main range of the Alleghanies was completed, and worked by 

ocomotives. This latter" had an inclination of 1 in 4oJ for 11 continuous 
milerand after winding amongst the summits of the mountains for 20 

n es it descended, on the western side, with an inclination of 1 id 45 j for 
"continuous miles. The passage of this mountain chain involved altogether 
60 Ssof Railway, 20 rnilesV wnich had a gradient of I '"H^JJJ 
in 50 both worked by locomotive power, at a speed of from 15 to m miles per 
hour foi passenger teams, and from 10 to 15 miles per hour for goods trains. 
The curves were frequency 600 ft. radius. Although it was one of the main 
teSf American "commerce, no extra provision was made for working 
these mclines, beyond increasing the number oi the engmes. The engines had 
8 XelTall coupled, the diameter of the cylinders being 17 in., the length of 
tte stroke 2 ft, and the diameter of the wheels ^ ft. The engines weighed 24 
tons each, and the tenders 13 tons each. .«*n„i,. - ptl 

In 1852, difficulties were encountered at two different tunnels, which len- 
dered temporary inclines necessary, in order to accomplish the passage of the 
trains Th?s syltem was frequently adopted, when it was required to surmount 



The AktizAn, T 
January 1, 1859. J 



Steep Inclines and Sharp Curves on American Railways. 



11 



kills, where the tunnels were incomplete, in order to enable the iron and other 
materials for the permanent way to be delivered along- the line. There was a 
maximum gradient, over the King-wood tunnel, of 1 in 10, and this incline was 
in operation for several months, the iron and other materials for upwards of 40 
miles of line, and the United States Mails, having been conveyed over it, by 
locomotive power. The same engine tbat was used on the other parts of the 
line was employed, and it drew a loaded car weighing 13 tons, and a tender 
weighing 12 tons, or a total weight of 25 tons, at the speed of 8 to 10 miles per 
hour. Over the Board Tree tunnel there was a series of zigzag inclines, on 
which the upward motion of the train was alternately reversed, the engine at 
one time pulling, and at another pushing, the cars. There were three of these 
inclines on the eastern, and five on the western slope of the Mil. The total 
length was nearly two miles and one-third, and the gradients varied from 1 in 
18 to 1 in loi, with a minimum radius of curvature of 300 ft. The ordinary 
freight consisted of two loaded cars, weighing, together with the tender, 37 
tons. Mr. Latrobe, the chief engineer of the line, said in his report for 1853, 
that as many as fifty cars, containing 400 tons, and two passenger trains, had 
been taken over this hill in a day by four first class locomotives, and that 
during five months there had been no accident involving more than a trifling 
detention. These two inclines, although unprovided with engines especially 
adapted for the purpose, fully demonstrated the feasibility of traversing 
gradients, altogether unprecedented, by the locomotive alone. The experience 
gained in working them not only established the fact that a rise of 300 ft. per 
mile, and curves of 300 ft. radius, could be worked with comparative facility, 
but seemed to point also to a limiting gradient, beyond which it was 
impossible for the locomotive to go, with any useful effect, even for a temporary 
purpose. 

Steep gradients and sharp curves had since been adopted on the Virginia 
Central railroad, on a more extended scale, and had been in successful operation 
for upwards of four years. The Mountain Top incline on this road crossed the 
Blue Ridge Mountains, at Rock Fish Gap, in Virginia. It was 4 miles and one- 
third long, with a ruling gradient of 1 in 18-87. But on the lower half mile of 
the eastern slope, the gradient was 1 in 17-86, on curves of 570 ft. radius and 
upwards, and the minimum gradient, on curves of 300 ft. radius, was 1 in 
22-22. The length of the eastern slope was 2-37 miles, with an average gradient 
of 1 in 20^; and of the western slope 1-89 mile, with an average gradient of 
1 in 22-22. The whole distance worked by the mountain engines was 8 miles, 
over which the average gradient was 1 in 29i. The engines were mounted on 
six wheels, all coupled, and set close, the outer wheels being only 9 ft. 4 in. 
apart from centre to centre. The diameter of the cylinders was 16§ in., the 
length of the stroke was 20 in., and the diameter of the driving wheels was 
8i ft. A tank was provided over the boiler, capable of holding 100 cubic ft. of 
water, and above this there was placed 100 cubic ft. of fuel ; an additional 
quantity being stored under the foot-board, which was lengthened for the pur- 
pose. When supplied with wood and water sufficient for a trip of 8 miles, 
each engine weighed about 24J tons. The usual weight of a mountain train 
was 45j tons, the speed being limited, by regulation, to a maximum of 8 miles 
per hour. The consumption of fuel was three-quarters of a cord of wood west- 
ward, and half a cord eastward. Greater loads had been conveyed, but those 
given were the results of ordinary working. For accomplishing the descent, all 
the cars were provided with a break to each wheel, of sufficient strength to 
lock the wheel, if necessary, and a breaksman was stationed at each end of the 
car. The breaks of two cars were found sufficient in ordinary weather ; but 
when the ground was covered with snow, or ice, recourse was had to the air 
cocks of the engines, and sand was applied to the breaks. The author con- 
sidered that a judicious combination of these two methods was preferable to the 
exclusive use of either. There was nothing in the motion of the train itself, 
except a diminution of the speed, to indicate that such steep gradients or sharp 
curves were being traversed. It had now been in operation for upwards of four 
years, without a single accident. 

The author believed that the resistance of the curves had been underrated in 
America. On the Mountain Top incline it was proved that the resistance of 
the curve exceeded 25J lbs. per ton of engine and train. Mr. Latrobe had cal- 
culated that the resistance to traction, on a level, was doubled by a curve of 
400 ft. radius, and he assumed 13 lbs. per ton as the additional friction of a 
train, on a curve of 300 ft. radius, whence the additional friction of the engine 
due to such a curve must have exceeded 49 lbs. per ton of its own weight. Two 
expedients had been resorted to for diminishing this friction. On the Baltimore 
and Ohio incline, for a speed of 10 miles per hour, the outer rail had been 
gradually raised, on a curve of 300 ft. radius, from 2 in., the height given by 
the ordinary formula, to 9 in. On the Mountain Top track inclines, for a speed 
of 8 miles per hour, the outer rail had an elevation of 6| in.; and a sponge, 
saturated with oil, was kept in contact with the flanges of the two forward 
wheels of each engine. These expedients had so for reduced the friction on the 
latter road, as to cause no perceptible diminution of speed on leaving a straight 
portion of the track, with a gradient of 296 ft. per mile, and entering a curve 
of a radius of 300 ft. having a gradient of 238 ft. per mile. 

The Virginia Central Company had also constructed a shorter incline, about 
100 miles further west, which was lj miles in length, with gradiants varying 
from 250 ft. to 300 ft. per mile, and curves of a minimum radius of 400 ft. 
Over this incline, which had been in successful operation for two years, the 
common freight engines, on eight wheels, four of which were coupled, giving 
16 tons for adhesion, had taken a load of 36 tons, at a speed of 5 miles per 
hour. 

The ordinary performances of the engines on the Mountain Top Track showed 
an exertion of 181 J H.P., including the 'engine in the load, or 118 H.P. not 
including the engine; giving, in the latter case, 4 - 8 H.P. per ton of motor, the 
resistance due to the speed and the gradient being- 121-64 pounds per ton. 

On one or two occasions, on the incline of 1 in 10, on the Baltimore and Ohio 
line, the weight of the engine being four and three-quarter times the resistance 
of gravity and the friction of the load, when the rails were very greasy, the 



engine and train slid backwards with locked wheels, from near the top to the 
bottom of this incline, without damage. The wheels of these engines had 
chilled tyres ; a circumstance which considerably decreased their adhesion. The 
engines on the Mountain Top Track, with an ordinary train, exercised an adhe- 
sive power of one-sixth of their weight, and this could always be maintained, 
in the severest weather, by the use of a fine clean sand. 

In conclusion the author remarked that, there were probably few mountain 
passes that could not be overcome by the introduction of gradients of 1 in 17, 
and experience had satisfactorily proved, that the locomotive could draw a load 
nearly double its own weight up such a gradient, at a speed of 8 miles per hour. 
The working of the Mountain Top Track furnished addditional evidence to that 
already gained from other sources, of the superiority of light engines with light 
loads, over heavy engines with heavy loads. 

HALL'S APPARATUS FOR WORKING RAILWAY BREAKS. 
After the meeting a model was exhibited of an apparatus, by which railway 
carriages were coupled together, so as to render the action of the breaks con- 
tinuous throughout the train, and thus render it possible to apply three or four 
breaks simultaneously. A longitudinal square bar was suspended under each 
carriage, the connection being made by a universal joint coupling. In making 
up a train, the break blocks of tbe break vans were screwed up close to the 
rims of the wheels, and then the coupling was effected, so as to avoid the possi- 
bility of slack. The break blocks were so arranged on the carriages that two 
operated in each direction, so that the carnages might be moved either back- 
wards or forwards, indiscriminately ; but this was not the case with those attached 
to the tenders and the break van. The mode of applying the power was similar 
to that ordinarily in use. There was a worm-wheel on the spindle of the 
handle from the van, working into a cog-wheel, fast on the longitudinal shaft. 
On this shaft there was also a screw working in a loose collar, to which was 
attached the ends of one pair of levers, operating the arm of a lever, on a fixed 
shaft, also carrying tbe levers to which the blocks were attached. 

November 30th, 1858. 
George P. Bidder, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The whole of the evening was occupied by the discussion of Mr. Isaac's 
Paper On Steep Inclines in America. 

It was explained that on the Baltimore and Ohio Railway, the ordinary 
goods engines had cylinders of 19 in. diameter, with a stroke of 22 in. ; they 
had 8 driving wheels, of 3 ft. 7 in. diameter, all coupled. The passenger engines 
principally employed on the inclines of 1 in 45J, had cylinders of 19 in. dia- 
meter, and 22 in. stroke, with 6 driving wheels, 4 ft. 2 in. diameter, all coupled, 
and a leading truck, or bogie, on 4 wheels. Peculiar arrangements were made 
for facilitating the passage over curves of small radius ; the centres of the front 
and hind wheels were only 11 ft. 3 in. apart, and the intermediate wheels 
were without any flanches, the springs being so adjusted as to equalise the 
weight. 

It was stated, that the adhesion of driving-wheels had been shown, from 
experience in the United States, to be beyond the limits usually assigned. 
Instances were known, where- the effective adhesion had been as much as two- 
fifths of the nominal weight on the driving- wheels ; it being assumed that tMs 
varied much when running, as compared with the actual weight ascertained 
by the weigMng macMne when at rest. 

On the Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railway, on the 1st August, 1857, a train 
of fifty loaded waggons, each on eight wheels, and weighing, with the engine 
and tender, 800 tons, was drawn up a continuous incline, 2 miles in length of 
1 in 132. The engine weighed 26-8 tons, with only 19-2 tons on the six 
coupled wheels. The gravity of the entire train would be 13,575 lbs., whilst 
the friction, which could not average less than 5 lbs. per ton, would increase 
the amount to 17,575 lbs., or to more than two-fifths of the weight upon the 
driving-wheels. 

In making a series of trials for the New York and Erie Railway, Mr. Zerah 
Colburn drove a train of 80 waggons, each on eight wheels, weighing, with the 
engine and tender, 1,270 tons, up a continuous incline of 1 in 480, with curves 
of 1,145 ft. radius. The gravity being 6,000 lbs., and the other resistances 
8,300 lbs., the entire resistance was 14,300 lbs. The weight on the driving- 
wheels of the engine, at rest, was 40,500 lbs. ; hence the adhesion was 0-35 of 
the insistent weight. 

An engine, when on a severe incline, changed its position so much as to alter 
materially its running position, wMch should be provided for in building- 
engines expressly for working inclines. 

It was stated that, at the time of construction of the Mountain Top Incline, 
it was found necessary to place a tank on the eastern slope, on a gradient of 
1 in 18-87. During the first two or three summers, the ascending trains were 
in the habit of stopping daily, and the engines were able to start again without 
difficulty. There was one engine on the mountain on eight wheels, all 
coupled; the cylinders were 18 in. in diameter with a length of stroke of 
22 inches; the wheels were 3i ft. in diameter, and the gross weight of the 
engine was 27 tons. This engine had crossed the mountain six times in one 
day, with a load of 49 tons each time ; making the trip in one hour from 
Turntable to Greenwood, and in one hour and a quarter from Greenwood to 
Turntable ; although it was very rigid and was not adapted to the curves. 
One of the lighter engines had taken a load from Turntable to Greenwood in 
half an hour. Mr. Ellet had published a statement of the cost of working, 
based on the fuel and oil consumed, and the wages of the workmen. Fuel 
on the mountain cost two dollars per cord. It was difficult to make a just 
comparison of the various fuels, and to obtain correct information as to the 
water evaporated. The same cause that prevented the experiments on the 
resistance of curves, prevented comparative experiments on fuels, and accurate 
statements of the water evaporated. At first pine was used, but oak had been 
extensively adopted latterly. The effective pressure of the steam, above that 
of the atmosphere, usually amounted to from 100 lbs. to 120 lbs. 



12 



Steep Inclines and Sharp Curves on American Railways. 



tTHE AllTIZAN, 
January 1, 1859. 



It was remarked, that whereas, on most English railways, the results of 
experience showed a resistance of 12 lbs. per ton gross on a level, yet some of 
the statements which had been made, as to the working of railways in the 
United States, seemed to indicate a resistance of not more than 5 lbs. per ton 
gross, after allowing for gravitation on the incline ; whilst the permanent way 
of American lines was notoriously inferior in all respects to that of the English 
lines. The first of the results named in the Paper showed a traction resistance 
of about 150 lbs. per ton gross. In contrast with this, it was stated, that on 
the Great North of Scotland Railway, near Aberdeen, the Kitty Brewster 
Incline of 1 in 59, and full of quick curves, had been worked, for the last 
three years, by two tank locomotives, having cylinders 15 in. diameter, with a 
length of stroke of 24 in., and four wheels coupled, each 4£ ft. diameter, at a 
steam pressure of 150 lbs. ; the load on the driving wheels being 15 tons, on the 
leading wheels 10 tons, and the gross weight, in working order, 25 tons. The 
trains were started from the foot of the incline. One of these engines could 
take up nineteen waggons, weighing, when loaded, about 11 tons each — 
making a total gross weight of train, behind the engine, of 200 tons — at 10 
miles per hour. The greatest load that had been taken was twenty-one 
waggons, of a gross weight of 230 tons, at 5 miles per hour. The average 
ordinary train taken up the incline consisted of eighteen waggons, each 
weighing 8 to 11 tons gross ; the total weight being, say, 100 tons gross, at 
10 miles per hour ; but excursion trains of loaded carriages, weighing, when 
empty, 5| tons each, and 7£ tons when loaded, making a gross load of, say 
200 tons, had also been taken up. The resistance of the train, indicated on 
the piston, after allowing for gravitation on the incline, amounted to 13 lbs. 
per ton gross, of engine, tender, and trains, which contrasted favourably with 
the estimated traction resistance of 150 lbs. per ton gross, on the American 
incline. 

With reference to the influence of curves upon resistance, it had been found 
that, at a speed of 45 miles per hour, the traction resistance was greater, by 20 
per cent., on a line having curves under one mile radius, at the rate of one 
curve in 2J miles, than on a practically straight line. 

It was remarked, that the Whitstable branch of the South Eastern Railway, 
on which there was a gradient of 1 in 30, had originally been worked by sta- 
tionary engines and rope traction ; but as the traffic was intermittent, it had been 
determined, some years ago, to substitute locomotive power, and this applica- 
tion had been quite successful. Bury's four-wheel coupled engines, having 
cylinders 14 in. in diameter, with a length of stroke of 24 in., the wheels 
being 4 ft. C in. in diameter, were still in use on this branch. Four trucks of 
coal were taken up the incline of 1 in 30, the gross weight, including the 
engine and tender, being about 50 tons. 

On the Folkestone Branch of the same line, which had an inclination of 
1 in 30, for upwards of three-quarters of a mile, four-wheel tank engines, con- 
structed on Mr. Crampton's plan, were employed. The four wheels of 4-J- ft. 
diameter were all coupled; the cylinders were 16 in. diameter, with a length 
of stroke of 24 in. ; the weight of the engine was 20j tons, and the pressure 
of the steam was 120 lbs. per square inch. These engines had taken up the 
incline a load of fourteen carriages, equal to a gross weight of 100 tons, in- 
cluding the engine. 

It was believed that the peculiar construction of the engines and carriages, 
in the United States, tended to lessen the resistance of curves. It was well 
known that in New York, and in other American cities, the railways were 
brought into the streets, horse power being then employed, and that the trains 
were conducted round the turnings of streets with great facility. As to the 
cost of construction of American railways, it appeared from official returns, 
which had been carefully compiled, that in the State of Massachusets the cost 
of the principal lines had amounted to £10,599 per mile, or £9,489 per mile, 
exclusive of rolling stock. In the State of New York these figures were 
respectively £11,200 and £9,762 per mile. It should be stated that a large 
proportion of the American railways consisted of single way, and that their 
cost ranged between £5,000 and £14,000 per mile. 

The Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway, with a gradient of 1 
in 130 for upwards of 22 miles, was mentioned as a case of a main trunk line, 
upon which there was a large traffic, necessitating the employment of heavy 
engines. Ordinary inside-cylinder engines were employed, the cylinders being 
18 in. in diameter, with a length of stroke of 24 in., the wheels being 5 ft. in 
diameter, all coupled. They weighed, when in working order, 31 tons, were 
worked at a pressure of 130 lbs. to the square inch, and would draw a load of 
40 waggons, weighing 130 tons, independent of the weight of the engine and 
tender. 

The great feature in the Paper under discussion was thought to consist in the 
statement, that two-fifths of the weight of the engine had been obtained as 
adhesive capability ; whereas, in this country, one-fourth had been considered 
as much as could be relied on, in all states of the rails. On the West Cornwall 
Railway, loads of about 13 tons had been conveyed up an incline of 1 in 13 for 
a distance of from a half to three-quarters of a mile. The engine had four 
wheels coupled, and cylinders 13 in. in diameter. This plan had been considered 
preferable to the employment of stationary power. On the South Devon line 
there were gradients varying from 1 in 41 to 1 in 51, with S curves of 15 chains 
radius. As a practical fact it might be recorded, that the engines would take 
seven loaded waggons up an incline of 1 in 41 on straight portions of the line, 
but when they came to curves of 15 chains radius, one of the waggons had to be 
removed. 

It was stated, that on the Lickey Incline of 1 in 37£, an engine had been 
allowed to attain a speed of 30 miles in descending, and it was then brought up 
in 30 seconds by the application of a peculiar kind of break to the wheels of the 
engines. 

With regard to zigzag inclines for traversing mountains, it was stated that 
the late Mr. George Stephenson had suggested their adoption, 13 years ago, on 
a line in Spain. Mr. Drane had also recommended that this method of cross- 
ing high mountains should be adopted in Ceylon. And more recently, as was 



well known, Mr. I. J. Berkley, M. Inst. C.E., had carried out the system 
successfully, on the Great Indian Peninsular Railway, for ascending the Bhore 
Ghaut. It was thought, that they were only desirable under special circum- 
stances, and in peculiar positions, where it was impossible to make a 
continuous line, except at great cost, or by the introduction of excessively sharp 
curves. 

Probably, the steepest gradients in this country, over which a large traffic 
was conveyed, were on the line between Manchester and Oldham, a distance of 
7 miles. For a mile and a quarter there was an inclination of 1 in 48 or 1 in 50. 
The line was then tolerably level, until, on approaching Oldham, gradients of 
1 in 30 and 1 in 39 were encountered ; and for about a mile and a quarter 1 in 
27. This latter incline had originally been worked by stationary power and 
rope traction; but about five years back, the locomotive had been substituted, 
and no difficulty was found in taking up considerable loads. 

In closing the discussion, the circumstances under which steep inclines could 
with propriety be adopted, were considered, and it was remarked that, as 
a mechanical question, there was no difficulty in apportioning the power of the 
engine to the amount of adhesion required to traverse a particular gradient. 
But inclines of 1 in 10 or 1 in 17, or even 1 in 40, would only be resorted to 
from necessity, as such gradients were attended with a heavy cost for working 
expenses On a branch of the Stockton and Darlington railway, where there 
was an exceptional gradient of 1 in 40 ; although the traffic was all down-hill, 
the whole of the receipts of that portion of the line, taken at Id. per ton 
per mile, were absorbed by the working expenses. If the loads bad been up- 
hill, it was believed that the working expenses alone would have amounted to 
3d. per ton per mile, and with gradients of 1 in 17, it was thought that this 
must reach Is. to Is. 6d. per ton per mile. In fact, it was questionable, under 
such circumstances,, whether horse-power and carts would not beat the loco- 
motive, in point of economy ; though of course on a long line of railway, it 
would be most undesirable to introduce a break of gauge. It was undoubtedly 
more economical to employ locomotive power on the Whitstable Branch, where 
the amount of traffic was so inconsiderable ; on the the Oldham Incline, the 
necessity of preserving an unbroken communication was a justification for the 
use of the locomotive, the cost of which in such a case must be considerable. On 
the incline of 1 in 26 near Liege, a perfect system of stationary engines had 
been in use for many years. The Belgian Government, feeling the inconve- 
nience of that system, had abandoned it, and substituted the locomotive ; but 
such was the uncertainty of the power, in meeting the inequalities of the 
incline, that the stationary engines had been again resorted to. 

December 7, 1858. 
Joseph Locke, Esq., M.P., President, in the Chair. 

The Paper read was, A Description of a Breakwater at the 
Port of Blyth, and of certain Improvements in Break- 
waters, applicable to Harbours of Refuge, by Mr. M. Scott, 
M. Inst. C.E. 

This communication was divided into four parts, the first referring particu- 
larly to the breakwater at the Port of Blyth, the second to the theory of waves, 
the third to the theory of hydraulic construction, including form and methods 
of building, and the fourth relating exclusively to the Author's designs, 
including his assumed improvements in the construction of breakwaters, which 
had been suggested by his experience in connection with the work at Blyth. 

The Port of Blyth was described as being situated on the coast of Northum- 
berland, about 10 miles north of the river Type. The whole surrounding 
district was rich in coal, comprising a large virgin field of steam coal in the 
immediate vicinity. Until recently a small class of vessels only could trade 
there, and a great part of the coal raised in the neighbourhood was transmitted 
by rail to the Tyne for shipment. But a few years ago a company was formed, 
and powers were obtained for improving the harbour, Mr. J. Abernethy, 
M. Inst. C.E., being appointed engineer in chief, and the Author undertaking 
the construction of a portion of the works. This part of the coast was exposed 
to a very heavy sea, and gales sprung up with great suddenness. For the 
length of a mile the river was exposed to the action of the sea, so that no vessel 
could then lie in what was now the harbour. Along the seaward side of the 
river there was a rocky reef, and upon the base thus provided by nature the 
breakwater had been erected. The work was originally. intended to be, and for 
a length of 1,800 ft. was constructed entirely of stone ; but a failure in the 
supply of material induced a change. Mr. Abernethy proposed to employ 
timber and stone, after the manner adopted at Boulogne and at Calais. These 
views had been carried out in a part of the breakwater which had been com- 
pleted for some time, which consisted of a framework of timber filled with 
stone, arranged thus :— First, there was a sole-piece resting on the ground. 
Under each end of the sole there was placed a block of stone, to which it was 
fastened at one end by a bolt, the chief object of this bolt being to act as a 
guide in erecting the frames. Upon this sole were raised two uprights, the one 
next the sea being supported by a strut from the sole-piece. Cross-bearers, or 
half balks, embracing the uprights, carried the roadway above, which was 
protected by a simple handrail. The frames thus formed were placed at inter- 
vals of 10 ft. from centre to centre, and were tied together, longitudinally, by 
walings— two on the sea face, and one on the river face, and also by the open 
planking ; the space within which was filled with rubble stone. In the first 
section this space was triangular, the planking on the river face being on the 
strut. The object of this arrangement was partly to provide a sloping surface, 
and to leave the uprights on the river face isolated, opposite the entrance of 
the proposed docks, for the purpose of destroying, as much as possible, the 
swell which passed up the river. In the second section, the exposure and con- 
sequent strength required being greater, the planking was put upon the river 
upright, and the whole space between was filled with rubble, covered with an 
open flooring of horizontal timbers. The work had added more than 4,000 ft. 
in length of the river to the harbour, where there was still water ; it not only 
effectually broke the waves, but acted as a training wall to direct the current, 



The Artizak, "1 
January 1, 18i!).J 



Port of Blyth Breakwater, SfC, <SfC. 



13 



and to confine and intensify, within the new limits, the action of the tidal 
scour. The cost, of the work had been, ou an average, about £10 per lineal 
foot. The site of this pier was either dry, or nearly so, at low-water spring 
tides; hut as it was to he continued into a depth of 5 or 6 ft. at the lowest ebbs, 
and about 22 ft. at high water of spring tides, it was necessary to modify the 
plan, and as early as January, 1857, the Author succeeded in the application of 
timber to deep-water sections, in the manner hereafter described. 

Under the head " Theory of Waves," the Author availed himself of the labours 
of Messrs. Scott Russell, Airy, Robertson, and others. He called attention to 
the two kinds of waves— the one long, low, but extending deep, which was the 
Wave of Translation, or wave of the first order; the other kind short, high, 
and superficial, being the Wave of Oscillation, or wave of the second order— 
and laid down certain principles belonging to each class. He concluded this 
section by remarking, that if a wave in deep water, when the mass was great, 
and the velocity of the particles small, travelled into shallow water, the quan- 
tity agitated was less, but the energy of the motion was increased. Therefore, 
cateris paribus, the destructive energy was less, against a wall vertical from 
the bottom, than against a wall built with a slope. When the foreshore caused 
a wave to break upon the wall, the destructive effect was greatest. Waves 
would be broken by any slope having an inclination of less than 45°, but from 
that angle to the perpendicular, the wave would not be broken, unless it was 
nearly upon the point of breaking when it reached the slope. 

In the third part, under the head " Theory of Work," including the Theories 
of Form and of Construction, the published views of General Sir Harry Jones, 
Sir William Denison, Professor Airy, Captain Vetch, See., were freely made use 
of; and it was remarked, that when waves could be reflected, they ought not 
to be broken, and that when, from shallowness of the water, the wave must 
break, the operation should be spread over the largest surface, and over the 
longest time possible. It was desirable, if practicable, so to direct the water, 
that the force of one portion should tend to neutralise the destructive energy of 
another portion ; it being better to effect the object of stilling the water, by 
changing the direction, than by absorbing the force of the water in motion. 
The first condition would be fulfilled by a vertical wall, and the second by a 
slope. The third was more difficult of attainment. Under the term vertical 
wall might be included steep slopes, say from 60° upwards. It was thought^ 
that as the vertical face in deep water did reflect waves, the seaward face of 
breakwaters, especially near the entrance to a harbour, should be built nearly 
vertical ; for should it be a slope, the risk to a vessel approaching the entrance 
would be increased. With regard to the inner, or harbour side of a break- 
water, it was obvious, that a vertical face was the best ; inasmuch as the work 
then constituted a valuable quay, alongside which ships might lie, to load and 
unload passengers, cargo, or stores, whereas, in the case of a slope, no vessel 
could approach. With regard to slopes, the Author considered the true prin- 
ciple to be, that they should be employed only for the purpose of directing, or 
guiding the waves, to neutralise one another. This he sought to effect, at 
least to some extent, thus : first, the slope formed of timber was not to join the 
ground at the foot ; there was to be no toe to be injured, but a space through 
' ■which the water would freely pass. Secondly, the surface of the slope, instead 
of being continuous, was to have horizontal open spaces, like a gridiron, through 
which part of the water would fall in its passage upwards, and part on its 
recession. 

The combination of the vertical wall and slope, as carried out at Alderney, 
at Holyhead, and at Portland, was then alluded to ; and it was believed that as, 
even during a very heavy sea, there was but little agitation at a depth of 15 ft. 
under the surface, this section would present nearly, if not all, the advantages 
of a vertical wall, earned up from the bottom of the sea. The quantity of 
stone used in these works was, however, very great, so that there were many 
situations where that method of construction would be inapplicable. There 
were other disadvantages attaching to this form. First, these breakwaters were 
not available as quays. Secondly, the seaward profile was such, that the waves 
must break upon the wall with all their violence, and hence the weight of mate- 
rial, and the nature of the work, necessary to resist such a shock, were no cri- 
terion of that required in a vertical face, from which the waves were reflected, 
and against which they did not break. 

The subject was next investigated under the head " Theory of Construction — 
Stone Work," and it was urged, that the faces of works exposed to the sea 
should either have the joints sealed, to prevent the entrance of air, or the 
work should be so open as to allow the air to pass out with facility. Con- 
tinuity of face was most important in breakwaters, particularly with vertical 
faces, for without this, the strength of the work, as a whole, would be dependent 
upon, and be measured by, the power of resistance of the weakest part. Hence 
arose the necessity of exercising great care during the construction, as the dis- 
placement of a single stone might lead to the destruction of the whole work. 
The Author knew of no case on record of a breakwater being carried away, or 
being overturned, bodily; and therefore the question was not so much the 
strength as a whole, which could readily be calculated, but the action of the 
sea upon an individual portion, which could not be calculated. And if this 
obtained as regarded the finished work, for the same reasons the danger 
during the process of construction must be great, especially in the case of a 
vertical wall. 

The fourth section of the paper was occupied with a description of the 
Author's improvements in the [construction of breakwaters. He divided these 
works into two classes ; those intended for deep water being wave reflectors, 
and those for shallow water being wave breakers. Excepting what was called 
the wave screen, the reflectors and breakwaters were of a similar character, 
consisting of a timber casing, filled with stone. The stone hearting constituted 
the power to resist removal as a whole, and the timber facing secured the stone 
from being disintegrated, or carried away in detail; so that if the work was 
moved, it must be bodily. Further, the work was so connected together, that 
each part supported its neighbouring portions ; and there was no tie between 
the work and the ground. It simply rested on the surface, and the stability 



depended wholly upon its weight. Other leading features of this arrangemen 
were then noticed,' and it was stated that the lower tie would accommodate 
itself so perfectly to an uneven surface, that the erection might proceed on sand 
and clay as well as on rock ; on broken as well as on even ground, almost indif- 
ferently. The manner in which the round ends, at the entrances to harbours, 
were constructed, was then described, and it was shown that the planking was 
arranged like basketwork, by which both strength and elasticity were obtained. 
It was said that the work was not liable to he breached during erection, and 
that this had been proved at Blyth, where the stone wall had been repeatedly 
damaged ; but the new construction had remained uninjured, although exposed 
to heavier seas. The frames were put together complete on shore, and were 
then floated to their place, and it was remarked that the 9 or 10 lbs. of oil per 
cubic foot, used in preserving the timber, materially reduced the floating 
power; so that it was fonnd, by calculation, for a depth of 10 fathoms, sup- 
posing the whole of the timber to be immersed, the total buoyancy would only 
be 15 cwt. per foot run ; but as the timber was not wholly immersed, there was 
no buoyancy. At half tide, when standing on end, each frame would have a 
weight, or downward pressure, equal to 8 cwt. to sink it. The timberwork, 
when finished, would have a downward pressure of 25 cwt. per foot run. Thus, 
it appeared that the weight to be lifted was but little, ancl that the frame in 
position! could easily be made to gravitate sufficiently to steady itself until 
secured ' In the direction of the length of the breakwater, the frames were kept 
parallel by sliding ties, which were simply balks of timber, with chocks between 
them, embracing two frames, and being secured together above water, they 
were slid down to the bottom. Various other details were then given of the 
mode of carrying on the work under this arrangement, and it was remarked, 
that the systems pursued at Dover, Aldemey, Portland, and Holyhead, did not 
appear to secure rapid execution, whilst, in illustration of what could be done 
by this plan, although of course on a comparatively small scale, it was men- 
tioned that of the work at Blyth, 130 lineal feet had been erected in five days. 

With regard to the power of the work to resist waves, it was stated that, in 
the section for a depth of 10 fathoms, the stability was double the greatest 
force which could be brought to bear upon it. To afford protection to the 
footings of a wall, or to the toe of a slope of stone, in the recoil of breaking 
waves, a screen had been designed, the construction of which was explained. 

In reference to the questions of durability and cost, the Author was of 
opinion that properly prepared timber would last twenty years, and that the 
section for a depth of'lO fathoms would cost, completed, about £70 per lineal ft.; 
whereas the stone breakwater at Aldemey was said to have cost £190 per ft., 
and that at Portland £150 per ft. This difference in first cost was so great as 
to leave, it was considered, an ample margin for the renewal of the timber when 
it decayed. The manner in which this renewal might be effected was then 
described. 

Finally, it was shown, that even if the new arrangements were regarded 
merely as a means for forming the back-bone, as it were, of a more permanent 
structure, it was the best and cheapest way of attaining the object desired ; for 
viewing the timber only in the light of a temporary staging, the following were 
some of the advantages claimed for the system — rapidity of execution ; a good 
staging from which to build the stone facing ; and the rubble hearting, having 
been exposed to the sea for years, would be thoroughly consolidated, and form 
an impenetrable backing. 

The Author then proceeded to describe the method proposed for completing 
one form of the permanent work. There were some peculiarities in the mode 
of setting the face blocks, the objects in view being mainly two ; first, for 
affording increased facilities for handling heavy masses ; and secondly, to place 
within easy reach of the divers the means of moving the stone in every direc- 
tion, without the necessity of communicating with any one above water. This 
was effected by a system of hydraulic and other machinery, which was then 
described in detail, for moving masses weighing 25 tons each, in six different 
directions, either down, up, forwards, backwards, to the right, or to the left. 

In commencing the discussion, some extracts were given from the Report of 
the Select Committee on Harbours of Refuge ; the tenor of these observations 
was, that of the three modes of construction of piers brought before the Com- 
mittee, that of tipping the material as "pierre perdue" was that most gene- 
rally employed, and had hitherto proved most successful. From these passages 
it appeared that the general opinion was not favourable to the building of 
nearly upright walls for piers projected into the sea. It was, however, con- 
tended, from the experience of some years, at the Harbour of Refuge works, at 
Dover, that by the use of improved machinery, and by the employment of 
helmet divers, instead of men in diving-bells, large blockwork could be 
accomplished almost as easily, ancl nearly as quickly, as above the water- 
line. 

The machinery for the proposed modification of the present system was 
described to be— having a powerful stage consisting of trestles, as at Dover, or 
by substituting for timber cast or wrought iron tubular uprights, with the 
upper extremities made to slide, in order to level the stage in case of the 
subsidence of the feet. Trussed beams supported the rails for the travellers 
carrying the steam boiler and engine, with the air-pumps for supplying the 
divers, and for lifting and laying the blocks ; to which it was proposed to give 
very much increased dimensions,— such as 15 ft. long by 10 ft. wide, and 
G ft. 8 in. deep, which, if made of brick and cement, would weigh about 
50 tons; it was contended that two thousand of these blocks could be laid 
during each year, and an advance forward of 900 ft. per annum of a pier 
whose tctal sectional area was 3,082 superficial ft. ; and this with brick and 
cement blocks at a cost of about £180 per ft. lineal ; if of rubble stone blocks 
and cement, about £110 ; and if of concrete, about £101. 

If smaller blocks were used, the plant and machinery might be reduced in 
bulk and cost, and even still greater progress might be made. An instance of 
this was given by allusion to the pier, now being constructed in Rye Bay, of 
concrete blocks weighing 10 tons each : up to the present time it had perfectly 
resisted storms from the south west, to which it was much exposed. 



14 



On Naval Architecture. 



r The Artizast, 
(.January 1, 1859. 



The further consideration of this subject was then adjourned until the evening 
of Tuesday, January 11th, 1858 ; when, it was hoped, the Members and 
Visitors would come prepared to discuss this interesting question. 



After the Meeting, Mr. C. Defries exhibited and explained some specimens of 
his Improved Railway Carriage Roof Lamps. 

Three objects were sought to be accomplished in these lamps. First, by 
admitting cold air into the burner ; thus, preventing the oil from boiling, the 
overflowing of the oil in the glass, so common in other lamps, was prevented. 
Secondly, a simple method of fixing the glass was adopted, so that by having 
a stock of glasses at different stations, a broken one might easily be replaced : 
instead of, as at present, it being necessary to send the damaged lamp to the 
repairing shops, in order that a new glass might be soldered in. Thus a much 
smaller stock of lamps would be required, and less expense would be incurred 
for repairs; in addition to which the chance of breakage, in the transit from 
the stores, would be entirely removed. Thirdly, the interior of each lamp was 
made in one piece, instead of three or four pieces, as customary. This tended 
to increase the light, which was remarkably clear and brilliant. 



OlST THE MODIFICATIONS WHICH THE SHIPS OF THE 
ROYAL NAVY HAVE UNDERGONE DURING THE PRESENT 
CENTURY IN RESPECT OF DIMENSIONS, FORMS, MEANS OF 
PROPULSION, AND POWERS OF ATTACK AND DEFENCE. 
Extracts from a Paper read, December 15, at the Society of Arts by E. J. Reed. 
The science of naval architecture was so greatly advanced on the Conti- 
nent, and so much neglected in England, during the last century, that the 
forms, dimensions, and speeds of the ships of the British navy were for the 
most part inferior, class for class, to those of every other nation with which 
they had to cope. 

The only mode of improvement which the naval authorities of that period 
countenanced was that of imitating the forms of such captured vessels as were 
deemed superior to our own, and therefore, as "imitation cannot go above its 
model," the attainment of excellence was not possible. Full advantage was 
not taken even of the imitative system, imperfect as it was ; for, whenever the 
form of a foreign model of any given class was copied, the dimensions, and 
therefore the power of carrying weight and sail, were invariably reduced, and 
many of the best qualities of the vessel thus sacrificed. 

Throughout all the wars waged by England during the eighteenth century, 
with France, Spain, Holland, and America, the genius of our admirals had 
continually to struggle with the great evil of overburdened ships. Whenever 
a British 'man-of-war fell into the hands of the enemy, her armament was 
forthwith diminished, and her efficiency thus improved, as was frequently 
discovered on the recapture of our own ships. That inferiority no longer 
exists. The ships of our navy have not only ceased to be imitations, but have 
become the models for the navies of the world ; and I have now to trace the 
progress of the great changes which they have undergone — changes which 
embrace not minor variations merely, but entire and unprecedented trans- 
formations, consequent mainly upon the introduction of steam. 

When the conclusion of the wars with America and France, and the success- 
ful expedition to Algiers, had left us without notable enemies, leisure was 
afforded for the consideration of such improvements as experience had shown 
to be desirable. Sir Robert Seppings, the Surveyor of the Navy, and the 
introducer of several important improvements in the frames and other portions 
of the fabrics of ships of war, effected great changes in their bows and sterns. 
After the battle of Trafalgar, the Victory was repaired at Chatham Dockyard, 
of which Sir Robert was then master shipwright; and in surveying her he 
observed that she had suffered much on the upper or main deck, when bearing- 
down on the enemy at the commencement of the action, in consequence of the 
grape-shot penetrating the thin transverse beak-head partition then in fashion, 
which was without the ordinary timbering. It was perfectly evident, he said, 
that had the ship been formed with a regular and solidly-built bow, many a 
life would have been saved. This was fully acknowledged by Captain Hardy; 
and after a short period the strong circular or curved bow now in use, which 
is framed and planked like the rest of the ship, was introduced. This bow is 
attended by additional advantages— including the use of bow guns, an increase 
of strength, and others which I cannot stay to mention. 

Sir Robert next turned his attention to the sterns of vessels ; and here he 
considered a similar change necessary, to improve the defence of the vessel, to 
increase her strength, and to enable her to fight her stern guns with greater 
advantage. It was objected by some opponents of Sir Robert that the evils he 
believed to exist were not real ; that sterns were not weak ; that their fighting- 
capabilities did not need improvement; that we had no need of stern guns in 
our navy at all, as we always fought and never run ; and that by improving 
our sterns we should only be teaching our enemies who did run how to arm 
theirs. The circular sterns were, however, undoubtedly attended by one great 
fault, which Sir Charles Napier pointed out : — " In the first place," he says^ 
" the rudder is too much exposed. In the second place, the ship is deprived of 
her counter, which I have always considered a very necessary part of her, and 
which one would suppose the very derivation of the word from the French 
word contre sufficiently proves the utility of. I apprehend without that pro- 
jection the sea would come in at the cabin windows ; and lastly, the whole of 
the gingerbread outside of the ship would be blown away when the guns were 
much used." The first of these objections is, doubtless, perfectly valid, and 
the last not without reason. The second, however, is not well founded. It is 
not possible that the use of a certain word by the French can "prove" the 
utility of a ship's counter ; it may indicate the opinion of the French upon the 
point, but it can do no more. Further, it is evident that the low projecting 



counter of a ship may receive shocks from waves which would never climb to 
the cabin windows. 

The round stern was, however, attended by another defect, which, together 
with the exposure of the rudder, led to its abandonment, and to the adoption of 
its main features in a modified form. This defect was the heavy and ungrace- 
ful appearance which all agree in attributing to it. The attainment of beauty 
is not certainly the primary object in the construction of vessels of war. On 
the contrary, if there were on earth any object in which an utter want of 
beauty might be deemed tolerable, it would be, I presume, a ship of war. But 
beauty is never unbecoming; we look for it even in a war -ship, and the 
elliptical stern which has succeeded the circular stern, eminently possesses it. 
The design of this stem, which permitted the builder to afford increased pro- 
tection to the stern-post, and which is now adopted in all new ships of war, 
was claimed by each of three late master shipwrights — Mr. Lang, Mr. Blake, 
and Mr. Roberts. It was introduced under the auspices of Sir W. Symonds, 
and in the form which is now given to it by Sir Baldwin Walker, the present 
surveyor of the Navy, is a truly admirable combination of beauty and utility. 
The principal curves visible in it harmonize so well with the sheer lines of the 
ship, that she appears to float lightly and easily upon the water, whereas the 
circular Seppings' stern, with its obtrusive stern-post, made the spectator feel 
not only that much of the ship was submerged, as it in fact was, but also that 
the submersion of the whole of her was imminent. 

It was intended that with the improved bows and sterns, the foreward and 
the right aft guns might be fired in the direction of the keel — that is, be 
brought to bear upon an enemy immediately in front or rear of the ship, and 
that the fires of every two adjacent guns from bow to stern might cross each 
other within easy range, so that the ship should have the power of defending 
herself, and of attacking an enemy in every direction with two guns, at least. 
Great difficulty was, however, often experienced in getting the bow chase guns 
to run out far enough to prevent injury to the ship on the discharge of the gun ; 
for it is by no means an easy matter to make a vessel sufficiently bluff for that 
purpose on the deck line, and at the same time to keep her fine at the load 
water line. This difficulty has recently been evaded by the adoption of a pivot 
gun raised above the fixed bow of the vessel, and capable of being turned upon 
shifting centres at one end, and of running on circular or segmental plates at 
the other. This gun commands the entire sweep of the bow, and, being 
usually of large calibre and long range, is admirably adapted for chasing. Its 
introduction into the service was a very notable improvement. The pivot gun 
is usually a G8-pounder, sometimes a 10 in. shell gun, and it is fitted in all our 
first-rate steam line-of-battle ships, and most other steam ships of war, includ- 
ing second and third rates, frigates, corvettes, and many scores of our steam gun 
boats. In several classes of ships a second pivot gun, of like size, is fitted at 
the stern. All our steam block ships are thus fitted, as are also the whole of 
our screw steam gun vessels, numbering, according to the current number of 
the " Navy List," twenty-six. It is difficult to believe, however, that we are 
acting wisely in accepting the bow pivot gun as a sufficient substitute for the 
bow chase guns on the fighting decks of our screw line-of-battle ships, as I 
observe we have done in some modern examples. The pivot gun is an exposed 
gun, and is liable to be disabled in action ; it cannot therefore be prudent to 
depend, in a large ship, upon it alone for our power in chasing, and to deprive 
ourselves of the means of firing a single shot directly in advance, should that 
one gun be injured. I am fully aware that by running this risk fine lines may 
be given to the vessel, but this advantage is not worth the risk, as I fear we 
shall prove in the event of a naval war if we pursue the new system. 

Still more interesting changes were introduced by the successor of Sir 
Robert Seppings. 

The characteristic features of Sir William Symonds' designs for ships were 
great breadth of beam at and above the water line, and great sharpness of floor. 
Sit William was essentially an amateur ship-builder, and the Lords of the 
Admiralty (influenced mainly by Sir James Graham), by investing him with 
supreme control of the Surveyor of the Navy's department, made war not only 
upon professional naval architects, but upon the profession of naval architecture 
itself. The consequence was that ship-building officers, both of the old tentative 
school and of the new scientific school (which latter had lately been called into 
existence by their lordships), strenuously resisted Sir William's innovations^ 
but as he was supported by powerful friends, and had a large amount of 
patronage in his own hands, while his opponents were almost without exception 
his subordinates, I need not say who for the time triumphed. It should be 
observed, however, that the principles of construction for which Messrs. Read, 
Chatfield, Creuze, and others trained in the school of naval architecture, con- 
tended, are to a great extent predominant at the present day in the Royal 
service, while not a single feature of Sir William Symonds' system of construc- 
tion is retained,* except certain practical improvements which he made in the 
actual building of ships, and which deserve to be mentioned with the utmost 
favour. He was the first who proved successful in breaking clo wn and abolishing 

* As an example I may refer to the forms of midship section advocated respectively by 
him and by them. Sir William's great principle— or rather Sir William's great crotchets- 
was the sharpening the floor of the ship, at the same time carrying her greatest breadth 
considerably above the load- water line. The latter he deemed essential to stability, Ihe 
members of the School of Naval Architecture, on the contrary, pointed out that, by making 
her sharp of floor, and broader above the water-line than at it, the ship, when inclined by 
the wind, by tending to immerse more of herself on one side than emerged on the other, 
would be moved bodily upwards, and thus subjected to vertical motions, more or less 
violent, which would tend to the injury of her fabric and the discomfort of her officers and 
men. They therefore recommended the midship portion of the side of the ship should be 
either vertical, or similarly inclined immediately above and below the water-line, and con- 
sidered that nothing better than a side Tertical between wind and water could be chosen 
for a ship of war. I have only to add, on this point, that all new ships of war now have 
the fall floors and vertical sides which they recommended. Thus, on two points of the very- 
first importance, Sir William's ideas have been discredited, and the same may be said with 
equal truth in respect to his third doctrine— that of the necessity of giving great depth of 
beam in proportion to length. The proportion is less now than ever. L. J. 1>- 



The Artizan, "1 
January 1, 1859. J 



On Naval Architecture. 



15 



that vicious system of restricting constructors to certain arbitrary dimensions, 
to which I have before referred, and in which the Admiralty persisted until his 
time. This was no small service. 

Had Sir W. Symonds lived a century earlier, his career might have closed 
in brightness and triumph ; but, coming when he came, he had scarcely raised 
himself to his high office before he began to feel his schemes and crotchets 
baffled by a power whose marvellous progress no devices of man can withstand. 
The all-changing irresistible power of steam, against the mastery of which so 
many have vainly mutinied, began to make itself felt in the Royal Navy even 
before Sir William commenced experimenting at Malta. In 1815, Lord Mel- 
ville ordered an engine to be built for the sloop of war Congo, and, although 
that vessel was not fitted with it, the design of propelling ships of war by 
steam was not abandoned. In 1821, the Monkey — a vessel which is still, I 
believe, doing duty at Woolwich — was purchased by the Admiralty, and her 
name is likely to become memorable as that of the first steamer the Royal 
Navy possessed. Her purchase was followed by the building of the Comet at 
Deptfbrd dockyard, under the direction of the late Oliver Lang, Esq. Other 
vessels succeeded rapidly, some designed by Sir Robert Seppings, others by 
the master shipwrights of the dockyards, and others by private builders. Ail 
were, of course, for many years fitted with paddle wheels. Ultimately, in the 
year 1832, Sir William Symonds had the designing of steam, as well as all 
"other vessels for H. M. Service, committed to him as Surveyor of the Navy. 

In the year 1837, Captain Ericsson made a very favourable run down the 
Thames in a steam vessel fitted with his patent screw propeller, having the 
Lords of the Admiralty and Sir W. Symonds on board. Notwithstanding the 
success of the experiment, and the manifest advantages of a submerged pro- 
peller for a ship of war, Sir William made no sign in favour of the new instru 
ment. Captain Ericsson, therefore, took it to the United States, where it was 
speedily introduced into the war navy of America. Three years afterwards, in 
1840, the Archimedes, fitted with Mr. Smith's patent screw propeller, made 
many highly successful trial trips, which were reported to the Admiralty by 
officers of their own. After further opposition and a further delay of years, 
the Rattler, a ship of war, was adapted at Sheerness to receive a screw pro- 
peller, and after numerous experiments wita-serews of different forms, the two- 
bladed screw now exhibited at the Patent Museum, South Kensington, was 
finally adopted as the best that could be devised. In 1845, the Rattler was 
tested in comparison with the Alecto,. a paddle-wheel vessel of similar form, 
size, and steam-power, and the test still further established the superiority of 
the screw. The Rattler was by chance built with a particularly fine run aft ; 
but as this was not known to be essential, other screw steamers were com- 
menced with a greater fullness near the stern. The access of the water to the 
propeller would thus have been seriously interfered with, but Mr. Lloyd, now 
the chief engineer and inspector of machinery in the steam branch of the 
Surveyor of the Navy's office, very wisely foresaw the evil, and induced the 
Admiralty to take the necessary steps for its prevention. Since 184G, the 
building- of screw ships has become so general, that not only has the paddle- 
wheel been altogether superseded in all newly-built fighting vessels, but there 
is not even a single ship unprovided with a screw now on the stocks. Every 
ship now built is fitted with that steam-driven submerged propeller, the intro- 
duction of which the late Surveyor of our Navy only eleven years since 
was obstinately resisting, and had obstinately resisted for eleven years pre- 
viously. 

Admiral Sir Charles Napier, to whom I have had occasion already to make 
reference, was among the very first to apply iron as a material for constructing 
steam-vessels. With Sir Charles Napier was associated Mr. Charles Manby. 
Together these gentlemen formed a society, and built the first iron steam- vessel, 
the Aaron Manby, which Sir Charles took charge of, and navigated to Paris. 
Other vessels followed ; but for their history I must refer you to Mr. Gran- 
tham's admirable volume ou " Iron Shipbuilding," in which their progress is 
traced from the earliest example up to that magnificent vessel to which the 
London public are now thronging, and which, by her excellence of design and 
her strength of structure, even more than by her immense magnitude, excites 
the astonishment and admiration of all intelligent beholders. 

In 1842 Mr. Belmano, of New York, addressed a letter to the Earl of Aber- 
deen, alleging that plates of iron three-eighths of an inch thick had been riveted 
together to a thickness of six inches, and then found to be ball-proof. Sir 
Thomas Hastings, of H.M. gunnery ship Excellent, was instructed to discover 
if they were so. After making the experiment, he reported that such a combi- 
nation of plates fixed over the planking of a ship's side would give no protection 
at two hundred yards against shot fired with 10 lbs. charges of powder from 8- 
inch guns and heavy 32-pounders. 

In 1843, however, the Admiralty commenced building iron ships of war, and 
in three years built and purchased eighteen such vessels (besides several others 
not intended to carry armament), at a cost of £420,000 and £260,000 additional 
for engines— in all about £680,000. I can offer no reason for this sudden and 
■unexpected movement, which has, I hardly need say, ended in failure. It may 
have been the result of a well-meant but ill-advised attempt to give a rapid 
expansion to the power of the Royal Navy, or it may have been due to the 
secret influences brought to bear on some member or members of the Board of 
Admiralty by interested parties. But of that ingenious and complicated system 
of wheels within wheels by which our public departments are often worked, I 
cannot presume to speak. Like millions of others, I know but little save of 
that one great wheel, the outermost of all, which rolls perpetually along the 
land, whose revolutions never cease, and from whose path but few escape — the 
colossal and ponderous wheel of national taxation. Of the wheels within, which 
move that, who has any just or adequate knowledge ? 

In the construction of mercantile vessels iron is superior to wood. Iron ships, 
as compared with wooden, may be built lighter and stronger, of greater capacity, 
of superior speed, increased durability, and at a less cost both for purchase and 
repairs. In Great Britain, moreover, iron is much more abundant than wood, 
and its manufacture is now becoming improved almost daily. On the other 



hand, the bottoms of iron ships get rapidly foul, and their hulls, when of mode- 
rate thickness, are shattered by the action of shot much more iujuriously than 
the hulls of wooden ships. The first objection is got rid of in merchant vessels 
by cleaning their bottoms when they come into port. The second is, of course' 
not directly applicable to them. But the rapid fouling of the bottom of a vessel 
of war, which is often engaged for years together far from all facilities for 
cleaning her below water, would, at all times, be a highly injurious and often a 
fatal evil. The destructive action of shot upon such a vessel is a still more 
decided ground of inefficiency. These facts were not considered by the Admi- 
ralty in 1843, and when Sir Charles Napier mentioned in the House of Commons 
the folly of building five or six iron steamers without trying one, the Secretary 
of the Admiralty exultingly exclaimed, Sir Charles informs us, " We are building 
forty." They did build, not forty, but eighteen, at a cost, as I have said, of 
considerably more than half a million. 

Experiments were made at Woolwich Arsenal to test whether, if iron were 
lined with kamptulicon — a mixture of India-rubber, cork, &c. — the holes 
formed in the fabric by, the shot would not be stopped after the shot's passage, 
by the closing up of the elastic substance. Some advantage was gained in this 
way, but not sufficient to lead to the adoption of such a combination. In 1846, 
the Ruby, a small vessel, built of thin iron, and in a bad state of repair, was 
fired at from the Excellent, and Captain (now Admiral) Chads, reported that 
the shot passed clean through the near side of the vessel, but that on the off 
side the effect was terrific, tearing off the sheets of iron to a very considerable 
extent. Splinters from the near side were few but severe. These conditions 
were reversed by subsequent experiments made by Admiral Chads, the near 
side being found to suffer most in stronger vessels. In July, 1850, after nu- 
merous experiments, he finally reported that iron could not be beneficially 
employed as a material for the construction of vessels of war. Since that time 
the building of iron ships of war has not been proceeded with. 

I come now to the period of the late war with Russia, which, though a 
military rather than a naval contest, did not fail to exert important influences 
upon the constitution of the Royal Navy. That war opened, it will be remem- 
bered, by a Russian attack on a Turkish squadron at Sinope, November 20th, 
1853, at a time when Russia had bound itself by a solemn promise to act on the 
defensive only. The Turkish squadron consisted of 7 frigates, 1 sloop, 2 cor- 
vettes, 2 steamers, and 2 transports, supported by five land batteries. The 
attacking squadron was composed of 6 line-of-battle ships and 2 frigates, 
supported by three or four steamers. The latter squadron was well supplied 
with shell guns, while the Turks had nothing more effective than 24-pounders. 
The action was speedily decided by the burning of almost the whole of the 
Turkish vessels, produced, as the surviving officers stated, exclusively by the 
shells of the enemy. The only frigate that remained afloat after the action — the 
Damietta — had seventeen shots through her below water, and was therefore 
burnt. I mention this engagement merely as an early and notable example of 
the destructive effect of shell guns in naval warfare, the remarkable circum- 
stance being, not that the Turks were beaten— for the Russian force was vastly 
superior to thefrs — but that their whole force of fourteen ships was, to a great 
extent, silenced in a few minutes, and utterly crushed in little more than 
an hour. 

It has been fashionable in some quarters to sneer at the operations of the 
combined navies of England and France in the Black and the Baltic Seas during 
the war ; but the spectacle of one Russian fleet sunk by Russian hands at 
Sebastopol, and of another trembling, season after season, behind stone fortresses 
in the shallow waters of Cronstadt, never daring to accept the challenge of any 
British squadron, however small, is one the record of which we certainly may 
read without shame.. Still, the fleets of England, though well adapted for 
battles by sea, and sufficient to drive the enemy from the open waters, were 
almost totally deficient of the class of vessels which were essential to the 
putting forth of our full power against his fleets and coasts. Nor was the want 
supplied with anything like that promptitude which the occasion demanded. 
It is difficult, with all the facts before us, to believe that the neglect occurred 
in the naval department. The Government, it will be recollected, was inactive ; 
slow not only in entering upon war — which all governments should be — but slow 
also in conducting the war after it was entered upon— which no government 
should be. When they grew vigilant and active, and the Naval Department 
was called upon to provide light-draught steam vessels without delay, the work 
was entered upon with astonishing and admirable rapidity. All the capabilities 
of the royal dockyards were put into instant requisition; the Government 
steam factories were everywhere expanded, and in some places, such as Sheer- 
ness, created ; and private builders were called upon to take up large contracts. 
The execution of these contracts, though performed with the utmost alacrity 
and good-will, involved the contractors in serious pecuniary losses, which the 
Surveyor of the Navy exerted himself to mitigate, and did mitigate to some 
extent. This evil was, I grieve to say, greatly aggravated, if not altogether 
occasioned, by the excessive demands for wages made upon the contractors by 
their workmen, who knew they were needed, and straightway played the 
tyrant. 

Mr. Scott Russell's paddle-wheel gun vessels, the Recruit and Weser 
(formerly the Nix and Salamander), are in many respects most excellent 
vessels, and the former proved very valuable in the Sea of Azof. Captain 
Dahlgren, of the American navy, mentions her as " highly spoken of, being a 
fast and an excellent sea-boat." ' But the same experienced officer says also of 
the Admiralty's vessels — " For the service contemplated, this fleet of small 
screw-vessels was well adapted, far better than any other." Further, Sir 
Howard Douglas, Bart., the distinguished author of " Naval Gunnery," to 
whom the naval service is more indebted than to any other man, living or dead, 
for the efficient use of its armaments, published only a fortnight since a treatise 
on " Naval Warfare," in which, while he complains of the great length of the 
despatch vessels as a cause of weakness, he adds, "A smaller class of steam- 
vessels has since been constructed as gun-boats, and these come fully up to 
the author's idea-of what a good gun-boat should be." They possess, however, 



16 



On Naval Architecture. 



I" The Artizan, 
LJanuary 1, 185&. 



one great defect in the rapidity with which the tube-plates of their boilers bum 
out. So great is this evil in the gun-boats, that in the mere trials of the 
engines, the boilers often become so bad as to require extensive repairs.* 

The Admiralty have frequently been accused of building line-of-battle ships 
in profusion, to the neglect of frigates and lighter vessels. If there was some 
show of reason in this charge at the commencement of the Russian war, since 
that period there has existed no ground for its repetition. Our navy is now 
composed of the following fighting vessels: — -First, 201 sailing vessels of 
all classes, but few of which, probably, will ever be again commissioned. 
Next, we have 75 paddle-wheel steamers, most of which, though not very 
effective for fighting purposes, will, while they last, be of considerable value in 
times of peace, and of some service even in war. Finally, we have a fleet of 
screw steam-ships and vessels, to the constitution of which I desire to draw 
particular attention. It consists of 51 line- of-battle ships, each armed with 
8-inch shell guns and 32-pounder solid shot guns, in various proportions, 
together with one, and in some cases two, pivot G8-pounders ; 9 block ships, 
also armed with 8-inch shell guns, and 3'2-pounders in various proportions, 
together with two C8-pounders and four 10-inch shell guns to each ship ; 
28 frigates, most of them powerfully and some of them very formidably armed 
— the engines of 16 of the 28 being at least of 600 nominal horse-power; 
13 corvettes, each carrying twenty 8-ineh shell guns, and at least one 
68-pounder, or one 10-inch shell gun ; 8 other corvettes, armed with 
32-pounders, and at least one pivot-gun each ; 4 mortar frigates, with 13-inch 
mortars, 68-pounders, and 32-pounders ; 8 floating batteries, entirely with 
68-pounders ; 27 sloops, mainly with 32-pounders ; 26 gun-vessels, with 
68-pounders and 32-pounders ; and 163 gun-boats, each with one 68-pounder 
and one 32-pounder — in all 331, inclusive of a few now building and under- 
going alterations. It is impossible to examine these figures without observing 
that the number of our frigates, corvettes, sloops, and still smaller vessels, is 
very large as compared with our ships of the line ; and it is, in my judgment, 
equally impossible to point out any very glaring defects in the principle upon 
which they are armed. 

I by no means wisli to imply that the armamenls of our steam fleets are not 
susceptible of improvement with the means already at our disposal. The very 
variety observable in the armaments of ships of similar dimensions indicates 
imperfection, and even evinces a sense of imperfection in the minds of the 
authorities who arrange them. Moreover, Sir Howard Douglas and Captain 
Dahlgren have particularised one class of gun which is much used by us, but 
which is too light for its duty, viz., the 10-inch shell-gun of 86 cwt. This gun 
has been superseded in the American navy by one of 107 cwt., and should 
certainly occupy a less prominent position in ours. 

Before passing to topics of a novel character, it should be stated, however 
summarily, that, in respect to those great features to which I refer, viz., 
dimensions, forms, means of propulsion, and powers of attack and defence, the 
ships of our navy have become, during the surveyorship of Sir Baldwin Walker, 
the embodiments of all such sound and well-tested improvements as have been 
hitherto found compatible with the purposes for which ships of war are designed. 
I may state, first, that the dimensions of our ships are increased, as necessity 
seems to require without any kind of prejudice. We have 50-gun frigates of 
nearly one-fourth greater tonnage than the largest line-of-battle ships of fifty 
years ago. Then the tonnage averaged in large ships about 25 tons per gun ; 
now it averages in our frigates 50 tons per gun. It is true that this difference 
partly arises from the introduction of the engines and fuel, but it is also greatly 
due to a wise increase in the carrying power of the ship, independent of her 
steaming requisites. Again, the forms of our present ships have been adapted, 
by the introduction of fine water-lines, to the circumstances attendant on screw 
propulsion, so as to ensure the high speeds for which our navy has lately become 
remarkable. Sir Howard Douglas, in his treatise on " Naval Warfare," refers 
this quality partially "to the adoption of the wave principle in forming the 
bows." This, however, is a mistaken though a very pardonable supposition. 
Mr. Scott Russell's wave-line theory, which, whether right in all or in some 
only of its features, has been the occasion of vast improvements in ship con- 
struction, is not, I believe, adopted by the Admiralty. Many of their ships 
have, it is true, some water-lines which are hollow ; but this has arisen not 
from any admiration for hollow water-lines as such, but from the necessity of 
combining a convex bow above the load-water-line with fineness and straight- 
ness of form at that line, which cannot well be done without giving a slight 
degree of concavity to the bow below. The extent to which the present sur- 
veyor lias adopted the screw propeller has already been mentioned; and it may 
be here added that most of the engines fitted to the steam-ships of our navy 
are among the finest specimens of marine engineering. The remarks I have 
already made on the armaments, and those I have presently to make on the 
armour defences of our modern war-ships, will be seen, on the whole, to give 
completeness to that favourable opinion which I am here expressing. All this 

* I have great pleasure in being able to state that Rear- Admiral J. Jervis Tucker, and 
Mr. Blaxland, Superintendent Engineer of the factory at Sheerness Dockyard, have ener- 
getically endeavoured to remedy this evil, and have succeeded in getting rid of the trouble- 
some and expensiye tubular system altogether. They simply employ a series of several 
fire-clay bridges, within the furnace, in conjunction with means for admitting air, at the 
same time diminishing the size and increasing the number of the fire-places. The system 
answers perfectly, and not only does away with the derangements and expenses attendant 
upon the tubular system, but also increases the evaporation, prevents the formation of 
smoke, greatly economises the fuel (a very important point in marine boilers), and renders 
the supply of steam to the engine surprisingly uniform. Some delay has occurred in the 
adoption of these improvements by the Steam Department of the Admiralty, mainly, I 
believe, in consequence of Captain Halsted and the engineers of the steam reserve at 
Sheerness having instituted experiments with a modified form of tubular boiler, which 
appears to me to be either the same as, or a very slight variation of, the boiler patented 
by Mr. Bartholomew in 1855. It is difficult to believe that there can be any partialitv on the 
part of the Steam Department of the Admiralty to tubular boilers, the defects of which 
have been so fully explained by this Society's distinguished prizeman, Mr. Charles Wye 
Williams, and I am happy to hear that the Admiraltv contemplate having a gun-boat or 
two fitted for trial with the improvements of Admiral Tucker and Mr. Blaxland.— E. J. R. 



does not, of course, imply the absence of minor defects, but it does indicate 
that the present surveyor of the navy, with the able and well-trained scientific 
assistants, has not been slow to adopt changes when associated with improvement. 

I have now to consider the exceptional vessels denominated floating batteries. 
The first I shall mention is the Spanker, which was designed about the vear 
1800, by Mr. Richard White, and of which Mr. Fincham, in his " History of 
Naval Architecture," gives the following account : — " This vessel was intended 
to be a formidable floating battery, to carry guns of large calibre and mortars, 
so as to be suited for offensive operations in bombardment as well as for the 
defence of harbours. She was on the deck, 114 ft. 6 in. ; 42 ft. 4 in. in breadth. 
The main deck was of an oblong shape, and square across at the bow and stern, 
so that four guns might be fired in lines parallel to the keel. This deck was 
made to project beyond the bottom, and was intended to be sufficiently high 
above the water that when boats should go alongside to board, they might be 
drawn under the projection in which scuttles were formed to fire through into- 
them ; but the ship had not enough displacement, and the projection was 
therefore brought too near the water for the boats to go beneath it. Under sail 
this vessel was unmanageable; hence she was soon kept for harbour service 
alone, at Sheerness." 

No floating battery was again undertaken in England until the late war with 
Russia, when the Emperor Napoleon commenced the building of several of 
these vessels, propelled by steam, and protected over their whole assailable 
surface with thick armour plates of iron. The original conception of iron- 
plated vessels has been generally attributed to the Emperor ; but he was by no 
means the first proposer of them. In the second volume of the " Mechanics' 
Magazine," published in 1824, was an article in which notice was taken of a 
memoir written by a M. de Montgery, a Captain in the French Navy, in the 
following terms : — " M. de Montgery contends, that while we have vessels of 
war constructed of wood, they should, at least, be plated with iron. Long 
before any one had thought of substituting metal for wood in the construction 
of large vessels, plates of iron or brass had been used for covering ships of war 
and battering rams. The celebrated galley built by Archytus and Archimedes, 
for Hiero, tyrant of Syracuse, was cased in this way. Philo of Byzantium 
afterwards proposed using battering machines made entirely of metal; but 
Father Mersenne appears to have been the first who thought of adopting them 
for ships. M. Montgery says, that to render the sides of a vessel shot and 
shell proof, they should have a plating of iron about six inches thick ; that is, a 
series of sheets of iron with blocks of cast iron between." The proposal to use 
plates of iron on the sides of ships was likewise made many years ago by 
General Paixhans, in his " Nouvelle Force Maritime." 

The Emperor Napoleon having undertaken the construction of such vessels, 
and the English press having become apprised of the fact, a similar under- 
taking was, to a certain extent, forced upon the Admiralty ; and the eight 
remarkable structures which now exist in our harbours are the result. It can- 
not be denied that these vessels were prematurely built, or that they are in 
many respects inefficient as ships of war. In the fourth edition of his " Naval 
Gunnery," published in 1855, Sir Howard Douglas stated several very cog'ent 
facts bearing upon the construction of these craft. To one passage in particular 
I would refer: "Nor will iron slabs 4| inches thick," he said, "be proof 
against 68-pounder or 84-pounder solid shot, with which it appears the Rus- 
sians are plentifully provided ; and unless the timbers of these vessels are 
enormously thick, such heavy shots will not only punch holes in the iron, but 
may also make great breaches in their sides by their prodigious power." In 
confirmation of these observations, I may state that some of the worst effects 
stated to have been produced by the late gun practice at Portsmouth upon the 
Meteor and Erebus floating batteries, were consequent upon the yielding of 
the timbers, or of the ribs, rather than upon the penetrability of the plates. 
I cannot speak with absolute certainty upon this point, because, as the experi- 
ments were of great public interest, the Lords of the Admiralty were most 
careful to have the shot holes covered over with canvas as soon as they were 
made. I have since applied to their lordships for copies of the reports made 
upon the trials ; but their lordships were unable to comply with my request. 

The floating batteries built by the Admiralty are undeserving of that utter 
condemnation which some have pronounced against them. Sir Charles Napier, 
for instance, committed a great error when, in a letter to the Times, he men- 
tioned, " Iron floating batteries which could hardly swim, and if they could 
would have been useless ; for, had they been placed within 400 yards of Svea- 
borg, they would have been annihilated, and at 800 yards they would have 
done no harm." Those batteries are armed, as before stated, with 68-pounders, 
and Sir Thomas Hastings' experiments on the Prince George hulk, twenty 
years ago, proved that, at 1,200 yards, 68-pounders are highly destructive, and 
we all know that they are so at even much greater ranges. The true defects 
of the batteries lie, not in any weakness of armament, but in their slowness of 
speed, their unmanageableness at sea, and, as the late experiments appear to 
show, the weakness of their frames. 

It is time that all those who concern themselves with this great question of 
how iron may best be rendered available for the defence of ships' sides, should 
recur to the circumstance which gave rise to it, and to the true end to be at 
present attained. That circumstance undoubtedly was the introduction of 
Paixhans shells into naval warfare ; and the end desired is the application of 
means by which the entrance of those terrible missiles through the side of a 
ship may be avoided. The attainment of this end would leave us subject only 
to the entrance of solid shot, to which all our ships were exposed during the 
wars in which we won our supremacy, and from which no practicable system 
of iron plating can at present be expected to save us. The attempt to build 
ships which shall be proof to solid shot — at least, to wrought-iron solid shot — 
is an altogether illusory one; and such ships are not urgently required. It is 
as a defence against shells, and hollow charged projectiles generally, and 
against these only, that iron plating can yet be made available. By applying 
iron of very great thickness between wind and water, we may reduce the 
liability to injury by shot at that important part, and it may be well to do 



The Artizaw, "1 
January 1, 1859. J 



American Notes. 



17 



this ; but if the upper works are made shell-proof we can expect no more. 
These considerations reduce the question to a form in which it may be practi- 
cally dealt with, and I doubt not the solution of it is not very distant. 

The only suggestion I have personally to offer upon the point is one in which 
I find I have, luce many others, been altogether anticipated by the gentlemen 
at Whitehall, but which I may nevertheless mention. It will be evident that 
flfty feet in length of iron plating on the bow or stern of a vessel, while they 
would weigh the same as fifty feet of similar plating near midships, would 
cover and protect a much smaller volume of the ship. I would propose, there- 
fore, that the midship portion of the ship only be protected, and that it be 
separated from the forward and aft portions by strong iron water-tight com- 
partments, so that, however much the extremities might suffer, the ship would 
still be safe, and the men protected. Means would of course have to be pro- 
vided for extinguishing any fires which might be, occasioned by shells in the 
undefended portions of the ship. This plan has been considered, I believe, but 
whether it is judged favourably or not I am unable to say— probably not, as it 
does not appear to afford any defence against raking shot. 

Before quitting this branch of my subject I ought to add a word on 
Mr. Macintosh's system of warfare, which Lord Panmure for a time forcibly 
suppressed. It consists in surrounding fleets or fortresses by floating naphtha, 
firing the same with potassium or otherwise, and thus enveloping the enemy in 
a cloud of vapour, which either destroys him or drives him from his guns. 
This is not a mere theoretical proposition made without consideration, the 
inventor having chartered a vessel during the war, and proceeded to the Black 
Sea with a cargo of naphtha for the purpose of attacking Sebastopol. His 
amicable intentions were frustrated by indisposition of our admirals to adopt 
so great an improvement. 

Having now hurriedly reviewed the modern changes which our ships of war 
have undergone, and glanced at those floating suggestions which some are so 
eager to urge upon the Government, it will be well to consider for a moment a 
few facts bearing upon the immediate future of our navy. And, first, there 
cannot be a doubt that the Government can, if they please, hasten the intro- 
duction of great and radical changes. It is perfectly within their power to 
build ships of war of a far more destructive character than those which this or 
any other nation now possesses. But would it be politic for us to take the 
lead in such innovations ? A navy like that which we possess involves, it 
should be remembered, the investment of an immense amount of capital. The 
cost of a ship of war when rigged and equipped may be estimated at £36 per 
ton, exclusive of the cost of her armament, and the engines involve a further 
expense of, say, £60 per nominal H.P. We have in our navy at the 
present moment 607 fighting ships, of an aggregate burden of 665,220 tons, 
and carrying engines of scarcely less than 100,000 H.P. Therefore our ships 
alone have cost us nearly £22,000,000; and upon their engines we have made 
a further outlay of nearly £6,000,000. Consequently, we have invested in 
these ships nearly £28,000,000. Now, any radical change in the construction 
of war ships must tend to render this enormous sum of money lost to us, and 
entail upon us a fresh expense of like or of greater amount. No other power 
has so large and expensive a navy, and therefore no other nation has so much 
to lose by sweeping changes. As good economists, we should not then be 
over hasty in developing new means of naval warfare in times of peace. 

The defence of our coasts is, of course, at all times a legitimate subject of 
improvement, and no necessary pains should be spared in rendering that com- 
plete ; but that may be best done by manning a sufficient number of the ships 
we have, rather than by devising new ones ; and the existing Government will 
deserve great praise if they provide the means of doing this. There is no sign 
of weakness now visible in the navy of England, save in its lack of men. The 
ships we possess carry no less than 15,140 guns, and could these be all discharged 
at once, would, at each round, project 254 tons of iron ; in one day of 
twelve hours, firing but one round per minute, they would therefore project 
914,000 tons, enough to form a solid cannon ball 120 feet in diameter. To fully 
man all these ships, and bring all their powers into play, we should require but 
162,000 men, and if we had but a fair proportion of these to call upon in an 
emergency, our defence would surely be complete. 

It will probably be objected by some, that the French and Americans are 
building a new class of formidable vessels, and that we must, therefore, do the 
same. But the assumption of such objectors requires proof. The " ram's nest," 
lately discovered in America, is very much like another kind of nest which some 
people are very often finding. The " ram " that it contains need occasion no 
alarm. It has already cost the American Government 800,000 dollars, and a 
committee appointed to examine it is said to have reported that it will take 
8,000,000 more to complete the operations begun. It is, therefore, exceedingly 
likely to remain in its nest for very many years to come ; indeed, an American 
scientific paper some time since pronounced it fit only for exhibition to visitors, 
at three cents, apiece, as a monument of folly. As to the French, they have, 
like ourselves, many inducements to refrain from great innovations. Where 
we have 60 steam line-of-battle ships, they have 30 ; where we have 330 steam 
ships, they have 220 ; and where we have 600 ships in all, they have 400. Fur- 
ther, much that we have heard of their proceedings is not only false, but 
ridiculous. The rumour that they were building six polished steel frigates, by 
which some persons were recently plunged in deep distress, was manifestly put 
forth to excite our foolish fears; and statements less evidently absurd are, 
doubtless, often started with a like object. The French navy itself, though 
too costly to be thrown lightly aside, is greatly inferior to ours, as we have just 
seen, and the Emperor can be doing nothing that our Government are not advised 
of, and which they are not, therefore, at liberty to do also, and doubtless would 
do were it anything formidable. Certainly nothing yet made public need 
excite our apprehension. Give us a strong Channel fleet, liberally manned and 
well disciplined, and no power that the French, or any other Government, pos- 
sesses would dare to menace our coasts ; nor would any man venture to say, 
with Sir Francis Head, that " nothing but the will of a foreign emperor kept 
London secure from a foreign army." 



The paddle-wheel has made us independent of sails ; the screw has made us 
independent of the paddle-wheel ; and the 200 horse-power engine of the 
Rattler has been followed by the 1,000 horse-power engine which is to drive 
the Mersey, and that may speedily be replaced by one ten times its power. A 
single improvement in the manufacture of iron, which hundreds are now seek- 
ing daily to improve, may at any moment give us the means of carrying our 
steam pressure to unheard of heights,* of resisting shells with the utmost ease, 
and of augmenting the strength of our ^jrdnance tenfold. By eagerly arming 
ourselves with all the warlike agencies with which science may thus supply us, 
regardless of all consequences, we may certainly make our navy most terrible ; 
but we shall at the same time, by the very preponderance of our might, compel 
all other powers, secretly at least, to make common cause against us, and thus 
prepare the way for universal strife. On the other hand, if we content ourselves 
with vigilantly observing the changes which other powers make, and adopting 
only such improvements as are necessary to keep alive that wholesome respect 
which all nations now feel for us, we shall neither encourage ambitious powers 
by our weakness, nor alarm timid powers by our strength, but shall continue to 
stand, a solid and impregnable bulwark, in the shelter of which men may 
peacefully work out their highest and noblest destinies. 

The progress of shipbuilding has been impeded by the state of financial 
matters in the mercantile world, and the falling off in the employment for 
shipping ; but it is curious to observe, that whilst shipowners are complaining 
very loudly of want of employment for their present tonnage, that on the 18th 
November last there were building on the banks of the river Wear only, no 
less than 69 vessels of various dimensions, chiefly of 300 to 700 tons, and some 
few of over 1,000 tons measurement. 

AMERICAN NOTES. 

New York, Dec, 1858. — I send herewith a description of the Washington 
Hydrant, for which was awarded the silver medal of the American Institute 
in 1857:— 

The Washington Hydrant. — This invention, which was patented by 
Messrs. Perrini and Boyles, in the United States, June 23rd, 1857, has, we are 
informed, been found to answer admirably. The accompanying sectional view 
represents the working part of 
the hydrant, which is composed 
of two cylinders, connected in 
the centre and open at each 
end, into which plungers, with 
cup -leathers, are fitted. 

The small cylinder is screwed 
into a chamber, to which the 
supply-pipe is attached, the 
water surrounding the lower 
end of the cylinder, with holes 
to admit it. When the plun- 
gers are forced down till the 
small one passes the holes, the 
water flows into the small 
cylinder, thence through at the 
pipe, and out of the nozzle. 
When released, the pressure 
upon the small plunger forces 
it up past the openings, cut- 
ting off the supply, and con^ 
tinning a sufficient distance, 
to allow the water in the pipe 
to descend into the large cy- 
linder. 

This hydrant has neither 
spring, valve, valve-seat, or 
cock of any description, and 
yet combines all the require- 
ments of a hydrant, as it is 
self-closing and non-wasting j 
sufficiently protected from the 

cold to resist freezing, and is free from any shock or concussion of the water 
in operating it. By removing one bolt in the centre of the cap, all the work- 
ing-parts are left free to be drawn out. Its constant use for two years 
authorises an opinion favourable to its general application. 

I also send herewith the dimensions and particulars of the Ocean Queen, 
paddle steamer, built at the Morgan Works, New York :— - 

DIMENSIONS OF "OCEAN QUEEN." 
Built by J. A. Westervelt and Sons, New York; Engines by Morgan Iron Co. 

Length on deck ...... 330ft. 

Breadth of beam 42 

Depth of hold 22 

Depth of hold to spar deck 30 

Measurement of Hull ) „ QQfl . „„ 

Engine room { 2 ' 830 tons - 

Kind of engine, vertical beam ; ditto boilers, return flued ; diameter of 




* A simple but very important improvement in boiler plates, lately introduced by 
Messrs. Alton Fernie, of Derby, deserves mention in this connection. It consists in thick- 
ening the sides of plates, and. bending the thickened parts to form the angles of boilers and 
other vessels, so that the ordinary plates may be riveted directly to the turned-down 
portion of the thickened plate without the use of angle iron. The full value of this inven- 
tion it would not be easy to state. In addition to its direct advantages, it has the further 
one, doubtless, of getting rid of that unexplained but very common cause of failure of 
boiler plates, not at the joints, but in their neighbourhood, — E. J, R, 



18 Reviews. — List of New Books. — Correspondence : The " Winans" Steamer. 



tTHE ARTIZAN, 
January 1, 1859. 



cylinder, 90 in. ; length of stroke, 12 ft. ; diameter of paddle-wheel over boards, 
38 ft. ; length of boards, 10 ft. 6 in. ; depth of ditto, 2 ft. ; number of ditto, 
32 ; number of boilers, 3 ; length of ditto, 36 ft. ; breadth of ditto, 14 ft. ; 
height of ditto, exclusive of steam-chests, 11 ft. 3 in.; number of furnaces, 3 ; 
breadth of ditto, 4 ft. 3 in. ; length of fire-bars, 7 ft. 6 in. ; number of flues, 
16; internal diameter of ditto, 10 of 18 in.— 6 of 14 in.; length of ditto, 
lower, 23 ft.— return, 30 ft. 2 in. ; diameter of chimneys, 1 of 81 in. — 1 of 77 
in. ; height of ditto, 32 ft. ; area of immersed section at load draft, 536 sq. ft. ; 
load on safety-valve in lbs. per sq. in. 25; heating-surface, 7,155 sq. ft.; con- 
tents of bunkers in tons, 800. Date of trial, July 29, 1858. Draft fore and 
aft, 15 ft. 6 in. 

Frames, 17 in. by 10 in. ; and 30 in. apart ; number of bulkheads, 4 ; inde- 
pendent steam, fire, and bilge-pumps, 1 ; masts, 2 ; rig, brig. 

Intended service, New York to Havre. C. H. H. 



BEVIEWS. 

Comparative Philology. By Hyde Clarke, D.C.L. John Weale. 
We have here another of Mr. Hyde Clarke's clever and very useful pro- 
ductions—clever in the learning and ability it contains, and useful in its 
popular intelligibility. The full title of the book is, " A Short Handbook of 
the Comparative Philology of the English, Anglo-Saxon, Frisian, Flemish or 
Dutch, Low or Piatt Dutch, High Dutch or German, Danish, Swedish, Ice- 
landic, Latin, Italian, French, Spanish, and Portuguese Tongues." Now, 
though the title is so long, and really not unnecessarily so for describing the 
book and its intended office, yet is the work truly succinct, pleasantly readable, 
facilely intelligible, and convenient for reference in its interesting and educa- 
tional subject. It need hardly be said that of the several foreign languages 
named the Author does not affect to give or teach more than references to 
words and sounds in such languages cognate with words in English. 

The character of handbook — he might say, waistcoat pocket-book— with 
which he starts he maintains, for into thirty pages covered certainly with but 
small yet clear type, Mr. Clarke compresses— 1. A genealogical history of our 
language, in which he embraces a current allusion to the languages of the 
world ; 2. Classification of the European languages, with prominently clear 
demonstration of the affinities with the English; 3. A succinct sifting of the 
modes by which the settlement of our language has been arrived at ; 4. An 
intelligible explanation of prominent provincial dialects and their sources ; 
5. An°essay on comparative philology, having, of course, special reference to 
the English language ; 6. Tables of English words and the words cognate with 
them in those other languages named, such tables, with the points at which 
the Author aims, being thoroughly intelligibly shown, and, whilst curious, 
facile of comprehension. The terms of eulogy in which we speak of this un- 
pretentious little book must not be attributed to favouritism, but to our warm 
feeling of approbation at seeing so much of research and learned acumen 
rendered so popularly intelligible and pleasantly attractive on the subject of 
our mother tongue. 

We hold it to be of first importance that the means of communicating ideas 
by our vernacular language should be rendered certain ; and there is not any 
calling or profession in which it is more important than to that of the engineer 
and artizan, that accuracy of means of communication should be surely, and, 
at the same time, currently attained. Bearing in mind, too, the vast variety 
of countries in which our callings are likely to be needed, and the difference of 
locality in our own island from which our native artizans spring, it must be 
found extremely useful that so happy a medium for amalgamation of terms as 
is furnished by our learned brother should exist. There may be a brother in 
other practical yet learned professions as well versed in the science of commu- 
nication of ideas as the author under review, but, for ourselves, we must say 
such a one's name has yet to be introduced to us. 

The present treatise by Mr. Clarke reminds us, and pleasantly so, of his 
compact dictionary, which passed under our review some few years since, and 
of the advantages found in that work, which we pointed out in our critique. 
Should he publish a further edition, we hope he may think it reconcileable with 
his plans to address himself especially to a full supply of technical terms appli- 
cable to the pursuits of the engineer and mechanic. 

Returning directlv to the work under review, we would say that we should 
like to see, and hope the public may be favoured by Mr. Clarke with, a work 
which shall be especially addressed to the connection of our modern English 
with the Greek and Latin languages,— words derived from, and compounds 
with those two languages, especially the former, comprising so many of our 
existing technical terms. We had marked passages in the present work for 
extract, and we should have much liked that our author should have spoken 
for himself, but on the one hand the limit of our space warns us that we 
must conclude, and on the other, the very moderate price of this very useful 
and instructive compendium places it so obviously within the means for pos- 
session of all our readers that we cannot, we think, better serve our friends, 
our author, and our subscribers, than by recommending their possessing 
themselves of this convenient handbook. 
Five-Place Logarithms: arranged by Edward Sang, F.R.S.E. William 

Blackwood and Son, Edinburgh and London. 

This will be found a useful aid to the engineers and others interested in 
exact calculations involving Logarithms. The author of the present waistcoat- 
pocket series of tables is well known for his useful arithmetical works, " Ele- 
mentary Arithmetic," and " The Higher Arithmetic;" both of which are well 
known and highly esteemed class-books. 

Weale's Engineer and Contractor's Pocket Booh for 1859. 

We have, just before going to press, received this useful work, the publi- 
cation of which is looked forward to by civil and mechanical engineers, railway 



and public works contractors, and others, as one of the annual necessities of 
scientific men. 

The most notable feature in the Pocket Book for 1859, appears to be, a 
reprint of the valuable Paper, by Mr. W. Fairbairn, F.R.S., on the " Resist- 
ance of Tubes to Collapse," which has but just now been published by the 
Royal Society.* 

Cours Elementaire d' Analyse, a V Usage des Sieves de l'Ecole Navale et de 
l'Ecole r Centrale des Arts et Manufactures. Par M. Meunier-Joannet, 
ancien eleve de l'Ecole Polytechnique, Professeur d'Hydrographie, Charge- 
du Cours d' Analyse a l'Ecole Navale Imperiale. 1 vol., 8vo, with numerous 
figures interspersed in the text. Arthur Bertrand, Paris. 
This work (a more detailed notice of which we must defer to another 
opportunity), being specially intended for the use of students in the arts 
and manufactures, and in naval science, requires for its study an ac- 
quaintance with the first branches of mathematics — the first four operations, 
in algebra, the resolution of equations of the first and second degree, the ele- 
ments of geometry, and a competent knowledge of rectilinear trigonometry. 
The elementary course is preceded by a short and easy introduction, divided 
into three parts — 1st. On the study of the conic section; 2nd. A" demonstra- 
tion of the binomial formula of Newton; and 3rd. First notions of analytic 
geometry, in which the student is initiated into the study of curves, represented 
by their equations. With the aid of the diagrams blended throughout the text, 
and of a kind of " aid-to-memory" table inserted at the commencement of the 
work, this book will serve as an excellent introduction to a complete course 
of analysis, and a preparatory training-exercise before attacking the intricacies 
of the differential and integral calculus. 

The Rudiments of Hydraulic Engineering. By G. R. Burnell, F.G.S., 

Civil Engineer. Weale. Part I. 

The author premises by his " Preface" that his book is " au attempt to 
bring together in its pases the consideration of the bulk of the subjects 
especially connected with building in water, or with the application of that 
fluid," and, to some extent, to make a rudimentary treatise, as far as possible, 
" complete in itself." Again, he says, " It is the province of an author of a 
rudimentary treatise to record universally-received theories on the subject on 
which he treats, and he is thus debarred from the expression of opinions 
which might afterwards be proved incorrect. I have therefore carefully 
avoided the introduction of controverted doctrines, and have unhesitatingly 
resorted to the common fund of scientific knowledge to be found in the 
writings of the most esteemed authors." These proper and sound suggestions 
Mr. Burnell has faithfully carried out in his compendious little work, and has 
so done it that the book may not only "guide the student in his future read- 
ing," but serve him also for a book of practice in the execution of his works. 

A list of the authors consulted is promised, and a number of appropriate and 
especially intelligible diagrams are scattered through the pages. The depart- 
ments, "Drainage" and "Applied Chemistry," are both treated ofadaptably 
to sanitary measures. In the hands, therefore, of our sanitary improvers, this 
handbook of reference and practice may be useful and convenient. The 
thirty-five pages devoted to the important subject of " irrigation," in the 
course of which several clever, yet simple and practical, diagrams are intro- 
duced, must render the book essentially useful to the many persons whom we 
may well expect to be speedily addressing their time, talents, and capital to- 
such improvements in India and elsewhere. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND NEW EDITIONS OF BOOKS. 

PHILPS —The Progress of Carriage Roads and Water Conveyances from the earliest times. 

to the' Formation of Railways : being a Section of Philps' " History of Progress in- 
Great Britain." (Houlston.) 
FERGUSON (J )— Illustrated Handbook of Architecture : being an Account of the 

Different Styies prevailing in all Ages and Countries. 2nd edit. 8vo, cloth, 26s. 

(Hurray.) 
LANDELLS (E.)— Home Pastime, or Child's own Toymaker, with Practical Instruction 

and Illustrations. 5s. Also, by the same Author, the Boy's own Toymaker Cloth, 

2s. 6d. (Griffith, St. Paul's Churchyard.) [An amusing and instructive book for the 

young. — Ed.] 
TRIUMPHS OF STEAM ; or, Stories from the Lives of Watt, Arkwright, and Stephenson. 

Illustrated, 16mo, cloth, 3s. Gd. Coloured, 4s. Gd. (Griffith.) A book suitable for the 

young. 
OER'S CIRCLE OF THE SCIENCES. New edit., cloth, 5s. (Houlston.) 
ENGINEER AND CONTRACTOR'S POCKET BOOK for 1859. (John Weale, 59,. 

High Holborn.) 



COEEESPONDENCE. 
[ We do not Jwld ourselves responsible for the opinions of our Correspondents ^-Zt,. 

THE WINANS STEAMER. 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir -The naval architecture of the United States has been remarkable for 

nothing more than for its bold deviation from established types of form, and the 

disastrous consequences which have resulted. ,„v„„ vor i en ml1 »h ; n a 

We all recollect their " kettle-bottom" ships, which laboured so much in a 

to the stemlposfwhich required, that their harpings immediately below the 



A portion of this Paper will be found published in The Akiizas «t the end of 1857. 



The Artizan, "I 
January 1, 1859. J 



Correspondence : Specific Heat, The Wave-Line, SfC, tyc. 



19 



transom should be as fine nearly as those near the keel to admit of their rudders 
steering them. We have recently seen their much- vaunted clippers, the water 
lines of which have been (and not inaptly) compared to a longitudinal section 
of a wine bottle, thus rendering the limited buoyancy of their ends insufficient 
to sustain the superincumbent weight of poop and forecastle, and causing them 
to strain so enormously as to spoil their cargoes with the resulting leakage. 
But " Cousin Jonathan" appears to me to have given the "go by " to all his 
former escapades in the " Winans steamer," and at length to have arrived at 
the ne plus ultra of daring empiricism. _ 

Were the water as quiescent as it is in the vivarium of a virtuoso, and the 
wind disposed to waft only the gentlest zephyrs, this prodigy of naval 
architecture would no doubt go very fast; for (as your readers have seen in 
one of my communications) assuming her circular midship section and her 
length, her form approximates to that which mathematicians have determined 
to be "'the solid of least resistance." _ 

Your numerous scientific and experienced readers connected with the marine 
of this country are quite as able to form an opinion for themselves upon the 
merits and defects of this novelty as I am ; but as it is said our underwriters 
"would insure a rat afloat in a sieve,"— as our transatlantic consins may 
nrobably introduce their " notion " to Lloyd's room,— and as a word or two in 
your columns would have the weight due to them, from the character of The 
Artizan —I think good may result from your publication of the following 

'The Winans steamer is, with regard to her immersed body, the essential 
trunk of a steam ship, having those important adjuncts, gripe and after-run, 
lopped off. This is seen in an instant by the following sketch, Fig. 1. 

Fic2. 




The portions a and b, and the keel connecting them, are absent. Thus the 
vessel cannot be placed on a straight tier of blocks for repairs. When she is 
under way, the least lateral force of wind or wave will cause her to deviate 
from her line of motion ; and no rudder will so control her as to prevent her 
course from being as wild and devious as that of a bacchanal after his most 
copious libations to the jolly god. 

Ordinarily, the breaking in of the parabolic lines of the main body to the 
straight lines of the gripe and run aft — that is, to a and b — causes the naval 
architect to introduce his hollow water-lines at the two ends of the ship, below 
her load-draft, and I have not yet learned the utility of introducing them for 
any other purpose. Thus, if a b in Fig. 2 be the middle line, a being at the 
stem and b at the stern-post, a horizontal section or water-line of the main 
body may be conceived of as terminating at c and d, in which case all beyond 
at both ends would be mere external deadwood : to avoid this the two are 
united by the introduction of a concave curve, as at a; and y. 

Vessels have been built without either gripe or after-run, and those necessary 
appendages have been added subsequently, but secured in such a manner to 
the main trunk or body as to admit of the whole of the appendage at each end 
being knocked away without damaging either the middle line work of the 
ship, or disturbing any portion of her planking in the slightest degree ; and 
such a plan may be re-adopted for both wooden and iron vessels. 

The meta centre of the Winans steamer will obviously be in her longitudinal 
axis at whatever draft of water she may be placed, that is if all her transverse 
sections are, as they appear to be, circular. It is clear then that her stability 
■will be in proportion to the distance of the centre of gravity of her whole mass 
below this line. By arbitrarily placing weight, of course, it is possible to give 
her great stability. But there must be room for the boilers and the working 
of the engine-machinery, and there must be a considerable space lor coals. 
Now there appears to me to be considerable danger that the consumption of 
"the latter, as the vessel proceeds on her passage, will tend to elevate her centre 
of gravity and make her crank, especially if goods be stowed in her upper part. 
T can hardly imagine that her coals will be so posited as to prevent this with- 
out stowing goods and stores in an utterly unusual way. At all events, an 
extraordinary amount of skill and care will be requisite to secure a necessary 
and constant quantum of stability. 

But who are to navigate her '.' No masts or sails ! What is to become of 
her if eilher her engine or propeller becomes disabled ? Really this is a fearful 
consideration ! It appears to me that, with anything like a sea on, the waves 
will break over her in all directions. What is to prevent them ? Her form, 
•as delineated in your columns, looks more like that of a vessel constructed for 
submarine purposes than of a " skimmer of the seas ;" and one would wish 
that she should be manned with an amphibious crew, and that every passenger 
should be equipped witli the dress of a diver. 

I have said she may become crank, but, alas ! what does that mean ? vessels 
of the ordinary form when crank may be listed a streak or two to port or star- 
board, their planes of flotation becoming wider, the meta centre is thrown up, 
and stability results ; but if once the centre of gravity of this vessel get above 
her meta centre, she will totally upset, without any intervening change in the 
position of her meta centre to check for a moment the inevitable catastrophe, 
in which case, unless I have misapprehended her form, or the ordinary prin- 
ciples of naval construction, she would become a floating mausoleum, with her 
bottom " gleaming in the pallid moonbeam." G. J. Y. 



SPECIFIC HEAT. 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — To Mr. Lawrie's paper on the expansive working of steam, which 
you inserted in the last number of your magazine, there is appended a note, in 
which the author objects to the use, by Professor Thomson and myself, of the 
term (as he quotes it) of " negative specific heat." 

I believe Mr. Lawrie's objection must have arisen from his overlooking the 
fact, that in a paper ot mine in the " Edjiburgh Transactions" for 1850, to which 
he seems to refer, and to which Mr. Thomson referred when he expressed 
approval of my views, the term employed by me is not " negative specific 
heat," but "negative apparent specific heat;" the word "apparent" being 
used to indicate the principle, that when a substance, such as steam, absorbs 
heat while its temperature is falling, that phenomenon does not arise from the 
real specific heat becoming negative, but from the disappearance of heat in 
producing mechanical work : — being the very principle which Mr. Lawrie's 
paper illustrates. I have from the first maintained, that the real specific heat 
of every substance is constant and positive. — I am, Sir, your most obedient 
servant, W. J. Macquorn Rankine. 

Glasgow, 4th December, 1858. 



THE WAVE-LINE. 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir,— May a reader of your Journal in the Far West take the liberty of 
requesting the favour of an answer to an inquiry respecting the " Wave-Line 
Principle," in its practical application to the building of yachts ? 

I have perused your Journal from 1851 to 1858 inclusive, and read the 
several articles contributed by Dr. Eckhardt, "Demerara," Moy, Armstrong, 
and others, but have failed to "elicit therefrom sufficient information to design a 
yacht on the wave-line principle from keel to gunwale. 

The brief question is, where can such information be obtained ? I have 
examined the " Transactions of the British Association " from vol. i. to 
vol. xxi., and find therein frequent promises and postponements. Vol. xv., 
p. 112, of that series, contains a brief article " On the Sailing Powers of Two 
yachts built on the Wave Principle, by Dr. Pliipps, or a Sir. Beamish, of Cork, 
but without any illustrations or diagrams. 

The "Civil Engineer's Journal," vol. vi., pp. 353 and 372, on the " Form of 
Ships," says, — " We think it desirable, in the absence of the voluminous report 
of the Committee, and drawings, which may not be published for years, to state 
at least some of the results," &c, &c. 

I beg leave to ask if such results have yet been published ? 

Is the rule given in p. 372 of the " Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal," 
to be applied at the several streaks or heights from the keel to the light, or 
load water-line, and then to adopt any form from that line to the gunwale 
which the fancy or skill of the designer may dictate ; or, to exemplify my meaning 
still further, suppose the breadth of the midship section at the light water line 
to be 10 ft., and the wave lines to be designed for that breadth, then, if mid- 
way between that line and the keel the section should be contracted to, say, 
5 ft., is the same rule applicable at that part of the midship section, in order to 
constitute the true wave line ? 

I have the honour to be, Sir, your obedient servant, 

Toronto, Canada West, Nov. 18, 1858. Ontario. 

[Mr. Scott Russell's reply will be found in " Notices to Correspondents," in 
the present number. — Ed.] 

ENGINEERING MEMORANDUMS PROM AMERICA. 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — In continuation of my previous communications about boiler explo- 
sions and other matters interesting to the engineering profession, I send you 
herewith a few jottings of those events which have occurred in this part of the 
United States during the month of November, 1858 : — 

I see by the " New York Herald" of November 7th that the propeller tow- 
boat Petrel exploded her boiler on the Gth, on the North River ; three men 
lost their lives, while a fourth was badly injured. The body of the engineer 
was blown fully 100 ft. into the air, and in its descent fell upon the promenade 
deck of the steamer Broadway, crushing in the deck with its weight, and 
forcing its way through to the saloon below. Not a remnant of the boat was 
discovered except a few pieces of broken timber, and even these traces of the 
ill-fated boat soon floated off with the tide, and were lost to view. No cause 
can be assigned for the explosion, as there are none left alive who can throw any 
light upon the matter. 

I perceive in the " Philadelphia Press" of November 12th that the boiler 
of the steam stave mill of Mr. Rich, at Moores, New York State, exploded 
yesterday morning ; one man was killed, three others are not expected to live, 
and one is seriously injured, but may recover. 

The " Philadelphia Ledger," November 18, says, the locomotive, " James 
Irby," exploded near Newberry, Georgia, on the 15th, killing the engineer and 
brakesman, and seriously wounding two others. 

The " Philadelphia Press" of November 12th states, the Fox River Valley 
Railroad was sold by auction on the 10th inst. at Chicago ; it was knocked 
down at one thousand dollars, for the benefit (!) of the first and second bond- 
holders. 

A new wooden screw-steamer, Comanditaria, built for Cuba, by Messrs. 
Cramp> of Kensington, Philadelphia, went on her trial trip on the 17th 
November ; she is 180 ft. long, 30 ft. beam, 11 ft. hold. The engines (two) 
built by Messrs. Reaney and Neafie, of Kensington, Philadelphia, are vertical 
crosshead engines, each cylinder 40 in. diameter, 3 ft. stroke. They are con- 
densing engines, and are geared 2J to 1 to the screw shaft. She ran from Phila- 
delphia to Chester, 16£ miles, against wind and with tide, in 1 hour 4 min. ; 
back again, against tide, in 1 hour 25 min. Pressure of steam, 25 to 27 lbs. 
No. of revolutions of engines, 35 per min. 



20 



Notices to Correspondents. — Recent Legal Decisions. 



r The Artizanv 
(.January 1, 1859. 



The wooden screw-steamer Kensington went on her trial trip on the Dela- 
ware on the 25th November. She is 1,200 tons burden ; length of keel, 208 ft. ; 
over upper deck, 210 ft. ; breadth of beam, 32 ft.; depth of hold, 18 ft. Engine, 
inverted cylinder style, working direct on the screw shaft, 1 cylinder 56 in. 
diameter, 44 in. stroke : speed on trial trip 13 miles per hour. Hull built by 
Birely and Lynn, Kensington, Philadelphia. Engine by Reaney and Neafie, 
Kensington, Philadelphia. Built to run between Philadelphia and Boston. 
' In forwarding the particulars of the boiler explosions and other accidents 
connected with engineering and mechanical subjects, I do so from no desire to 
unfairly invite or challenge comparison to the disadvantage of American engi- 
neers and mechanical constructors, because, before any such invidious course 
should be adopted, I consider you should first " look at home," as there is very 
much that is very bad to correct there. My object has been rather to chro- 
nicle these occurrences in aid of your very praiseworthy efforts to post your 
readers up in what is going on throughout the world that may possibly interest, 
if not all, at any rate very many of the readers of The Aktizan. This, I find, is 
being very successfully and more than ever done by the four or five pages 
devoted monthly to " Notes and Novelties." 

Yours obediently, 

An American Engineer. 

Philadelphia, U. S., November. 
• 

NOTICES TO COBEESPONDENTS. 

11. T. — We need only refer you to a pamphlet published by Mr. Charles Clifford, the inventor 

of the safety apparatus for lowering ships' boats. (Norie & Wilson, 157, Leadenhall- 

street, 1858.) 
J. E. (Glasgow). — Many thanks for your obliging communication. We hope to hear more 

on the same subject. 
E. H. D. — We take the hint, and will act upon it. We are obliged for the illustration and 

particulars from the other side. May not the defects of construction be the real cause of 

failure in most cases ? The tendency of the present movement is certainly for a further 

increase of pressure. 
W. F. B. (Calton, Glasgow). — Your request shall be attended to. The particulars were 

acceptable. 
J. S. (Rouen).— We shall be happy to afford you the information required upon your 

stating what use is to be made of it. 

C. Robertson (Birmingham). — You are quite right. Mr. Bramwell, Mr. Cowper, a Mr. 
Humphrey, and several others have expressed their opinion upon the Chillingworth 
Engine described at the last meeting of the Mechanical Engineers in your town. We 
have no doubt Mr. Chillingworth has ere this satisfied himself upon the subject. 

N. P. B. (Sheerness). — By accident your letter of November 3rd escaped our notice for the 
December number. We refer you as to your first and second inquiries to Mr. John 
Bourne's work on the Screw Propeller. As to your third, it is evident your colours are 
of inferior quality. Try Rowncy's or Newman's. 

D. M. (Glasgow). — We omitted to thank you for the paper forwarded. We shall be glad to 
be favoured with any information which you can afford us on matters of local interest, or 
which may come under your observation. 

E. P. (Marine Imperiale, Paris). — Many thanks for your very valuable and much-esteemed 
communication, which was, however, received too late in December to enable us to do 
justice to the subject in our January Number. We shall treat the subject at length in 
our next. 

G. (Cairo). — Many thanks for your promised communication. The information already 

forwarded has proved serviceable. 
J. W. (London). — We shall be glad to be informed of the result of your experiments. 
Dr. L. T. — We shall be glad to have your promised communication at your earliest 

coiTenience. 
J. W. B. (Baton Rouge, U.S.). — We have not heard from you. We communicated on 

22nd June, in reply to yours of 28th May. 
C. E. (Washington, D.C. U.S.) — The information respecting the oil shall be sent to you in 

the course of a mail or two at furthest. 
P.— We should recommend you to apply to Ellis & Co., Irwell Works, Manchester. 
P. C. (Dover). — We give with this present Number an Illustration of a Bridge of the kind 

you refer to. 
C. Hadley (Birmingham). — We have received several papers from you, but we cannot 

quite see how we can be of service to you in the affair. 
P. J. C. — An apparatus has been patented by a Mr. Baines, of Manchester. Write to 

B. Fothergill, Esq., Queen-street chambers, Manchester. 
J. S. AV. (Birkenhead) will be answered through the post. 
Ontario (Toronto).— Mr. Scott Russell's answer to your inquiry is—" The wave-line is 

to be applied to one chief water-line only, and those above and below it may deviate from 

it according to the other requisites of the ship." 
Terry and Prince (Breech-loading Arms). — We must postpone publishing Mr. Prince's 

reply to Mr. Terry until our next. 
[Correspondents whose communications are not here replied to will either be answered 

by post, or arc reserved for next month. — Ed] 



RECENT LEGAL DECISIONS 

AFFECTING THE ARTS, MANUFACTURES, INVENTIONS, &c. 
_ Under this heading we propose giving a succinct summary of such deci- 
sions and other proceedings of the Courts of Law, during the preceding month, 
as may have a distinct and practical bearing on the various departments treated 
of in our Journal : selecting those cases only which offer some point either of 
novelty, or of useful application to the manufacturer, the inventor, or the 
usually— in the intelligence of law matters, at least— less experienced artisan. 
With this object in view, we shall endeavour, as much as possible, to divest our 
remarks of all legal technicalities, and to present the substance of those decisions 
to our readers in a plain, familiar, and intelligible shape. — Ed. 

Engineers and Contractors.— A case of some importance, involving the ques- 
tion of relative position and legal remedy, as between parties standing in the above relation, 
came (4th December ult.) before the Lord Chancellor, on appeal from the decision of 
Vice-Chancellor Stuart. The suit had been instituted by the plaintiffs (Scott and Another), 
contractors, for the purpose of obtaining accounts of works which hud been done by thera 
in the construction of certain reservoirs, &c, in the county of Lancaster, for and on behalf 
of the defendants, the Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Liverpool, by 
whom one Thomas Hawksley, also a defendant, had been employed in the capacity of 
superintending-engineer of such works, and also on account of the -onies due to the plain- 



tiffs in respect of the same. By the terms of the contract, it was, amongst other things, 
provided, that without the certificate of k the engineer of the defendants, as to the sufficiency 
of the work done, no money was ever to be paid to the plaintiffs. The plaintiff:.' tender 
for the execution of the works (.£56,262) was accepted. The defendants had (as plaintiffs 
alleged) from time to time paid them about ,£50,000 on account, such payments having 
been made in certificates given by the engineer ; which certificates, however, they alleged 
were given to them at irregular times, and did not include all the works which "ought to 
have been included ; and that the engineer sometimes refused to give them any certificate 
of the amount justly payable to them, in respect of work done since the delivery of the pre- 
ceding certificates, thereby preventing them from obtaining payment of that to which they 
were justly entitled. In February, 1855 — the contract having been entered into in January 
1854 — the plaintiffs received notice from the Town-clerk of the Corporation of Liverpool 
that the coniract (from alleged non-observance) on their part was to be determined, and 
that the Corporation would take possession of the works ; and they, accordingly, did take 
possession. The plaintiffs then filed their Bill, praying, that the withholding of the cer- 
tificates, by the defendant (the engineer) of the amount due to them for works executed 
under the contract might be declared to be a fraud on them — the plaintiffs ; that they were 
entitled to receive such amounts, &c. ; that an account might be taken of all works done 
by them since the date of last certificate ; and that the defendants— the Corporation— might 
be ordered to pay the amount. The Vice-Chancellor, at the hearing, had held that, upon 
the terms of the contract, the. agreement to pay was conditional, and that the plaintiffs were 
bound by the arbitration clause (to refer any disputes) contained in their contracts : and 
he had dismissed the Bill wth costs. Hence the appeal. Subsequently, the Court adopted 
the view of the matter taken by the Vice-Chancellor, and dismissed the appeal. 

Designs Act.— The Eeyersible Mantilla Shawl.— In the Court of Queen's 
Bench (4th December ult.), an action was brought by Mr. J. Norton, of Clayton West, near 
Huddersfield, against Messrs. Nicholls, Gow, and Morris, shawl manufacturers, at Glasgow, 
for the alleged infringement of a new design for a reversible Mantilla shawl, capable of 
being folded in eight different ways. The defendants alleged that there was no novelty in 
the design. After the examination of several witnesses, the parties agreed that Norton's 
shawl was "a new combination of old ingredients," and that with the exception of the pattern 
and colors, the defendants' shawl was substantially the same. A verdict was then entered 
for the plaintiff, with nominal damages, leave being given by the Judge (Lord Campbell) 
to defendants to move the court above, upon points of law, to enter the verdict for them, 
or for a nonsuit. 

Kailway Surveyors, i-c— Question or Liability for Accidents.— In 
the Court of Exchequer (10th December ult.), in an action for compensation (Maitland and 
Wife v. the Great Northern Railway), the special jury, after a long deliberation, handed in 
a written finding to the Lord Chief Baron. It was thus worded, " We think that the Sur- 
veyors and Engineers constructed the line according to the best of their judgment, and that 
the primary cause of the accident was from an unprecedented fall of rain that could not 
have been anticipated. The jury are unanimous in the above, but differ as to the negligence 
of the company — six being satisfied that the company have used proper vigilance, and six 
that they have not." His lordship then snid that after the opinion expressed by the jury, 
and that opinion being the result of a long, and, no doubt, serious deliberation, he should 
not detain them any longer, but discharge them from giving a verdict. — They were dis- 
charged accordingly. 

Uncoupling Trucks. — At the inquest, held 11th December ult., at Canterbury, on 
the workman who was killed whilst in the act of uncoupling one of a train of trucks while 
in motion, the jury returned a verdict of "Accidentally killed." The coroner, in his sum-- 
ming up, whilst he exonerated the South-Eastern Company from blame on this occasion, 
added " that the practice of uncoupling trucks whilst in motion, was, in his opinion, highly 
dangerous, notwithstanding the statement that had been made, that the practice in question 
was not at all dangerous." 

Responsibility of Road-Surveyors. — Recently, a commercial traveller, on his 
road to Neyland from Haverford West, drove the wheel of his gig on to a heap of stones 
which had been placed in the centre of the road. He was thrown with great violence to 
the ground, and was conveyed to Neyland, where he died in two days. A coroner's inquest 
(says the " Cambrian ") has since been held, and a verdict of " Manslaughter" returned 
against the road surveyor and contractor, who was at once conveyed to prison, 

The Thrashing-machine Boiler Explosion near Nottingham.— The 
adjourned inquest on one of the sufferers took place on the 25th November ult. The seven 
men who were injured by the explosion have all recovered. The evidence went to show 
that the explosion was caused by the carelessness of one of the latter, he having neglected 
to open the safety-valve and let off the steam. A verdict of "Manslaughter" was returned 
against him, and he has been committed to the County gaol to take his trial at the next 
assizes. 

Metropolitan Works.— The parish of Marylebone have recently taken legal steps 
(in the Queen's Bench) to quash a "Precept," issued by the Local Management Board, 
and addressed to the vestry (under the 19th Victoria), directing them to raise a consider- 
able sum; one item of which, namely, £1,561 2s. 4d.— "the portion of the sum to be 
charged on the parish of Marylebone for defraying the expenses of the Board in the execu- 
tion of metropolitan works"— is objected to. The item, it appears, is to be applied to the 
construction of the Victoria Sewer. On the motion for a Rule Nisi for a certiorari to 
bring up the "Precept" in question, "with a view to its being quashed in part or in 
whole," the parishioners contended that the Board had no right to charge the item, unless 
they (the parishioners) derived benefit from the object attained; and the parish of Mary- 
lebone derived none in this case. Ultimately, at the suggestion of the Court, the matter 
was directed to be turned into a special case for the opinion of the whole Court. The prin- 
ciple involved in this dispute is, undoubtedly, of great importance, as it directly affects the 
question of " centralization of power " in opposition to that of " local management." 

Leaving a Train while in Motion.— At the Greenwich Police Court, a young 
woman was charged, on summons, with leaving.a train, on the London and Brighton Rail- 
way, while in motion. The offence was clearly proved, and admitted by the defendant, 
who had a very narrow escape of her life, she having been thrown with considerable 
violence on her back at the Forest Hill Station, the train from which she alighted pro- 
ceeding at great speed at the time. It appearing that a gentleman passenger had shown 
defendant the bad example of acting as she had done, by leaving the train before her, the 
Magistrate (Mr. Traill), after a few well-timed remarks on the folly of persons running 
the risk, as is too much the practice, of -being either killed or perhaps injured for life, by 
endeavouring to save a few seconds of time, in jumping from carriages immediately on 
trains entering a station, said, that, as a caution to her and others, he should order her to 
pay a fine of 10s., and costs. 

The late Accident on the Oxford, Worcester, and "Wolverhampton 
Railway.— On the 80th November ult, at Stafford (Oxford Circuit), an indictment having 
been preferred against Cook, the railway guard, committed for trial for manslaughter in 
respect of the accident which occurred on this line 23rd August last, near Dudley, the 
grand jury threw out the bill. The announcement having elicited some slight feeling of 
applause in the court, the Judge expressed his disapproval of such manifestations of opinion 
in courts of justice. The case against Cook was withdrawn, and he was formally acquitted. 

The " Great Eastern " steam-ship has already become the subject of litigation. 
In the Court of Common Pleas (16th December ult.), an action was brought (Martin and 
others v. The Eastern Steam Navigation Company) to recover the rent for the yard where 
the Great Eastern was built, from the 16th of October, 1857, to the 1st of March, 1858. The 
question of what amount was to be paid depended upon a vast number of details, and,, 
having occupied the Court until its rising, the further hearing was postponed. 



$A5\% 



LIBKAKY 



The Artizav, "] 
January J, 1859.J 



Recent Legal Decisions. — Notes and Novelties. c da-t 21 



Railway Kngineers' Fees and other Claims.— In the Court of Queen's 
Bench, 30ih November ult, a case (Bruff v. The Eastern Counties' Railway) involving 
these questions was tried before Lord Campbell and a special jury. The plaintiff (Mr. 
Bruff) was chief engineer and superintendent of the Eastern Union Railway Company, at 
a salary of .£600 a year, and, on the amalgamation of this company with the Eastern 
Counties Eailway, at an additional salary of £1,000 per annum. The chief question in 
dispute was, whether the £1,000 a year was exclusive of the £800 a yenr for the Eastern 
Union Line (on which he still continued), or whether the salary was for the two lines. 
The other items of claim were for sums of money expended by plaintiff, in regard to 
parliamentary duties, under the direction of the company, and also for his own personal 
services in the superintendence of the new works required after his appointment. The 
entire amount claimed was about £6,000. After a lengthened investigation of these various 
claims, and an intimation from the Lord Chief Justice that it would be most desirable if 
the parties could arrange the dispute between themselves, a consultation was held between 
the counsel on both sides, and it was announced that the parties had agreed to a verdict for 
the plaintiff (Mr. Bruff) for £1,750. Verdict accordingly. 

Railway "Fishes" and "Fish-joints." — Alleged Infringement op 
Patent. — In the Court of Queen's Bench (7th December ult.), a case of alleged infringe- 
ment was opened, which occupied the Court for two days. The plaintiffs were the exe- 
cutors of the late Charles Heard Wilde ; and they sued the Great Northern Railway 
Company, to recover damages for infringement of a patent which had been granted to Mr. 
Wilde in 1853, for "improvements in fishes and fish-joints for connecting the rails of 
railways." The patent had become the property of the " Permanent Way Association." 
It appeared it had been found advantageous to attach pieces of iron to eacli side of the 
rail, by means of bolts and nuts; and that such pieces of iron were called "fishes" — said 
to be derived from the French affiches; and the " fishes" so-called were used to attach 
the ends of the rails securely to one another. They were attached to the rails by means of 
bolts, which passed through the " fishes " and rail ; the bolts having a square head at one 
end, and being secured at the other end by a nut screwed on to the end of the bolt. la 
screwing on these nuts, it was found that the bolt would turn round ; the bolt being round, 
and passini through the " fishes " and rail by a round hole. To obviate which inconveni- 
ence Mr. Wilde formed a recess, or groove, in one or both sides of each " fish," so as to 
reduce the quantity of metal at that part, and to he adapted to receive the square heads of 
the bolts, and thus prevent them turning round when the nuts are being screwed on. 
Between 30,000 and 40,000 of these "fishes" had been used by the defendants upon their 
line. The defence was, that the so-called invention of Mr. Wilde was no invention at all ; 
but merely the application to "fishes" for rails of a well-known and ordinary contrivance 
for preventing bolts from turning round when being screwed. Several witnesses for the 
defence proved that the contrivance had long been in use in various kinds of machinery, 
and in the construction of bridges. Lord Campbell left it to the jury to decide whether 
Wilde's process was new, or had been known before, and applied to other substances; 
and, secondly, whether there was any invention in the method in which Wilde applied it 
(by the addition of a groove) to iron rails. The jury ultimately found a verdict for the 
defendants. 

Liability of Railway Companies for Certain Accidents.— In arecent case 
tried in the Court of Queen's Bench (Smith v. the Great Northern Railway Company), the 
jury, after an unusually protracted consultation, found for the plaintiff, with one farthing 
damages : a verdict which Lord Campbell refused to receive, as being " not reasonable." 
Ultimately, the jury, notwithstanding some very serious remarks by his lordship on the 
occasion, still persisting in their unwillingness to find any other verdict, the Chief Justice 
discharged thera, adding " this trial must go for nothing." The action had been brought 
by Mr. Smith, a commercial traveller, to recover compensation for injuries sustained 
■whilst travelling on the Great Northern Railway. The defence was, that the accident to 
the train in which plaintiff was a passenger, was to be attributed to the unprecedented 
floods in the neighbourhood where it happened, and not to any negligence on the part of 
the company. Two other juries, it appeal's, have, on this very question, been discharged, 
as not being able to agree on their verdict. Lord Campbell, in the course of his remarks, 
announced his intention to introduce a measure for a legislative remedy (in civil cases) for 
the inconvenience arising from the present state of the law which requires unanimity in 
the veriiict of juries. 

The Lace Trade.— Fisher and Gibbon's Patent.— A case, of considerable 
Importance to patentees, came recently (29th Novembpr ult.) before the Lords of the 
Judicial Committee of Privy Council, on the petition of John Fisher, of Carrington, Not- 
tingham, for the prolongation of a patent granted to him and Mr. James Gibbons in 1844, 
for improvements in the manufacture of figured or ornamented lace or net, or other 
fabrics. The invention consisted ; first of improvements in the manufacture of figured or 
ornamented lace or net, or other fabrics, by working ornamental figures or designs by 
machinery, in such manner that two threads are caused to loop together — one passing 
through the fabric, the other looping with that thread, and the two together, producing 
ornaments in loopwork on the surface of the fabric. Secondly, causing threads of gimp 
or yarn to be sewn in pattern on such fabrics by machinery. Thirdly, causing the 
machinery to be governed by Jacquard or perforated cards, with rollers, so as to give varied 
movements. Fourthly, that two or more warped threads might be used in making lace 
or net. And, fifthly, in governing the working of the warp threads by independent 
instruments. The ground on which the application for an extension of the patent was 
now made was, that, owing to a suspension of the use of the patent while it was out of his 
hands, the petitioner had not received a fair and proper reward for the invention, which 
was of great public utility and value ; that this non-user accrued through no fault of the 
petitioner, and that it was the foundational patent of all the two-thread sewing-machine 
inventions ; he (Mr. Fisher) being the first known inventor of the interlooping and inter- 
locking stitches, and of the mechanical means of producing them. Sir Peter Fairbairn, 
Mayor of Leeds; Mr. Wm. Fairbairn, of Manchester; Mr. Benjamin Fothergill, C.E. ; 
Mr. William Smith, C.E., and several eminent manufacturers from Nottingham, were 
examined in support of the petition, and proved the novelty and value of the patent. 
The petition was opposed on behalf of Mr. Thomas, the patentee of the sewing-machine. 
The decision of their Lordships was,— that notwithstanding the great merit of the inven- 
tion, and the very high opinion which their lordships entertained for the great originality 
and surprising talent of the inventor for having originated the novel mode of combining 
two threads together for the purpose of sewing, or combing or ornamenting fabrics ; and 
also for having afterwards produced the very ingenious mechanism for making those 
stitches, as well as for making and ornamenting lace during the process of manufacture; 
still the non-user of the invention during a period of ten years, whilst the patent was out 
of the inventor's possession (although neither the inventors nor any one else appeared to 
have reaped any reward from the invention, but, on the contrary, had incurred great 
outlay in connection therewith), did not afford sufficient ground to induce them to depart 
from the precedents which their lordships had adopted ; and therefore, on the ground of 
non-user for the period stated, their lordships refused the application. 

IN the Common Pleas (21st December ult.). an action was brought by a draper, at 
Shrewsbury, against the London and North Western Railway Company, to recover damages 
for injuries sustained by him while travelling on their line (4th October, 1857), about 4 
miles north of Rugby. On this occasion, the shackle, or coupling-iron, which connects the 
engine with the carriage, had broken : the result was an internal collision, and a sudden 
shock to the carriages forming the train, which ran into its own engine. Some of the 
carriages became detached and rebounded "with a kind of seesaw motion, one against the 
other." It appeared also that the side-coupling chains between the tender and the break- 
Tan were not, on the present occasion, attached ; and evidence was adduced by the plaintiff 



to showthat had they been used, the accident would, most probably, not have happened: 
inasmuch as, when the screw- coupling broke, they would have taken its place and per- 
formed its duties Engineering evidence was given that, as a precautionary measure, the 
side-chains should always be attached or linked. The defendants, on the other hand, 
justified the disuse of the side-chains, by urging that as their action and strain were un- 
equal, they were actually detrimental in going round curves ; at all events, when applied 
to the connection of the tender and the break-van. During the rigorous cross-examination of 
the plaintiff and his witnesses (with the view of showing that the alleged damage which he 
had sustained, as well immediate as from the loss of business which had resulted, were 
much exaggerated), an arrangement was announced as having been made, by which the 
Company consented to a verdict for £1,350. " The plaintiff was injured on their" (the 
defendants') "line, and they were willing to waive the question of negligence." Ch : 3f- 
Justice Cockburn — "Such being the case, I deeply regret that it has been thought proper by 
your (Mr. Mellor's) clients, to impute to the plaintiff conduct of the most scandalous 
nature." Verdict for the plaintiff. Damages £1,350. 



OUR 



NOTES AND NOVELTIES. 

1 NOTES AND NOVELTIES " DEPARTMENT.— A SUGGESTION TO OUR 
READERS. 



We have received many letters from Correspondents, both at home and abroad, thanking 
us for that portion of this Journal in which, under the title of " Notes and Novelties," we 
present our readers with an epitome of such of the " events of the month preceding " as 
may in some way affect their interests, so far as their interests are connected with any of 
the subjects upon which this Journal treats. This epitome, in its preparation, necessitates 
the expenditure of much time and labour; and as we desire to make it as perfect as 
possible, more especially with a view of benefiting those of our engineering brethren who 
reside abroad, we -venture to make a suggestion to our subscribers, from which, if acted 
upon, we shall derive considerable assistance. It is to the effect that we shall be happy 
to receive local news of interest from all who have the leisure to collect and forward it to 
us. Those who cannot afford the time to do this would greatly assist our efforts by 
sending us local newspapers containing articles on, or notices of, any facts connected 
with. Railways, Telegraphs, Harbours, Docks, Canals, Bridges, Military Engineering, 
Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, Boilers, Furnaces, Smoke Prevention, Chemistry as 
applied to the Industrial Arts, Gas and Water Works, Mining, Metallurgy, &c. To save 
time, all communications for this department should be addressed, "18, Salisbury-street, 
Adelphi, London, W.C.," and be forwarded, as early in the month as possible, to the 
Editor. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

A Project for Tunnelling Deserts has been started by a French engineer. He 
proposes, seriously, the scheme of turning the sands of the African desert into solid lumps 
for the construction of a tunnel. The sands are to be fused by concentrating the rays of 
the sun by means of an Archimedean mirror. Thus, arched blocks are to be cast, which, 
placed one against another, will form a tunnel as far as the desert extends. This tunnel, 
protected against the simoom and flying columns of sand, and supplied with water from 
artesian wells, is to be the grand central artery of Africa, and by establishing a commu- 
nication between the north and centre of Africa, make Algeria the entrepot for the com- 
merce of the Mediterranean, with all the regions of the South, — a most magnificent scheme, 
we must admit, if, peradventure, it does not turn out to be based, in more ways than one, 
on a sandy foundation. 

The Great Bell of Sherborne, hitherto well known to antiquarians as being the 
gift of Cardinal Wolsey, and the pride and boast of the town, met on Sunday evening, 5th 
December ult., with an irreparable disaster. As the ringers were ringing for service, it 
cracked, so that it is no longer, says the " Bath Chronicle," fit for use. 

The Old "Victory." — A " memorial table" has been made of the original timbers 
of this long-cherished relique of Nelson's fame. In the construction of this table (by the 
joiners of Portsmouth dockyard, and destined as a present to the Junior United Service Club, 
Pall-mall), no wood has been employed but that which was in the ship at the battle of 
Trafalgar. It is 18 ft. long, 10 ft. wide, and 3 ft. 1 inch high, supported on six massive, 
handsomely-turned legs. All the models of the ships engaged in the ever-memorable 
action, are to be placed upon the table, which is panel-tapped, and fastened by screws or 
screw-bolts, made also of copper, which was in the ship in the height of her glory. 

Timber from Sawdust. — There is much talk in Paris of a new process, combining the 
hydraulic press and the application of intense heat, by which the particles of common sawd ust 
are made to re-form themselves into a solid mass, capable of being moulded into any 
shape, and presenting a brilliant surface, a durability, and a beauty of appearance not 
found in ebony, rosewood, or mahogany. 

Canadian Timber Trade.— Quantities made for shipment, last spring, from the 
Ottawa and Trent :— Ottawa, 14,500,000 cubic ft. of white pine; Trent, 1,855,000 cubic ft. 
sf ditto ; Ottawa, 985,000 cubic ft. of red pine ; 555,000 cubic ft. of aloe, and 100,000 cubic 
ft. of tamarac : besides large quantities of these woods from other districts of Canada, west 
and east, with black walnut, birch, &c. From New Brunswick, the shipments are nearly 
as great as from Canada. 

A " Standard Hundred " of spruce deals is 120 deals, each 12 ft. long, 1 J in. thick, 
and 11 in. wide. 

The Great Bell " St. Stephen.'" — A second and more continued trial of the 
tones and power of this our modern triumph of bell-founding, took place on Sunday after- 
noon, 28th November ult. The experiments were tried by the clapper, and not by the six- 
hundred weight hammer. The tones of the new bell are much more mellow than were 
those of his ill-starred predecessor " Big Ben," owing to the fact that the former is more 
than 2J tons lighter than was the latter; the respective weights being "Big Ben," 15 tons 
18 cwt. 1 qr.221bs. ; " St. Stephen," 13 tons 10 cwt. 3 qrs. 15 lbs. 

Iron Strong-room por the Gold-fields. — A large iron fireproof strong room 
has just been manufactured, by Messrs. Chubb and Son, for the Bank of British North 
America, and shipped to Vancouver's Island. The room is 7 ft. high, 9 ft. 4 in. deep, and 
7 ft. wide, constructed entirely of wrought-iron, and lined with fire-resisting materials. 
The interior fitted with nineteen separate and distinct lock-up safes, besides shelving for 
books and papers. The exterior secured by two large folding-doors, having three detector- 
locks, throwing twenty bolts all round. The room was shipped in parts, and will be 
fastened together from the interior, on arrival at its destination. Total weight 13 tons 
J cwt. 

Cloth Cutting and Sewing by Steam-BIachtnery.— Mr. Tait, an extensive 
army-cloihier, states, in his evidence before the Army-Contract Commission (7th December 
ult.), that the whole of his clothing is cut and sewn by machinery driven by steam, and 
capable of making 4,000 suits a week * * * ; that, on an emergency, with the steam- 
power at his command, he could furnish 10,000 suits a week to the Government. He 
employs about 1,100 people, and no man at wages lower than a guinea a week. As an 
illustration of the value of steam-power in this particular trade, he added that, on the 
evening of the 22nd May last, he received an order, in Limerick, from the War Depart- 
ment, to supply 800 regimental suits with the greatest expedition. He telegraphed to 
England for the materials he required, and had them brought to Limerick, the greatest.; 



22 



Notes and Novelties. 



r The Artizan, 
LJanuary 1, 1858 



part of the way by an express train ; and, on the morning of the following Friday, he 
despatched, by express-train from Limerick to London, the whole 800 suits complete. 

The Iron (Export) Trade. — The Liverpool merchants, engaged in the iron trade, 
have recently memorialised the Mersey Docks Board, requesting that some space may be 
allotted for their accommodation in the vicinity of Wellington or Bromley-Moore Docks, in 
order to form a depot for iron brought from the interior, and intended for export. The 
memorial is understood to have met with a favourable reception by the individual members 
of the Board ; on the understanding, iiowever, that the trade be willing to pay a small rent 
for the required accommodation. 

Paris Consumption of Wrought and Cast Iron.— From official returns, it 
appears that 957,955 kilogrammes of wrought iron, and 703,800 kilogrammes of cast iron, 
suited for building purposes, entered the gates of Paris during the month of September 
last, showing a diminution of 29,161 kilogrammes in the wrought iron, and an increase of 
13,701 kilogrammes in the cast iron as compared with the corresponding month of 1857. 

A New Army Clothing Establishment at Pimlico.— From the evidence 
before the recent Army Clothing Commission, it appers that the Government have rented 
Mr. Cubitt's premises in Pimlico for £1,800 a year, and they are to be converted into a cloth- 
ing department. 

Sculling Machine. — Under this title, the " Greenock Telegraph" notices a novel 
mode of propelling a boat, the invention of a Mr. Buchanan. It is wrought by two levers ; 
but instead of the paddle being placed in the stern, it is placed in the middle of the keel. 

The New Main Drainage of London Works are in course of commencement, 
if not in actual progress. The Northern High Level Sewer Works (the first portion of the 
undertaking) will extend over 8 miles) 4,295 ft. of ground, the main line being somewhat 
more than 7 miles, and the shorter line, called the Wickham Branch, rather more than 
1 mile. At one point of its course, the main line of fewer will cross under the North 
London Railway, the sleepers supporting the rails of the latter, being about on a level, as 
regards one branch of the great drain, with the crown of the arch of the sewer, the brick- 
work of which is to be brought up to support the ends of iron girders upon which the 
sleepers are to rest, whilst the traffic of the railway is not to be interrupted — no slight spe- 
cimen, by the way, of some of the engineering (but anticipated) difficulties which will 
beset the completion of the new Metropolitan Drainage plan. Generally speaking, the lines 
are made to coincide with those of existing streets and roads; and there appear to be but four 
or five houses which will require to be taken down and rebuilt. The conditions of this first 
portion of the work, the drawings and specifications of which are prepared, bind the con- 
tractor to finish the whole within 15 months after receipt of the engineer's order to com- 
mence, or to pay £50 as liquidated damages for every day over the time. 

The Coal Whippers of the Fort of London (Saturday morning, 11th of 
December ult.) struck for an advance of wages. They have been paid 6d. per ton for 
whipping coals for some time, although their pay for trie same work was formerly 13Jd. 
They demand 8d. per ton. 

The India Transport Service.— The Overland route is still adopted by the 
Government for the transport of troops to India, although not to so great an extent as 
heretofore. During the autumn the "Hindostan" and "Oriental" Steam Navigation 
Company's vessels have been specially engaged in the conveyance from Suez to Calcutta 
and Bombay of troops brought to Alexandria by Her Majesty's ships, or steamers em- 
ployed by the Government. 

The Number of Officers and Men who have embarked in the Peninsular and 
Oriental Steam Navigation Company's steamers at Suez, during the twelve months ending 
the SOth September ult., stands thus : — 

Officers. Men. 

By the Company's Mail Steamers.. 172 .. 3,343 

By the Special Steamers 161 .. 4,514 

Total 333 .. 7,857 

The Hindostan, Oriental, and Pottlnger are at the present time engaged in this service. 

The Mauritius Steam Postal Service. — The tender made by the Peninsular 
and Oriental Steam Navigation Company for a monthly line between Mauritius and Aden, 
having been sent out to the colony for the consideration of the local authorities, and 
recommended by them to the Home Government, has been accepted,— the annual payment 
for this service is £24,000, — and, in connection with it, the Company have agreed with the 
French Government to convey the mails to and from the Island of Reunion for £12,000 
per annum. 

The Australian (Steam) Postal Service. — The tender, by the same Company 
for this new service, at £180,000 per annum, has been accepted by the Government. 

Great Exhibition of 1861.— The Crystal Palace Directors have made a proposition 
to the Society of Arts to enter into arrangements for holding the forthcoming Art-Exhibi- 
tion in the Crystal Palace. 

Export Trade to India and the East.— The exports from England to Cal- 
cutta, Madras, and Bombay, for eleven months of 1858, were 409,957 tons of goods, valued 
at £12,082,584. To Ceylon, Hong Kong, and Shanghai, 57,553 tons of freight, of the 
declared value of 8,584,290. Adding cargoes to Singapore, Burmah, and other eastern 
ports, the total exports to the East, for the present year, amount to about 600,000 tons, of the 
declared value of about £20,000,000. The Overland route traffic and merchandise are not 
included in the above. 

A Pneumatic Parcels Delivery Company is amongst the schemes to be sub- 
mitted for parliamentary sanction in 1859. The Promoters propose to lay down pipes, like 
the gas and water companies in the streets of the metropolis. 

An Omnibus Subway Company proposes to [construct a subterraneous roadway 
from Westminster to the Royal Exchange, solely for the accommodation of the omnibus 
traffic between these two points. 

Cast-iron Columns. — Twelve cast-iron columns, said to be the largest in the United 
States, are now in process of construction at Cincinnati. They are cast 50 ft. in height, 
4 ft. 4 in. in diameter, weight between 200 and 300 tons, and will cost about 30,000 dollars. 
They are designed for the State House, Madison, Wisconsin. 

A New Steering Apparatus, suggested by Vice-Admiral W. F. Martin, the 
Senior Naval Lord of the Admiralty, was tried on board the Termagant, 25, taken out of 
Portsmouth harbour for the purpose. The alteration consists of a yoke, with a cross-lever 
attached to the head of the rudder, with other gear. This can be, if needful, connected 
with the wheel, now in almost universal use. The ship can be steered on the lower deck by 
a tiller, as usual in most ships. Scientific officers, who have tried the new arrangement, 
have pronounced it a decided improvement both in making the ship answer her helm 
quickly, and as obviating the danger of throwing a man over by the sudden jerk of the old 
tiller. 

Photography by Artificial Light, instead of the rays of the sun, has been 
successfully accomplished by Mr. Moule, with the aid of his newly-invented apparatus, 
lectured upon by the inventor, at the Polytechnic Institution. 

The (Alleged) New Life-preserving Raft, composed of a matress filled with 
cork shavings, has been claimed as the invention of Captain W. Urquhart of New York. 
Thi6, however, has been disputed on behalf of a new claimant, Mr. James Washington, a 
young working man of Liverpool, who, as it is alleged, described " the very same thing " in 
a paper read, about two years ago, before the Royal Institution of that town. 

Deep-sea Pressure.— According to the " Boston Transcript," Lieut. Dayman, in 
one of his deep-sea soundings on the Telegraphic Plateau, hauled up 200 iathoms of sound- 
ing-line in a coil as heavy as lead, from the bottom. A piece of pine-plank, sunk to the 
depth of 500 fathoms, hauled up and thrown overboard, will sink like a stone. 



A Dredging Machine, to cost £7,035 (constructors Messrs. Fawsett, Preston, and Co.), 
has been ordered by the Liverpool Docks and Harbour Board. 

The Smoke-Nuisance.— At Stockport, two firms have been summoned before the 
magistrates, for using furnaces at their works, not constructed so as to consume their own 
smoke, " whereby a great nuisance is caused from the dense smoke emitted from their 
factory-chimney." The sanitary inspector having proved the case, and the defendants having 
promised to do all in their power to comply with the provisions of the Act of Parliament, 
the cases were dismissed on payment of costs. 

The New Gutta-percha Life-boat.— Some recent experiments have been made 
at Liverpool to test the efficiency of Larchar's Patent Gutta-percha Life-boat. The body 
of the boat is entirely of gutta-percha composition, of about 1 in. in thickness; the 
interior fittings, seats, thwarts, &c, being of wood; while the air-chambers, one at each end, 
are of metal. Alleged advantages of the new construction, impenetrability, irrefragabilily, 
lightness and buoyancy. Experimental boat 16 ft. long, 5 ft. beam, and 8$ ft. deep. First 
test (a severe one) was the letting it fall into the water, from the davits, from a height of 
about 16 ft. It fell with tremendous force upon the water; but the boat was not affected 
in the slightest detiree. Several seamen then got into it, filled it with water, turned it over, 
and used every effort to submerge it, but in vain. It was then hauled on deck, turned 
upside down, and its composition sides battered with a heavy hammer, without producing 
even a dent in the gutta-percha. 

Land Drainage in Greece.— The offer recently made by Mr. Webster to the 
Greek Executive to drain the Lake Copais into the adjacent Sea of Eubcea, or Negropont, 
has, unaccountably it would appear, been rejected by the Hellenic Government. The 
water in question covers over 100,000 stremata of good land, and the offer made by the 
English speculator secured unquestionable pecuniary advantages to ihe Greek Government 
(£30,000 sterling for the tenure of ten years), the proposer undertaking all the works at 
his own cost. They higgl d about it, and the Englishman has left in disgust. 

EAILWAYS, &c. 

A Collision on the North-London Railway occurred (6th December ult., 
about 6 o'clock p.m., during the thickest of the fog), at the Hackney station of the North- 
London Railway. A passenger-train from the Hampstead-road station to the City, did not 
start for some time after its proper period. It arrived at the Hackney station a few 
minutes before 6 o'clock, and was standing still, putting down and taking up passengers, 
when an engine was heard approaching the rear o( the train. The dense fog then prevail- 
ing prevented all view of the head -lamp of the engine, until it had reached within a few 
yards of the station. Red signal-lamps were waved, and the driver was shouted to; but, 
unable to check his speed (between 10 and 15 miles an hour) he ran with fearful force into 
the rear of the train. The last carriage, a second-class, was shattered to pieces, and its pas- 
sengers hurled in all directions. The next, a first-class, was also shattered ; a third from 
the rear, a second-class, likewise suffered. Scarcely a passenger in these carriages escaped 
injury : the more serious cases were conveyed on stretchers to the hospital at Dalston. 
The engine which ran into the train was a " heavy-good6' Pilot." By this accident twenty- 
two persons were more or less injured. 

Another Collision [at Lea-Bridge, on the Eastern Counties Railway], took 
place on the same day. The 5.20 passenger-train from Shoreditch was run into by a 
luggage-train, which, it appears, by mistake, had been despatched too early after the 
former train had left the Stratford station. In the last carriage several passengers were 
seriously injured. The 4.5 p.m. train from Bishopsgate had broken down, during the 
dense fog, between Lea-bridge and Edmonton ; and the four following trains, including the 
5.20 had all been brought to a standstill at or near Lea-bridge Station. The goods' train 
that caused the mischief consisted of forty carriages propelled by two engines, and had 
been despatched from Stratford during the dense fog, within from 3 to 5 minutes after the 
5.20 passenger-train had started thence. 

Railway Accident in Lincolnshire.— On the 6th December ult. as the train 
from Manchester to .Hull, starting at 9.15 a.m., was proceeding between Gainsborough and 
Blyton, at ordinary speed, the tire of a first-class carriage- wheel flew off. The driver imme- 
diately pulled up, and, beyond a fracture of the rib to one of the passengers, no very serious 
injury occurred either to train, carriages, or rails. 

Conway Railway Station, on the Chester and Holyhead Railway, has been almost 
totally destroyed by fire. On the 20th November ult., about 2 o'clock in the morning, the 
station-master was aroused, being nearly suffocated by smoke. Finding the station was on 
fire, he removed his family and gave the alarm : but, unfortunately, no fire-engine could be 
procured, for this 6imple reason, as it appears (so says the " Manchester Guardian") that 
the town does not possess one. It is inferred that the fire originated in the upper part of 
the station. 

The Danube and Black-sea Railway Company is understood to be making 
very satisfactory progress. Sufficient labour is attainable, and the necessary lands have 
been secured. The cost of the line is to be £230,000 ; and traffic, it is expected, will com- 
mence in the spring of 1860. 

Accident on the Garston and. Warrington Line.— A serious accident 
(fortunately unattended with loss of life), occurred 2ith November ult., at Sankey Bridge, 
occasioned by leaving open of the canal bridge, across which the railway passes. The 
engine of the night express to Garston was returning about 2 o'clock in the morning, the 
weather being so foggy as to prevent the driver observing any signals that might have been 
placed for his guidance. The bridge, it appears, had been left open for the passage of 
flats along the canal. The engine, a powerful one, driven at considerable speed, crossed 
the bridge at right angles with the rails, breaking and bending them like laths, and was 
precipitated into the canal with a fearful crash, the tender, however, remaining upon the 
bridge, and not altogether detached from the engine. The driver and stoker escaped unhurt. 

Accident on the London and North-WesteFlN Line. — As the goods' train 
from Manchester (23rd November ult.), was approaching the Glaithwaite station, the 
driver, fearing a collision with a coal-train that was being shunted off ihe line, leaped off 
his engine, fell beneath the train, and had his right leg crushed below the knee. Amputa- 
tion was deemed unavoidable. 

Collision at Birkenshaw, near Bradford, on the Leeds, Bradford and Halifax 
Junction Railway.— A coal-train was being shunted (24th November, ult.) on to a sliding 
about 300 yards, on the Drighlington side of the station, as the passenger-train from Ardley 
was due. The two trains came (as is supposed from the denseness of the mist prevailing 
at the time) into violent collision. Guard of passenger-train severely injured, as likewise 
some of the passengers. The fault appears to have consisted in shunting the coal-tram at 
the time the passenger-train was due. 

The Paris and Lyon Railway appears to be fast recovering from its financial 
depression. At the end of the first six months of the present year, the traffic on this line, 
as compared with that of 1857, presents an aggregate decrease of £120,000, the whole of 
which has since been recovered ; the increase for the 3rd week of November last, was 
150,000 fr., or £6,000 sterling. 

Railways in Chili.— The Government of this Republic are, through their special 
agent, Don Silvestre Ochagavia, in Europe, negotiating with Messrs. Baring Brothers the 
loan of seven millions of dollars, authorised by the law of 5th November, 1857, for the 
completion of two railways now in progress, and in which the state of Chili holds a 
considerable amount of shares. The loan appears to be favourably entertained in this 
country. 

Sicilian Railways.— The Neapolitan Government has recently decided that no 
foreigners, of any nation, shall be employed in public works in the kingdom of the Two 
Sicilies ; nor are railways to be contracted for and built by strangers. 






The Artizan, 
January 1, 1859 



1 



Notes and Novelties. 



23 



The Kustendje [Turkish] Railway is (by recent advices) in active progress, the 
works on it being prosecuted with activity, and even the winter weather, which had 
begun to set in with remarkable severity, is not allowed to stop them. Surveys are like- 
wise being made for the construction of other lines to branch off from the Kustendje, and 
the Porte, it is said, has granted a concession for one in the province of Broussa. 

Rolandseck TO Coblentz.— This section, completing the line between the latter 
city and Cologne, was opened on the 11th November ult. 

A Metropolitan Subway Kailroad is likely to be constructed shortly. It is to 
intersect the Metropolis, so aa to carry merchandise, cattle, and market goods by night, 
and passengers and parcels by day, from railroad to railroad, and suburb to suburb, and to 
and through the City, by frequent and regular convenient trains, carrying large numbers at 
a very low charge, and thus relieving the now intolerably overcrowded streets of many of 
their obstructions. Eesolutions, approving of such a subway, were passed at a most influ- 
ential public meeting of the citizens of London, convened by the Lord Mayor and presided 
over by him (1st Dec. ult.), atthe London Tavern. The meeting, including Lord J. Russell, 
Mr. Crawford, M.P., Baron Kothschild, M.P., &c, cordially approved of the plan (origi- 
nally proposed by the City solicitor, Mr. C. Pearson), and a Committee of Requisitionists 
was appointed to take the necessary means for carrying it into effect ; one, and it would 
seem the principal, of such measures being the subscription by the Great Northern and 
the Public of £475,000, in shares, in aid of the like sum already subscribed for by the 
Directors and Shareholders of the Metropolitan Railway Company for the object referred 
to. 

The London and Bury St. Edmund's [Projected] Railway is, from its 
extent, one of the most important undertakings of the present season. Length of the entire 
line, from Fenchurch Street Station to Bury St. Edmund's, 66 miles 3 furlongs ; deepest 
cutting, 28 ft.; highest embankment, 40 ft. The new line is to join the Eastern Counties 
Railway at Ilford, 6 miles from London. To cost 7,000 per mile. 

Railway "Barring-Out." — The "Don Pedro Segundo" Railway. — At 
Rio, by recent advices, great excitement has been occasioned, in consequence of a dispute 
between the directors of this line and the contractor for the first section, Mr. Price, an 
Englishman. The Company attempted to take forcible possession of the last portion of the 
section, which the contractor would not give up until his pecuniary claims were previously 
discharged ; but the Company were defeated in their attempt, Mr. Price's agent having 
taken down the girders of a bridge, which impeded the further progress of the trains. On 
this the Brazilian government interfered, by giving its guarantee for payment, on which 
the line was duly delivered up to the Company. 

The Northern [of France] Directors have prepared a plan for the new terminus 
which is to be constructed next spring. It is to be a grand building, the facade of which 
will be three times longer than that of the Strasburg railway, to be divided into seven 
separate buildings, of which the centre will serve as a vestibule for the passengers arriving 
by the various trains. 

St. Quentin and Rouen, through Amiens.— The works of this railway line, 
which is to connect these places, are commenced, and will be completed, it is confidently 
expected, in two years at the latest. 

Fatal Accident at the Worcester and Hereford Railway Works.— 
One Life Lost, another in Peril. — At the junction of this new line, now in course of con- 
struction with the Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhampton Railway, near the Worcester 
Station of the latter Company, a very deep cutting is being widened, the men being 
employed at a great elevation, on a narrow ledge of marl, undermining what is above 
them. Recently, whilst so occupied, a large mass of earth fell upon them, killing one man on 
the spot, and injuring several others. This is the third fatal accident of the kind at these 
works. 

Transit through Egypt— Suez Railway.— In -anticipation of the completion 
of the Egyptian line to Suez by the close of the year, when a continuous railway transit 
will be formed between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, thus extending th.e traffic 
between Europe and the East by the Overland Route, the Directors of the Peninsular and 
Oriental Steam Navigation Company have decided on sending a deputation to confer wi'h 
the Government of His Highness the Pacha, on the subject of the general management and 
tariff of charges to be adopted. 

The Suez Railway, according to a telegram from Malta, to the 4th December ult., 
was just approaching completion, and the line was to be opened throughout in the course 
of a few days. 

The Austro-Italian Scheme of Railways [Rothschild Talabot Com- 
pany]. — An effort in the direction of Free-trade has (in favour of these particular lines) 
been made by Austria : half of the duty has been remitted on the foreign iron rails and 
locomotives required. The forge-proprietors of C'arinthia are angrily remonstrating against 
this exceptional concession, and clamouring for "protection." 

American Lines.— Since 1880, nearly 27,000 miles of railroad have been formed in 
the United States, having cost, on an average, 85,000 dollars per mile, or, in the aggregate, 
945,000,000 dollars. 

A Model Railway.— The West Flanders Railway, a little unpretending Belgian 
line, is thus (and, we believe, truly) described : — " It has virtually closed its capital account; 
never has had an accident — assiduously cultivates a small traffic — maintains the best 
of terms with adjacent lines — keeps to its own territory — never dreams of an extension — 
and opens its arms in the most friendly manner to receive all the traffic which it may be 
favoured with by its neighbours." It is, consequently, proposed as a model line to some, 
shall we say most, of our own railway boards, on the score of thrifty and successful man- 
agement. 

Railway Traffic. — The railway receipts for the current half-year amount to 
£8,557,389, against £8,629,260 for the corresponding period of last year ; showing a total 
decrease of only £71,871, notwithstanding the dulness of trade. 

Mileage— December, 1858—8,815 miles, against 8,577 miles in corresponding week 
Of 1857. 

Lombardy— Amalgamation of Lines. — The Emperor of Austria has (4th Dec. 
ult.), sanctioned the charter of the " Southern Railway Company (Amalgamation of Rail- 
way Companies in Lombardy)." 

Northern Bengal [from Rajmahal to Darjeeling].— This line has received 
the sanction of the Bengal Government, and is to be constructed for military and political 
purposes. 

TELEGEAPH ENGINEERING, &c. 

Turkey. — Several engineers, or representatives of companies, are, says the " Gazette 
du Midi," making application to the Porte for the construction of lines of telegraph in 
Europe and Asia, both in the interior and on the coast. 

India.— Sir W. B. O'Shaughnessy, the Superintendent of Electric Telegraphs in India, 
has been congratulated by the supreme Government of India for having completed the 
telegraph from Kurrachee to Bombay, and for laying down the cable across the Gulf of 
Manaar. 

Canea (in Candia) and Alexandria. — The sinking a telegraph cable between 
these places has commenced. By advices to the end of November last, the operation was 
proceeding favourably. 

The Dardanelles, Syra, and Chio.— A recent telegram, dated Constantinople, 
November 27th ult., announces that a submarine telegraph between these places has been 
successfully laid. 

Candia and Egypt— The cable between Candia and Egypt has been broken. 

Cape Hellas to Alexandria.— According to the terms of concession hy Turkey 
for this line, no time is fixed within which the cable must be laid ; but in the concession of 



the Red Sea line the permission is forfeited, if the former (from Hellas) is not laid in two 
years after the 21th December, 1856. A further reasonable delay will, it is confidently 
expected, be granted by the Turkish Government. 

The Atlantic Telegraph Cable appears to be a hopeless failure. The question 
of replacing it has been brought before the public. The Company, it is understood, have 
applied to Government for a guarantee of 4J per cent, on £537,000, subject to the same 
conditions as that of the Red Sea line; and this has been backed by memorials from 
London, Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Paisley, the Belfast Chamber 
of Commerce, &c, &c. If the application be successful, contracts are to be immediately 
concluded for a new cable. All opinions as to the real cause of failure in the old one 
continue to be merely conjecture. On the 6th December ult., the whole of the Atlantic 
Telegraph staff had left Valentia. with the exception of one member, who was to remain 
in charge during the winter. From what transpired at the meeting of this company on 
the 15th December ult., it appears that the capital received and expended was £379,029. 
only £7,996 (balance of which) was then in hand; and that the directors had made appli- 
cation to the Government with a view of a guarantee being afforded for raising the 
remainder of the capital, viz., £537,140, as the same advantage had already been conceded 
to the Red Sea Telegraph Company. No definite arrangement on this head had as yet 
been come to. 

Isle OF Wight. — The cable which had been seriously injured by a vessel fouling it 
with her anchor, has had to be hauled up, landed, repaired, and laid down again; all 
which operations were so speedily performed that, on the 7th December ult., telegraphic 
communication with the main-land was reopened. 

PARIS (December). — Workmen are busily engaged in placing the wires for the electric 
telegraph along the line of the fortifications of Paris. The posts have already (11th Dec.) 
been placed for twenty-one wires along the eastern part. 

The Semaphores between Liverpool and Holyhead are proposed to be 
re-placed by wires crossing the Mer-ey. 

Liverpool and Holyhead. — At a recent meeting of the Mersey Dock Board 
(2nd December ult.), the Dock engineer 'Mr. Hartley) reported the plan for constructing a 
line of Telegraph between Holyhead and Birkenhead. Tenders had been obtained for pro- 
viding and laying cables for that portion of the line which will be submarine. There will 
be two distinct lines of wires the whole distance between Liverpool and Holyhead. The 
portion of submarine cable crossing the Mersey to be of as light a formation as it can be 
made, consistent with due strength and stability. A second light cable to be kept in hand, 
ready at a moment to be laid across the river, in the event of anything going wrong with 
the first. Consideration of report adjourned for a week. The chairman of the Marine 
Committee stated, that by the adoption of the electric line, £400 a year w ould be saved iu 
the expenses for stations ; and that with this amount, and the contributions which would 
be received from the underwriters, &c., £600 annually would be obtained to meet the costs 
of the new undertaking. 

Cape Town to Mauritius.— The scheme for uniting the Cape with Mauritius, and 
by Mauritius and Ceylon with India and Europe, by Submarine Electric Telegraph, is, 
seriously entertained at both places. The distance from Mauritius to the Cape is 2,360 
miles; but there are many ports in Africa much nearer, where the end of the first cable 
might be established, and from thence, by land or under water, extended to the Cape. 

New Telegraph Companies.— In the notices, required by the standing order of the 
House of Commons, of intended applications for bills during the forthcoming session of 
U59, there are two new (intended) Telegraph Companies announced ; one to be incorpo- 
rated for the accommodation of the London district— and the other for connecting India, 
Australia, and China. 

Cape Hellas to Constantinople.— According to the agreement with the Archi- 
pelago Company, the Turkish Government has to construct the land portion of this line, and 
this will be ready before the end of the present year (1858). The posts are (December) put 
up all along the line ; and the ve.-sel with the wire on board went down (from Constan- 
tinople) early in the same month ; so that, by the beginning of 1859, the line from Candia 
will be open, offering some improvement in the telegraphic communication with India, the 
distance between Alexandria and Candia being only 420 miles. 

Turkish Archipelago Line.— The landing of the Submarine Cable from Candia to 
Syra and Scio, the successful accomplishment of which has been announced, is, it appears, 
still considered by the Turkish Government only as provisional, and the line as being 
allowed to exist under c rtain political and local conditions, to which the Archipelago 
Company will have to submit: the principal of which are— Only local messages to be 
transmitted to and from Greece, but no messages to be sent through Greece, coming from 
Alexandria and India ; the office at Canea to be under the surveillance of a Turkish Govern- 
ment officer : in case of a collision between Greece and Turkey, the telegraphic communi- 
cation with the Greek line shall be broken, and the cable submerged [query severed ?]. The 
Turkish Government pays a subvention of £4,500 a year for the telegraph from Cape Hellas 
to Alexandria ; and is, consequently, anxious to insure the profits which will arise from the 
transmission of the Indian messages ; hence the policy of the first condition : the second is 
to prevent opportunities for Greek intrigues in the Island of Candia— a precaution suggested 
by the recent outbreak there. 

A London District Telegraph Company is to provide the. various localities in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the metropolis with the means of telegraphic communi- 
cation. The city and suburbs are to be divided into 11 districts, each containing 100 
stations, so that a despatch may be delivered in any part in the course of a few minutes. 
Messages of 10 words to be sent for 4d. to any place wi thin 4 miles of Charing Cross. The 
over-house system, as in Paris, New York, and Brussels, and, lately, in London by Messrs. 
Waterlow, to be adopted. 

Telegraph Extension [France].— The French Government have it in contem- 
plation to extend the advantage of telegraphic communication to all important towns in the 
neighbourhood of a railway. Telegraphic wires are to be carried from the point where the 
railway intersects the high-road to the chief town of the arrondissements. The preparations 
for carrying out this improvement, so important to the trading and manufacturing interests, 
are considerably advanced. 

The Mersey Dock and Harbour Board decided (at a meeting held 8th 
December ult.) that a Telegraph Cable shall be laid between Liverpool and Holyhead ; the 
Liverpeol end of the cable crossing the Mersey at Woodside, to avoid the numerous anchor- 
ages and other impediments south of that point. 

Boston (U.S.) and Halifax (N.S.)— For connecting these points, a cable is to be 
submerged between Cape Ann and Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, a length of 200 miles. From 
Yarmouth to Halifax it is already, it appears, laid down. The cost of the new portion of 
the line is estimated at 150,000 dollars. The depth of water is said to be very moderate. 
The cable, according toihe "Boston Transcript,'' is intended to be similar to that now 
laid from C^pe Breton to Newfoundland, and is to have heavy shore-ends. There will be 
only one conducting wire, to be comprised of seven copper strands, covered with iron 
wire, as a metallic covering, answering for a short cable, though producing a retardation of 
the elastic current through a great length of wire. 

From Galle to Madras.— The telegraph, through the Submarine Cable, across the 
Straits of Manaar, is now (advices from Calcutta to 9th November ult.) open to the public. 
A bit of the coast line between Madras and Calcutta is still imperfect, the bamboo posts, 
put up in extreme haste, and for a special purpose, having rotted away. The Overland 



24 



Notes and Novelties. 



r The Artizak, 
L January 1, 1859. 



Mail of the 9th October was, however, signalled from Galle to Calcutta via Bombay in 
twenty-four hours. 

From Kurrachee to Bombay the telegraph line is also complete, and there is not 
now an important city in India from which intelligence cannot be flashed to Calcutta in 
twelve hours. The charge for a message from Kurrachee to Bombay is two rupees (or 
about four shillings) for sixteen words. 

A South Atlantic Telegraph is projected. The line to start from Falmouth, 
touch at Cape Finisterre, Lisbon, Cape St. Vincent (with a branch to Cadiz and Gibraltar), 
the Canaries (with a branch to Madeira), the Cape de Verde Islands, and the Islands St. 
Paul and Noronha, and arrive at or near Pernambuco, in the Brazils. A land telegraph to 
continue this line through the Brazilian territory as far as Para, whence a submarine line will 
be carried to the British settlement of Demerara, in Guiana. From here a combination of 
land and submarine wires will be cons'ructed through the principal West Indian Islands 
to New Orleans, in the United States, where it will join the network of existing telegraphs 
belonging to the American companies. 

Metropolitan and Continental [Junction]. — The posts for the wires betwee» 
the metropolis and the Submarine Cables, recently laid from the Norfolk and Suffolk 
coasts, follow the route of the old turnpike road from London to Norwich via Newmarket. 

A New Submarine Telegraph Wire ("Roger's Deep-Sea Telegraph Cord") is 
being manufactured by a company at Baltimore, U.S. It is little more than a quarter of 
an inch in diameter, or one-third the size of the Atlantic Cable, and consists of a copper 
wire in the centre, about as large as a goodsize knitting-needle, covered first with a layer 
of gutta percha, and next with a braid of fine flax or hemp, thoroughly saturated with 
pitch. The peculiar feature of this cord for deep-sea telegraph purposes is stated to be 
that the wrapping is of such a nature that it will become heavy with deep-sea pressure, 
thus causing the wire to sink faster and faster the deeper it goes, on the principle that com- 
mon lines of hemp, flax, &c, when subjected to deep-sea pressure, become specifically 
heavier than the water. 

MARINE STEAM ENGINEERING, SHIPBUILDING, &c. 

The "Great Eastern" has been bought by a new company for £160,000; the 
further fitting out will cost from £100,000 to £160,000. The only alteration to be made in 
her original design is in fitting her with a poop-deck, between 8 and 9 ft. high — the same 
height as the forecastle forward. The first year's trip will, it is stated, be to Portland, 
Canada ; but the final line will be to and from India, — Trincomalee, as being central, and 
having a fine harbour, being selected as the Indian port. The cargo stowage is 8,000 tons ; 
her stowage for coals about 12,000. Full steaming, her consumption of fuel will be about 
200 tons per day; her average speed (as generally anticipated) from 17 to 18 knots an 
hour. 

The " Topaze," 51, new screw steam-frigate, has been tried at Devonport. Steam 
was got up on board, and she was taken outside the Sound to test her new machinery at 
the measured mile. The run was satisfactory, averaging 12J knots. 

The " Dom Affonzo," large steamer, on her passage from the Clyde to Gibraltar, went 
down (23rd November ult.), in the Bay of Biscay; last sighted in lat. 47 N. long. 11 W., 
with her screw and rudder and bulwarks carried away, and pieces of machinery on deck. 
Crew saved by the Henry Wylch, and landed at Queenstown. 

The "Vivid," mail packet, ran down in the channel (30th November ult., about 
3 a.m.) the fishing lugger St. Charles, of Calais, while the crew were working their nets, 
3 miles from the French coast ; three perished, two saved by the Vivid. Cause of acci- 
dent, the not showing a light in the boat. 

Steamer Launches.— The new steam-ship Nepaul, built for the Peninsular and 
Oriental Steam Navigation Company, has been successfully launched from the yard of the 
Thames Shipbuilding Company, at Blackwall. Tonnage, 1 ,000 ; built from the designs of 
Mr. James Ash. To be propelled by engines of 200 H.P. by Messrs. Humphreys' and 
Tennant, of Deptford. Fitted with Robinson's patent ventilating panels. Rigged with 
Cunningham's reefing topsails. 

The " Doris," 32 screw, went out from Devonport on her trial trip. Result satisfac- 
tory. Average speed 15 knots. 

Steamer and Barque Collision in the Mersey. — The screw steamer Senora, 
from Liverpool for London, has recently come into collision, off the Rock Lighthouse, witli 
the barque Goodspeed, from Mobile. The steamer struck the barque on the port bow, 
carrying away all her head gear, and stove in her bows. The steamer's fore compartment 
having filled, she was put on shore in the Sloyne, where the tide (1st December ult.) 
covered her at high water. 

The " Indian Empire," lever line steam-ship, had, on her last homeward voyage, 
to suffer a severe trial of her sea-going qualities, owing to heavy south-easterly gafes. 
When arrived at only 350 miles from Galway, having only thirty hours' coal remaining of 
the sixteen days' fuel with which she had started from Halifax on the 3 1 st October, her 
captain deemed it advisable to lay to, which he did for seven days ; during which time- it 
was found necessary to consume, for fuel, a portion of the cargo, consisting of cotton, 
staves, &c. 

The Atlantic Koyal Mail Steam Company (Galway line) have given their 
first contract to Messrs. Palmer and Allport, steam-ship builders, of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, for three powerful "express steamers," which are promised to be "superior to any 
afloat," and to have a (guaranteed) minimum speed of 26 statute miles per hour. 

The Niger Steamers. — Advices by African Mail from the steam-ship Sunbeam, 
attached to the Niger expedition, dated off Sabba, 6tli October ult., state that the Sunbeam 
entered the Niger on the 30th June, reached Bbo on the 18th July, where sue remained a 
month, and arrived at Rabba on the 2nd October, with the loss of only one European! — the 
cabin steward. After embarking the collections of Dr. Baikie, R.N., she was to leave on. 
her descent of the river, and may be expected to have arrived at Fernando Po in December. 
The Rainbow was daily expected at Rabba, having been heard of above flier Buass, and the 
river having abundance of water. 

Sunderland and Shields. — On the 1st December ult. there were 69 ships of 
various dimensions building at Sunderland: 19 are ready for launching, the remaining 50 
will be ready for launching next year. The largest vessel is of 1,300 tons O.M., the 
remainder of from 1,100 tons to under 100 tons burthen. At Shields, there are only five 
vessels on the Stocks — viz., a barque of 447 tons, a ship of 642 tons, a brig of 252 tons, and 
one iron and one wood vessel not yet measured. During the past year (1858) only six 
vessels have been launched at Shields, with an aggregate tonnage of 2,577, including an 
iron lighter of 782 tons, built for the Thames. 

The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company are making 
a considerable addition to their fleet. Fom' new steamers — viz., the Ceylon, Malta, 
Northam, and Salsette, have recently been brought into active service, and six new names 
appear in their last list ; namely, the Emeu, Jeddo, Nepaul, Delta, Massilia, and Union. 
The Emeu has been purchased from Mr. Cunard, deliverable at Sydney in February next. 
The Jeddo is building by Messrs. John Laird and Co., and the Nepaul by the Thames Ship- 
building Company. The Delta and Massilia are being constructed (o receive the present 
powerful machinery of the Vectis and Valetta, and are intended to supply the places of the 
two latter, between Marseilles and Alexandria. The hulls of the Vectis and Valetta will 
be fitted with new engines of 260 H.P. The Union has been purchased for the mail service 



between Reunion and Mauritius, for which the Company have undertaken a contract with 
the French Government. The Colombo is being lengthened about 30 ft. amidships, the 
similar treatment of the Candia having been followed by excellent results. In addition, 
the Directors have just concluded the purchase of four screw-ships (not yet named in the 
lists), built by Messrs. John Laird and Co., at different dates, since 1855. At the date of 
their last report, read 4th December ult., their fleet consisted of 64 vessels, of all kinds 
(comprising 33 screw and 20 paddle) ; the total tonnage being 81,624, and total H. P. 
18,615. 

Harbours op Refuge (Prance).— A mixed Commission has been appointed by the 
Ministers of Marine and Public Works, to report on the important questions of -Harbours 
of Refuge. 

Austrian Steamers. — Austria has, at present, 108 ships of war, with 910 guns; 
three new steamers, whose names are to be Francis Joseph, Narenta, and Kerltha, will be 
built in 1859. The War-port of Pola will be completed by the year 1862, if nothing 
untoward should occur. 

Fatal Tug-steamer Collision in the Clyde.— The tug-steamer Glown-orm, 
belonging to the Glasgow Underwriter Association, was, recently, coming in the channel, 
about 2 miles outside the Cumbraes, and at the same time the tug-steamer Champion, 
belonging to the Greenock Towing Company, was going out, when they, by some mis- 
management, ran direct into each other, and, almost immediately after, the Champion went 
down. The seven men on board at the time got all on the deck, and contrived to get out 
the steamer's boat ; but the boat being small, capsized, and they were left struggling in the 
sea. Meantime the Glowworm had put round, and sent her boat in search of the drowning 
men, but only three were picked up. 

The Sunderland Life-boat.— This splendid gift, lately presented to this port by 
Miss Burdett Coutts, has been placed, with suitable honors— a numerous procession of the 
Monkwearmouth Colliery Band, seamen of the port, &c. — in the house which has just been 
built for it, by subscription, at the South Dock, situate to the east of the North Tidal 
Basin. The Life-boat house, the materials for which were given by the Commissioners of 
the River Wear, ha* been so built that the upper parts can be made into a " look-out," 
and it is to be used for that purpose. The Life-boat (called the Duke of Wellington), on its 
carriage, decorated with flags, was drawn to its destination by four tine grey horses, and 
installed by the mayor, who delivered an appropriate address on the occasion. 

Cape of Good Hope Life-boats.— The trial of two Life-boats, ordered some time 
since by the Cape Government to be built in this country by Messrs. Forrests (88 ft. and 
32 ft. long, respectively), took place (26th November ult.). in the-Regent's Canal Dock. The 
88 ft. boat was turned over by means of some tackling attached to a hydraulic crane. After 
being turned "keel up," she at once recovered her proper position, and freed herself of the 
water she thus shipped, in less than 30 seconds. Stability of the boit such, that it required 
the weight of thirty-three men on one gunwale to bring it to the water's edge. The new 
boats are to be permanently stationed, respectively, at Table-Bay and Port Elizabeth. 

MILITARY ENGINEERING, &c. 

"Proving" Guns. — Some of the guns which have been lately turned out from the 
new iron-gun foundry in Woolwich Arsenal, appearing (notwithstanding the somewhat 
unfavourable results of the proving-ground generally) to possess every desirable quality 
for service, are ordered to be subject to the ordeal of being fired with increased charges of 
powder and shot until they burst, in order to carry out the " standard" character of the 
new establishment. To provide however against the risk of accident, the Secretary for War, 
at the suggestion of the local authorities, has ordered the formation of a bomb-proof com- 
partment within the huge mound of earth recently erected as the proof-butt for carrying 
out the project. 

The Proof-Cave — Lowmoor Guns. — When, sometime since, experiments similar 
to those above alluded to were intstitued by the late Colonel Dundas, for testing the Low- 
moor guns, some of them withstood upwards of 1,000 charges, without evincing any marks 
of damage. 

Engineers and Artillery (India). — It is generally understood, that it has been 
resolved in the Council of India that all appointments to the Engineers and Artillery 
shall be (for the future) thrown open absolutely to public competition, and that no nomina- 
tion will be required. 

Coast Defences.— The War-oflice authorities are in treaty with the Town-council 
of Hartlepool for a lease of two portions of corporation ground on which to erect powerful 
batteries for the defence of this part of the coast. The corporation have agreed to grant a 
lease of the sites, at a merely nominal rent, for 81 years. One of the sites is a little 
northward of the Hough Lighthouse, being a portion of the Town-moor, and comprising 
an area of about 7,493 square yards; the other site is in the Farwell-field, about three- 
quarters of a mile further north, and containing 2,363 square yards. 

TnttBER FOR THE ORDNANCE. — From the evidence before the Weedon Corumis- 
sixmers, it appears that the cost of wood supplied to the Ordnance Department amounts to 
little less than £50,000 a year for gun-carriages, train-waggons, &c 

A Fatal Gunnery Accident occurred (25th November ult.) at Vincennes : General 
Ardant, of the Engineers, who was assisting at a trial of guns being fired at a target, was 
struck on the head by a projectile, and was killed' on the spot. The Minister of War, 
Marshal Vaillant, was standing near him at the moment, but escaped unhurt. 

The New State Arsenal at New York has been destroyed, the roof having 
fallen, carrying with it the upper story of the northern, eastern, and southern walls. The 
building was 82 ft. by 184 ft. in the clear, with a turret at each corner, one of them, the 
highest, being 120 ft. in height. A joint of one of the main rafters is understood to have 
given way, letting the roof fall upon the lower girders which rested upon the walls, which 
were, in consequence, forced out. No person was killed. The fall took place during 
the' night 

HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING, &c. 

Pumping-stations for. the New Drainage^-jU the recent meeting (26th 
November ult.) of the Metropolitan Board of Works, it was referred to the Main Drainage 
Committee to take the necessary steps for obtaining the houses and land requisite for the 
construction of the pumping-sration at Deptford Creek, with power to engage such profes- 
sional assistance as plight be necessary for the purpose. 

Cornish Pumping-engines.— The number of pumping-engines reported to the 23rd 
November, 1858, is 16. They have consumed 982 tons of coal, and lifted 7,400,000 tons of 
water 10 fathoms high. The average duty of the whole is, therefore, 51,000,000 lbs. 
lifted 1 ft. high, by the consumption of 112 lbs. of coal. 

An Irrigating Hydraulic Engine of enormous power has just been finished by 
Messrs Abernethy, at their works at Ferry-hill, Aberdeen. It Is intended for an East 
India Plantation, and its object is to pump water for purposes of irrigation, on both sides of 
a hill 500 ft. in height. It consists of 12 pumps, which act in sets ; and it will be driven by 
a water-wheel of 200 horse-power. The engine is calculated to lift water at the rate of 1,000 
gallons a minute. 

The Marine Wrecking Pump.— The wrecked screw steamer Genova, which came 
recently into collision with the ship Goodspeed, and sank at the entrance of the Mersey, 
was (6th December ult.) cleared of water by the application of Palmer's " Marine Wreck ing 



The Artizan, ' 
January 1, 1859., 



Notes and Novelties. 



25 



Pump." and is now (8th December) ready for discharge. This "Wrecking Pump," an 
American invention, works upon the atmospheric principle; about 68 tons per minute 
issued from the discharge-pipe ; and in 164 minutes, the vessel was completely clear of 
water, though, previously, she had 18 ft. G in. in her hold. 

Sewerage Engines.— Amongst the various proposals now before the Board of Works 
for draining the Metropolitan Sewerage is one from Mr. Guillaume of Southampton, 
respecting the use of his hydraulic lever for that purpose. His letter was read by Mr. 
Uazajgette, the engineer, at a recent meeting of the Board. 

WATER SUPPLY— (METROPOLITAN AND PROVINCIAL). 
Metropolitan Drinking-fountains, Lavatories, &c, &c— A plan (sub- 
mitted by Mr. Jennings, sanitary engineer) is at present under consideration of the City 
Commission of Sewers, for providing public drinking-fountains, lavatories, water-closets, 
and urinals, in proper situations throughout the City. Upon a site of 10 ft. in diameter, 
it is proposed to erect drinking-fountains above ground, with urinals and water-closets 
beneath, all properly lighted and ventilated; the attendants to be permitted to accept small 
gratuities from the visitors to the places. All this the proposer offers to carry out (in the 
first instance) at his own expense ; but, in the event of these places becoming remunerative, 
he will make them over to the commissioners, provided they will undertake to furnish proper 
paid attendants. The proposal was (14th December ult.) referred to the General Purposes 
Committee, to report upon. 

ANALYSIS OF THE METROPOLITAN WATER COMPANIES' SUPPLY DURING 
November, 1S58.— In the Registrar- General's Report, the following analysis (by Dr. 
R. Duadas Thomson, F.R.S., of St. Thomas's Hospital) is given. The amount of impurity 
in eacli water will be found to increase as the winter advances, depending on the rain, 
which brings down the soluble matter from the agricultural grounds into the river :— 

Total Impurity. Organic Impurity. 
Grs. or (leg-. Gts. or deg\ 

Distilled water 0-0 0' 

Loch Katrine, new supply to Glasgow (given for 

sake of Comparison) 2'14 - 8 

Well, Newman-street, Oxford-street (ditto) 126-32 12-96 

Thames Companies : — 

Lambeth 1824 1-52 

Grand Junction 1920 1-48 

West Middlesex 18-32 1-32 

Southwark 1828 1-36 

Chelsea 17-72 1-72 

Other Companies : — 

EastLoudon 21-32 1-40 

Kent 1932 1-88 

New River 19-16 1-32 

The Table is read thus : Loch Katrine water contains in the gallon 2-14 degrees or grains 
of foreign matter in. solution, of which 0-8 degrees or grains are of vegetable or animal 
origin. 

Water Supply- to the Crystal Palace.— At the half-yearly meeting (15th 
December ult.), the Chairman, amongst other topics of increased expenditure, entered into 
details of that arising from "increased water-supply, rendered necessary," not, as we 
might naturally have expected, from the great, fountains, &c, but "in consequence of the 
enlargement of the refreshment department." 

GAS ENGINEERING— (HOME AND FOREIGN). 

Gas IN Steamboats. — The "New York Times" of the 9th November ult., announces 
that gas was introduced on the Fulton Ferry-boats the preceding evening. The Nassau 
was the first boat lighted, and the effect was good. The gas is obtained from the works of 
the Brooklyn Gas-light Company, at the same price as charged to private consumers, A 
hose is attached to the docks, to introduce the gas into receptacles prepared for the purpose 
on the decks of the boats. Thence it is conducted to the engine-rooms, and distributed 
into the cabins. The cylinder in the hold is 14 ft. long by 4 in. diameter, lined with gal- 
vanised iron. The pressure of the gas is one half-pound to the inch. 

Constantinople Lighted with Gas. -Amongst other European improvements, the 
recent introduction of which is rapidly metamorphosing the ancient metropolis of the East, 
maybe mentioned, the fact, lately announced in the " Gazette du Midi," that gas is being laid 
down, by order of the Municipal Council, in the streets of Istamboul, which are described 
as being, hitherto, almost impassable, " particularly after dark." 

The Public Lighting (by Gas) of the Metropolis is stated, on we believe 
competent authority, to cost not less than £240,000 a year, and it is openly stated that an 
overcharge is now made, by the J3as Companies, of not less than £60,000 a year on the 
public lighting alone, — that Is, at their own prices, and according to the quantities they 
profess to supply at those prices. 

Athens has been lighted with gas. 

An Explosion of Gas, by which three persons were severely burnt and otherwise 
injured, occurred recently at the Bush inn, in Oakwell Gate, Gateshead. About 4 o'clock in 
the afternoon, a strong smell of gas was perceptible, proceeding from a sitting-room 
upstairs, into which the gas is laid in connection with a chandelier suspended from the 
ceiling. To ascertain the place of escape, the landlord incautiously applied a lighted 
candle, when the gas suddenly ignited, and produced an explosion which blew out the 
whole of the windows in that part of the house, and shattered the furniture. The landlord, 
his wife, and a servant-maid (the two latter having joined him to assist in tracing the 
escape) were all knocked down by the force of the explosion, and seriously burnt, the 
landlady so much so as to require removal to the town infirmary. The unusual violence 
of the explosion is thus explained. On examination by a gas-man, it was found that the 
gas had been escaping from an old and damaged pipe: and, having been escaping for 
some time, had formed an accumulation about the ceiling, and on the lighted candle being 
raised towards the top of the room, the serious effects above noted had occurred. 

A Town in Darkness.— Under this heading, the " Northern Daily Express," of 
the 7th December ult., makes the following curious announcement : — " Redcar. The supply 
of gas for the street lamps has been stopped, owing to the gas accounts not having been 
paid : and there the cast-iron columns stand, showing the financial depression of the place. 
We, however, understand that it is the ratepayers' intention to have the greater portion, if 
not all, re-lighted again." 

A Gasometer for Rome. — A small gasometer arrived, recently in Cardiff, by the 
South Wales Railway, in two parts, and was (7th December ult.) taken down to the docks, 
to be shipped for Rome. 

The Large Gas-holder at the Imperial Gas Company's Works, 
Bethnal Green. — The tank is of brick and iron work, measuring 204 ft. in diameter, 
and 41J ft. deep, having a clear working depth of 40 ft., and requiring 6,000,000 gallons of 
water to fill it. The gas-holder is of the telescopic kind, and consists of two cylinders, 
sliding one within the other. Dimensions— Outer cylinder, 201 It. in diameter; depth, 
40 ft. ; inner cylinder (with a dome-shaped roof, rising 84 ft.), 1984ft. diameter, and 40 ft. 
deep. United capacity of the two cylinders, or whole gasholder, 2,500,000 cubic ft. Amount 
of iron employed in the whole structure (including frame-guides, &c), 1,500 tons. 

4 



A New Material for Making Gas, and called " illuminating clay," has t-een 
discovered at Rio Janeiro. It is stated to have given 7 cubic ft. of gas to the pound; while 
coal gives only 34 cubic ft. It is the colour of clay, and resembles coal in its pure state. 
It is said to burn like wax when held in contact with flame. 

An Explosion of Gas occurred, after midnight (20th December ult.), at a. dwelling- 
house in theEuston-road. In the drawing-room was what is technically termed a "hydraulic 
telescopic chandelier burner." The room not being lately in use, the water had not been 
replenished ; and the valve-stop being left open, the gas continued to escape during the 
whole of the afternoon and evening, whilst the other lights on the premises were burning. 
Upon perceiving the smell of gas, the attention of a maid-servant was called by her mistress 
to the fact ; the former assured her mistress that the gas was turned off at the main : but 
she, incautiously, entered the drawing-room, lighted candle in hand. The room was, at 
once, in a blaze ; and nearly every pane of glass in the house was shuttered to atoms with 
an alarming explosion : two heavy iron-framed skylights were literally lifted from their 
supports ; and panels of half an inch in thickness blown out of the doors. The servant sus- 
tained such injuries as to render necessary her removal to the hospital. 

HARBOURS, DOCKS, CANALS, &c. 

The New Graving-docks in connection with the Victoria Docks (commenced about 
two years back) have been completed. By means of a new hydraulic lift, and a con- 
trivance for subsequently floating each vessel into shallow water (on the patented method 
df Mr. Edwin Clark), where all the necessary examinations and repairs can be conductetl 
from workshops alongside, the excessive cost of the excavations necessary under the old 
system are entirely avoided. The first experiment was tried upon an iron-vessel of 600 tons, 
which was raised to its required position in 35 minutes. The outlay on the works has been 
-6116,000, furnished by a few engineers and capitalists, associated as a company, under the 
Limited Liability Act. 

The Mersey Dock and Harbour Board have (9th December ult.), agreed to 
erect cranes on the Canada Dock, Birkenhead, for the accommodation of the timber 
trade. 

The New " Western Docks" at Swansea are in active progress. These mag- 
nificent works comprise buildings, &c, of very considerable extent, embracing a capacious 
trumpet-mouth entrance, a half-tide basin, a gigantic lock, an iron bridge, and an inner 
dock of sufficient area to afford room for some hundreds of ships. At present 500 men and 
50 horses are employed in these works (the excavations are about three-fourth parts done) — 
and next August is named for the inauguration. 

Fecamp [Coast of Normandy] Docks, &c. — An imperial decree (receipt of 
copy of which is recently announced in the " London Gazette")— authorises the establish- 
ment of bonded warehouses, &c, at this port. 

The New Russian Dock-yard Works at Villafranca.— A Government 
French engineer has been placed at the disposal of Archduke Constantine, for the naval 
and dock-yard works about to be constructed at this Russian Port in the Mediterranean. 

BRIDGES. 

Rhone Suspension Bridge.— The left bay of the suspension bridge over the Rhone, 
at Powzin, has been carried away, at mid-day, by a gust of wind; it was nearly 100 metres 
span. The two other bays have not suffered, nor were the telegraph wires broken. The 
flooring of the bridge being under water, all communication was for a time intercepted be- 
tween Drome and Ardeche, at a point much frequented, owing to the neighbouring forges 
and the Lorial and Aveyron Railway Stations. 

The Tar (Sardinian Side).— At half-past three o'clock, on the 27th November 
ult., immediately after the passing of an omnibus, two arches of the bridge over the Var, on 
the Sardinian side, were carried away by the flood. The communication between Piedmont 
and France was consequently interrupted. 

The New Swing-bridge at 1'ort Adelaide, South Australia, connecting 
the South Australian Companies and Levi's Wharfs, by spanning the entrance to the new 
dock of the former, was opened July 19th ult. The structure is a double-winged swing or 
pivot-bridge, spanning an opening of 40 ft., constructed of castand wrought iron, with lon- 
gitudinal principal beams and truss-pieces of timber. The bridge has a carriage and foot- 
way of 17 ft. in width, over which runs a line of rails connected with the railway station. 
The waterway is 40 ft. in the clear. The timber used in the piers is from Swan River, a 
wood known to withstand the worm and other destructive influences. The weight of each 
leaf, without the roading, is about 30 tons ; each abutment or pier contains, besides the tim- 
ber piles, See., nearly 100 cubic yards of stone tilling. The strength of the bridge was 
tested by a weight of 50 tons, being placed on it simultaneously with the tramping of 
upwards of 40 men, and the deflection this produced was exceedingly small. 

The "Victoria" Bridge at Montreal (contractors, Messrs. Peto, Brassey,and 
Bett), has made such progress, that it is expected to be opened for traflic iu October, 1859. 
The Grand Trunk Railway system, as soon as this link is completed, will consist of a con- 
tinuous line of nearly 1,200 miles between Chicago, the emporium of the West, and the 
Atlantic Seaboard at Quebec and Portland. According to the "Canadian News," the 
setting of the stonework on this structure has, for some time past, averaged upwards of 
80,000 cubic ft. per week. Ten out of the twenty-four tubes are fixed, and it is expected 
that two more will be finished by the end of December ult. Five more were expected to 
be completed by April next, leaving seven to erect during the six ensuing months. Twenty 
out of the twenty-four piers were ready for receiving the tubes. 

The Sarama (Spain).— A sad accident, says the Madrid journals (of the 3rd 
December ult..), has taken place in the village of Arganda. The bridge, which passes over 
the Sarama, broke down, precipitating into the swollen waters two men who were driving 
four heavily-laden mules. The latter were carried away by the torrent, but the men were 
saved (though seriously injured) by some of the inhabitants of the village. 

The Bridge of "La Rbena," on the road to Gallicea, has also been carried away 
by the floods, so that communication with Corunna is interrupted. 

In Bejer (Old Castille), a portion of the quay fell (same date) into the river, 
and, carried by the rapidity of the current against the bridge, broke it down. The fragments 
were urged with prodigious force against some neighbouring mills, and did a great deal 
of damage. 

The Deepdale Viaduct, on the South Durham and Lancashire line, is fast 
approaching completion. The last girder has just been placed in its position, the event 
being greeted with suitable demonstrations. 

The New Westminster Bridge and Sir Charles Barry.— As to his reported 
share in the plan of the new bridge, Sir Charles, in a recent letter to the " Times," states 
that "although the universal and remarkable characteristics or the superstructure, such 
as its spacious width, the lowness and easy gradients of its roadway, the proportions of the 
piers to the arches, and the curve and headway of the latter, are in accordance with his 
design, as adopted by the late Sir William Molesworth ; the elevation now proposed to be 
carried into' effect is so much at variance with that design as to absolve him (Sir Charles) 
from all responsibility in respect of the questionable taste of its details. As to the bridge 
being in harmony with the style of the New Palace at Westminster, he has to observe that 
the elevation now proposed does not comply with that condition :" and he adds, that he 
does not consider such accordance to be necessary, even if it were practicable. 

ACCIDENTS FROM MACHINERY. 

Steam Saw Mill.— On the 18th November ult., a man, apparently a stranger, entered 

the saw mills of Mr. Fears, at Bristol. The only persons in the mill at the time were two 



26 



Notes and Novelties. — List of New Patents. 



|~ The Artizan 
L January 1 



1850. 



of theworkmen, and the driving of the mill had begun. It was a steam saw mill, of enormous 
power, working with great rapidity. The visitor walked along by the side of the wall for 
some distance, and then ventured very near the saw, in front of the engine. His foot 
slipped, and he fell forward; as he fell the saw entered his head, and before the machinery 
could be. stopped the man was dead. His skull was completely severed to the neck and 
shoulder. 

Vats— Suffocation by Carbonic Acid Gas.— At the brewery of Mr. Thomas 
Howard, Cheapside, Liverpool (21st Nov. ult.), two men having entered the "working round," 
or large tube, for the purpose of cleaning it out, preparatory to another brewing, before the 
usual precaution had been taken of clearing it of the carbonic acid gas generated by the 
fermentation of the previous charge of liquor; both commenced sweeping with brooms, 
when in a few minutes they became overpowered with gas, and fell prostrate at the bottom 
of the " round." They were taken out dead. 

Oat Crushing.— At Nottingham, at the Midland Company's warehouse, a fearful 
accident occurred (25th November ult.). A man was engaged crushing oats, by machinery 
In consequence of a noise being heard, his fellow-workmen on the premises entered the 
room, where they found the body of the unfortunate man literally torn limb from limb, his 
skull fractured, the bones scattered about, the left leg torn from the body, and his ribs 
lying about the place in shreds. It is supposed he was putting the shafting-band round 
the drum, and that his clothes became caught by the machinery, his head being forced to 
the ceiling, and his body whirled round by the wheel. At the inquest, held in the after^ 
noon, a verdict of " Accidental Death " was returned. 

Fatal Railway Accident at "Warrington.— A horse-driver has died from 
the injuries he received at the Bank Quay Railway Station. The deceased was walking by 
the coke benches, where there was an engine with a brake-van attached standing at the 
time. The fireman, who was the only person on the engine, whistled, and drove the engine 
towards the deceased ; but before he could get out of the way, the brake-van caught him 
on the abdomen, crushing him between the coke benches, and rolling him trom one end of 
them to the other. He lingered till the 25th November ult. Verdict, "Accidental 
Deith." 

Swinging a Flag-stone.— At Liverpool, before the Borough Coroner, an inquest 
was held (27th November ult.) on a carter, named Richard Martin, aged 40. The deceased 
was assisting to swing a large flag-stone from a railway waggon, in the station of the Lan- 
cashire and Yorkshire Company, when the chain broke, and the stone which was 2J tons 
weight fell upon him, crushing both legs in a shocking manner. He onlv survived amou- 
tation of both limbs for three days. Verdict—'- Accidental death." 

An Inquest was held (10th December ult.) at Erith, on the body of Henry Ayres, a 
stoker at the factory of Mr. Young. On the 6th December, the deceased was attending to 
a steam-engine on the premises; whilst thus engaged, he, as it is supposed, fell forward, 
and was caught by the fly-wheel of the engine, revolving at great rapidity in a pit about 
6 ft. deep. When found by a labourer, the" machinery was stopped, and the lifeless body 
of the deceased was brought out, the head being completely crushed. It further appeared 
that the fly-wheel pit was wholly unguarded ; and the jury, in returning a verdict of 
" Accidental Death" added that precaution ought to be used to prevent a like occurrence. 
The manager of the works, who was present, promised that the suggestion of the jury 
should be attended to. 

MINES, METALLURGY, &c. 

The Yorkshire Colliers' Strike, which has now existed for upwards of nine 
months, originating in serious differences between the colliers and their employers, as to 
wages, time, &c, still continues with, apparently, but slight prospects of adjustment. 

The late Colliery Inundation near Llanelly, Carmarthenshire.— 
After a lapse of nearly three weeks, eight of the bodies of the ten men who lost their lives 
(on the 27th October ult.) by the sudden irruption of the Cae Colliery, have been (close of 
November ult.) recovered. At the Coroner's Inquest, the jury returned a verdict of 
" accidental death, caused by the ignorance of Daniel Francis, one of the deceased, in not 
using the precautionary measures of boring, and not keeping plans of the workings of the 
colliery." 

Fatal ?Accident from " Blasting."— A miner, engaged at Messrs. Dixon's 
limestone pits, Dudley Port, blasting the rock for the purpose of moving the stone, was 
(1st December ult.), by accident or incaution, literally blown to pieces. In firing one of 
the charges (gunpowder) he had no opportunity of retiring before the explosion occurred. 
Blown a considerable distance from the spot on which he was at work, he presented on 
being taken up, a horrible appearance. He lingered, however, in this awfully mutilated 
condition, until the following Saturday— three days. On the inquest, a verdict of "acci- 
dental death" was returned. 

The Serf-Miners in the Ural.— From St. Petersburg, we learn that the Emperor 
has lately ordered that the serfs belonging to the mines (placed under the direction of the 
Minister of Finance), shall be emancipated within the delay of six mouths. The persons 
employed in these mines (District of the Oural) were originally free. Peter the Great, 
wishing to give an impetus to metallurgical industry in Russia, conceded to all who would 
devote themselves to that branch of industry, whether nobles or tradesmen, whole villages 
as well as forests, whence they could procure all the wood they might require. The rights 
of those new proprietors over the peasants who inhabited the villages, were at first limited, 
but, by degrees, the nobles encroached on these privileges, and at length the peasants 
became real serfs. 

An Extraordinary "Blast " of Granite was effected (24th November last) at 
Foggintor Granite Quarries, Dartmoor. A mass of granite, of first-rate quality, measuring 



45 ft. in length, 26 ft. wide, 14 ft. thick stone, 1,000 tons in weight, was broken from its- 
natural position by the small quantity of 10 lbs. of gunpowder. 

New Gold Fields in the Brazils.— The recent discovery of gold in the Argen- 
tine Province of San Luis,— advices from the River Plate, by the Brazil Mail— confirm the 
first account that gold is found in abundance in Canada Honda. Diggers or washers were 
collecting their two or three to thirty ounces a day, and great numbers of people were 
flocking in that direction. The Government of San Luis were encouraging the gold-mania, 
by releasing persons engaged in its collection from military service. San Luis is between 
600 and 700 miles from BuenosAyres, in a west-north-west direction, andhitherto reckoned 
as one of the most wretched of the petty governments in the interior. 

A Gloucestershire Coal-Mining Company (Limited) propose to open works 
near the village of Ruar Dean, in the Forest of Dean. The purchase-money for the 
property is to be £30,000, to be paid partly in cash and partly in shares. 

A Fatal Colliery - Explosion, attended with the loss of more than twenty-five 
lives, took place, at noon of the 11th December ult., at Tyldesley Colliery, 2 miles from 
Leigh ; owners, Messrs. Green, Holland and Co. The fire-damp exploded in a down-brow, 
running south, and then taking a rectangular direction, and extending to beneath St. 
George's Church, Tyldesley. Most of the colliers and drawers who were at work in the 
different bays, and in the levels, were killed. With one exception, the deceased seem to 
have been suffocated by the "after," or choke-damp, which would encompass them imme- 
diately after the explosion. One of the bodies were found blown to pieces. Cause unknown, 
but conjectured to have been the bursting of the gauzework of a safety-lamp, and the 
consequent explosion of a naked light. The catastrophe, according to the " Manchester 
Guardian," was not altogether unexpected, from the known foul state of the workings for 
the last three years. / 

Colliery Explosion at Swansea, North Wales.— Four Lives Lost.— 
At the Morfa Colliery, Taiback, near Port Talbot, midnight, on the 25th November ult., 
an explosion occurred in a level, known as " the West-level Cribbor Vein." The " fire " 
did not extend beyond the immediate locality. Caused (as it is supposed) by a workman 
(one of the sufferers) incautiously removing the top of his safety -lamp. 

APPLIED CHEMISTRY, &c. 
" Acierage" of Engraved Copper-plates. — M. F. Faubert, at a recent meet- 
ing of the Society of Arts, explained his method of rendering engraved copper-plates 
capable of producing a greatly-increased number of impressions. The chief object was to 
harden the surface of the plate, and protect it trom wear while printing. This desideratum 
he accomplished by covering the printing-surface, whether in intaglio or relief, and whether 
of copper (ordinary or electrotyped) or other soft metal, with a very thin and uniform 
coating, or film of iron, by means of a series of electro-metallurgical processes, which he 
described. His invention, he stated to be applicable whether the device to be printed from 
be produced by hand-engraving, or engraving by machinery, or by chemical means, and 
whether the surface printed from be an original or an electrotyped copy. On the old 
method, steel-plates, engraved in intaglio, would yield about 3,000 impressions without 
re-touching; copper, about 800; electro-casts of copper, only about 200 : whereas, by the 
present process, one electro copper-plate, having yielded more than 12,000 impressions, 
was found, when examined minutely, to be quite unimpaired. Plates, moreover, showing 
any sign of wear, may be again coated, and the printing renewed. They acquire, in fact, 
more than the durability of steel. 

Boron, a Substitute for Diamond-Powder.— M. St. Claire-Deville, of the 
Paris Academy of Sciences, has, in co-operation with M. Wbhler, experimented upon 
boron ; and the results are among the most remarkable of the recent chemical inquiries. 
Boron is a substance hitherto classed between silicon and carbon, but with this anomaly, 
that it was not crystallisable as these two are. But the researches in question prove it to 
be producible under three polymorphic forms, and crystallisable. Specimens were laid 
before the Academy of various colours; from honey-yellow to garnet-red ; the crystals, in 
some instances, being perfectly limpid and transparent. One kind, distinguished as 
"Adamantine Boron," is formed by a combination of aluminum with boric acid, and 
possesses most remarkable properties. It is harder than diamond. Boron -powder will 
cut and drill rubies, and even the diamond itself, with more facility than the diamond- 
powder. 

A New Bronzing Process [for Brass] has been introduced by M. R. Wagner. 
To obtain brass of a very deep black color, he moistens the metal with a dilute solution of 
" azotate of protoxide of mercury," and he changes the film of mercury thus formed on the 
surface of the article into the black sulphuret of mercury, by washing it repeatedly with a 
solution of sulphuret of potassium. If for the solution of the liver of sulphur, we substi- 
tute a solution of liver of antimony or of arsenic, a fine brass-colored bronze (" un beau 
bronze de laiton") is obtained, varying in color from a deep brown to yellow-brown. He 
prepares the sulphurets of antimony or of arsenic, by boiling kermes (for the former), or 
orpiment (for the latter) in a solution of liver of sulphur. 

Gilding Thread for Weaving Cloth of Gold, &c. — Hitherto no other method 
has been known of producing " cloth of gold" in the loom, than using metallic threads, 
which render the tissues stiff and heavy. By the process recently invented by the Messrs. 
Burot these objections are avoided. The silken, or other threads, are stretched close 
together, and are then dipped into a solution of azotate (nitrate) of silver, to which ammonia 
is added, until the solution be perfectly limpid. After immersion for one or two hours, 
the threads are dried (?), and then submitted to the action of a current of pure hydrogen. 
The threads becoming thus metallised, become also good conductors of electricity, and are 
then gilt by any of the ordinary methods in use for electro-gilding. 



APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION 

ALLOWED. 

Dated 81st July, 1858. 

1740. C. de Bergue, Dowgate-hill, London — Submarine 

telegraph cables, and machinery for laying down 

the same. 

Dated 30th August, 1858. 
1956. F. Brignolea, 58, Torrington-square— Apparatus for the 
disinfection and rectification of bad-tasted alcohols, 
by the separation of the essential oils from the 
alcoholic exhalations. 

Dated 17th September, 1858. 
2102. C. Hadley, Lower Hurst-street, Birmingham— Im- 
provement in omnibuses, cabs, railway carriages 
waggons, and other similar vehicles. 
Dated 21th September, 1858. 

2172. G. T. Bousfield, Loughborough -park, Brixton 

Manufacture of paper bags and other similar 
articles. 

Dated 29th September, 1858. 
2182. E. L. Benzon, Sheffield— Manufacture of steel. 



LIST OF NEW PATENTS. 

Dated 1st October, 1858. 

2190. T.Preston, Nottingham —Manufacture of looped fabrics. 

Dated 8th October, 1858. 
2236. E. V. Rippingille, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, Green- 
heys, Manchester — Fire-arms and artillery. 
Dated 20th October, 1858. 
2342. P. C. Stortz, Havelock-buildings, Bold-street, Liver- 
pool — Materials of photographic plates. 
Dated 21st October, 1858. 
2350. C. W. Williams and G. Eyton, Liverpool— Construc- 
tion of locomotive and other steam boilers. 
Dated 21th October, 1858. 
2394. L. Wray, 5, Devonshire-street, Portland-place — Ap- 
plication of a substitute for gutta percha, caout- 
chouc, and similar substances. 

Dated 1st November; 1858. 
2430. C. Vero and J. Everitt, Atherstone, Warwickshire- 
Manufacture of hats and other coverings for the 
head. 
2432. J. Dobson and D. Pearce, St. James-street— Manu- 
facture of bird-cages. 






2434. E. Maynard, Brooklyn, New York, U.S. — Submarine 
telegraph cables. 

2436. W. Palmer, New York, U. S.— Fire-arms. 

Dated 2nd November, 1858. 

2437. L. Beaver, Manchester, Lancashire — Sleeve-links. 

2439. M. A. F. Mennons, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris — Im- 

proved combination for the production of voltaic 
electricity. 

2440. D. Tomasini, Store-street, Bedford-square — Respi- 

rators. 

2441. N. Brough, Birmingham — Certain improvements in 

buttons, and in the means of attaching them to- 
garments. 

2442. R. C. Smith, Birmingham — A new or improved buoy 

or wreck intelligencer. 
2452. J. Lancaster, Belfast, Antrim— Method of driving and. 
curbing horses. 

2444. M. L. J. Lavater, Strand — Cartridges for military 

and other purposes. 

2445. A. Barclay, Kilmarnock, Ayr, N.B. — Electric and 
magnetic, or electro-magnetic telegraphs. 



The Abtizan, "I 
January 1, 1859. J 



List of New Patents. 



27 



2446. 
2447. 
2448. 

2440. 

2450. 
2451. 
2452. 

2454. 

2455. 
2455. 
2456. 
2457. 
2458. 

2459. 

2460. 



2461. 
2462. 



2405. 
2466. 



2468. 
2469. 



2470. 
2471. 
2472. 

2473. 
2474. 



2476. 
2477. 



2478 
2479. 



2481. 

2483. 
2483. 

2484, 
2485 

2486 
2487 

2488. 



2489 



D. D. Kyle, Albany-street, Regent' s-park— Boots and 
shoes. 

J. Sampson, J. Machon, and J. Bartholomew, Shef- 
field — Railway carriage brakes. 

A. McDougall, Manchester — Construction of reser- 
voirs, tanks, culverts, seawalls, and other erections 
required to exclude water or damp. 

N. S. Dodge, St. PauPs-churchyard— Treating waste 

vulcanised india-rubber. 

Dated 3rd November, 1858. 
S. Bottomley, Bradford — Manufacture of moreens, 

and other fabrics of a similar character. 

C. P. O. Glassford, Greenwich — Manufacture of 
manure from the excreta of towns. 

H. T. Moret, Ib, Welbeck-street, Cavendish-square— 
The application of a mineral, named Deterso, as a 
disinfecting, preserving, absorbing, and curative, 
powder. 

J. Tail, Collingwood-street, Blackfriars-road— Brushes 
or brooms for sweeping floors, carpets, and other 
similar articles. 

V. Blumberg, Bloomfield-lodge, Notting-hill— Con- 
struction of slate billiard tables. 

D. Fryer, T. L. C. Watt, and W.Holmes, Paternoster- 
row — Tanning hides and skins. 

P. A. Mawdsley, Seacombe — Apparatus for drying 

yarns after being sized or stiffened. 
P. A. Mawdsley, Seacombe, Cheshire — Application of 

certain substances in the manufacture of paper. 
J. Fowler, jun., R. Burton, and D. Greig, Cornhill — 

Applying motive power to actuate ploughs and 

other agricultural implements. 

F. P. Busse, Carlton-terrace, Sydenham-park, Kent 
— Breech-loading fire-arms. 

Dated ith November, 1858. 

B. Fielding, Todmorden, Lancashire— Method of pre- 
serving the form of cops of yarn by the application 
of adhesive substances. 

J. Oxley, Camden-town — Carriages and wheel vehicles. 

C. F. Vasserot, Essex-street, Strand — Driving ma- 
chinery applicable for thrashing grain and other 
agricultural purposes. 

G. A. Evelyn, Eccleston-terrace — The improvement 
of the form of the stocks of rifles, carabines, and 
other fire-arms. 

J. R. Napier, Glasgow — Obtaining motive power by 

means of heat. 
C. Mather, Salford, Lancashire — Drying yarns. 
W. T. Mabley, Manchester — Printing and dyeing 

woven fabrics. 
R. A. Brooman, Fleet-street, London — Treating air 

and gases. 
I. Baggs, Kennington — Telegraphing by electricity. 

A. Friedmann, Frankfort-on-the-Maine — Bracelets, 
necklets, and rings. 

Dated 5th November, 1858. 

W. H. Tooth, Lampeter-street, Islington — Manufac- 
ture and construction of fire or furnace bars. 

T. Till, Hooper-street, Birmingham — Machinery for 
making nails. 

T. B. Smith, Marietta, U.S. — Preparing wood, so as 
to be used as a substitute for curled hair, in the 
manufacture of mattresses. 

C. J. Tjador, Stockholm, Sweden— Gun carriages, and 
apparatus for lessening recoil. 

E. Rowland and J. Dejvhurst, Manchester — Certain 
improvements in steam-engines, and in the valves 
connected therewith. 

D. McClure, Heaton Norris, Lancashire — Machinery 
used for the drying of yarn, thread, cloth, or other 
wet fabrics. 

C. Mills, 8, High-street, Camden-town — Action of 
pianofortes. 

L. Schwartzkorf and F. C. Phillipson, Berlin — Ma- 
chinery for boring holes in rocks and minerals, for 
blasting and other similar purposes. 

S. Davey, Rouen, France— Blasting powder. 

R. E. Pinhey, Woolstan, and J. Wood, High-street, 
Southampton — Apparatus for ascertaining the 
variation of ships' compasses for local errors. 
Dated 6th November, 1858. 

H. N. Penrice, Witton-iiouse, near Norwich — Ma- 
chinery for tunnelling and driving galleries through 
rock and other strata. 

B. W. Jonas and R. Jones, Southwark, Surrey — Ship's 
block. 

A. Fryer, Manchester — An improved method of sup- 
plying the tenders of locomotive engines, and of 
supplying boilers with water. 

W. Green, 21, King William-street, Strand — An im- 
proved harness trace coupling. 

J. Cliff, Lambeth, Surrey — Construction of kilns for 
burning stoneware, red-clay ware, and all other 
kinds of earthenware. 

Baron D. Webster, Penns, Warwickshire, and J. 
Horsfall, Birmingham — Manufacture of steel wire. 

W. Ziernogel, Hettstadt, near Eisleben, Prussia — Ap- 
paratus for distilling products from bituminous 
coal, schist, peat, and other like substances. 

M. Matley, H. Miller, and T, Hall, Ashton-under- 
Lyne — Improvement in the construction and ar- 
rangement of steam-boilers and furnaces, for the 
pm-pose of consuming smoke, economizing fuel, and 
heating the feed -water, and also improvements in 
certain valves connected with steam boilers. 

J. Jackson, A. Fisher, and J. J. Harney, Sheffield- 
Manufacture of strips or bands of steel. 



2490. J. Piatt, Oldham— Apparatus for preparing, spinning, 

and doubling cotton and other fibrous materials. 
Dated 8th November, 1858. 

2491. J. Richmond, Carlisle-terrace, Fairfield-road, Bow, 

J. Quick, jun., and A. Frazer, Summer-street, 
Southwark— Construction of a meter for measuring 
water, spirits, or any other fluids. 

2492. M. Osborne, Birmingham — Improved method of 

ornamenting fenders, stove grates, tables, chairs, 
and couches made of cast-iron. 

2493. E. Alcan, Coleman-street-buildings, London— Method 

of treating or preparing materials to be manufac- 
tured into paper, applicable to lye-washings in 
general. 

2494. A. H. Dendy, 27, Fortess-terrace, Kentish-town — 

Construction of breakwaters or wave-screens. 

2495. J. Wardill, Commercial-road East— Purchases for the 

raising and lowering of weights by means of chains, 
especially applicable to ships' capstans and wind- 
lasses. 

2496. T. McSweeney, 25, Rood-lane— Steering apparatus. 

2497. W. Hale, John-street, Adelphi, London- Rockets. . 

2498. W. Smith, Little Woolstone, Buckinghamshire— Ap- 

paratus for supporting the hauling ropes when 
hauling ploughs and other agricultural implements 
by steam power. 

2499. T. B. Marshall, Queen -street, Cheapside— Drums. 

2500. W. C. Cambridge, Bristol —Manufacture of tubular 

iron, applicable to the construction of whippletrees, 
and to other uses. 

2501. J. F. Amblet and A. Polart, Amiens, France — Manu- 

facture of elastic fabrics. 

Dated 9th November, 1858. 

2502. E, E. Allen, Brompton-row — Improved machinery for 

working the propellers of vessels. 
2593. J. S. Dawes, Smethwick House, near Birmingham — 

Improved machine to be used for cultivating land. 
2504. J. E. Dickson, 6, Russel-street, Litchurch, near Derby 

— Railway chairs and other details connected with 

the permanent way of railways. 
2505- J. L. Jullion, Aberdeen, N.B. — Manufacture of 

paper. 

2507. A. Henderson, Gloucester-place, Portman -square — 

Vessels, and applying rudders thereto. 

2508. J. Felix, 54, Rue Croix Nivert, at Grenelle, near 

Paris — Castors for furniture and other similar pur- 
poses. 

2509. C. A. Bulkley, New York, U.S.— Apparatus for gin- 

ning and cleaning cotton. 

2510. W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane— Signals for railways 

and apparatus for actuating the same. 

2511. S. S. Marling, Stanley-park, and J. Apperley, Dud- 

bridge, Stroud, Gloucestershire — Construction of 
fulling machines. 

2512. T. Newton, 66, Chancery - lane — Construction of 

stairs. 

2513. A. T. Newton, Chancery-lane— Improved apparatus 

for obtaining extracts or decoctions. 

2514. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Electric telegraphs. 

2515. R. A. Brooman, Fleet-street— Electric telegraphing. 

2516. R. M. Ordish, Great George-street, Westminster — 

Permanent way of railways. 

DatedAOth November, 1858. 

2517. J. Norman and R. Hannah, Glasgow, Lanarkshire, 

N.B. — Furnaces. 

2519. J. Buchanan, Greenock, Renfrew, N.B. — Propelling 

vessels, ships, and boats. 

2520. W. Taylor, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Leicestershire — Re- 

moving the furfrom skins and preparing said skins 
for tanning. 

2521. G. Schmidt, Caroline-street, Bedford-square — Con- 

struction of core bars. 

2522. E. Humphrys, Deptford — Steam engines and boilers. 

2523. G. Schmidt, Caroline-street, Bedford-square — Manu- 

facture of cast-iron pipes. 

2524. A. J. Brooks, Southsea — Screw propellers. 

2525. G. Schmidt, Caroline-street, Bedford-square — Im- 

provement in ladles employed when casting metals. 

2526. E. Locke, Newport, Monmouthshire — Construction of 

gas meters. 

2527. C. T. Judkins, York-road, Lambeth — Gas regulators. 

Dated 11th November, 1858. 

2528. J. Blethyn, Swansea — Manufacture of fuel. 

2529. J. and W. Lees, Oldham, Lancashire— Construction of 

oil-cans. 

2530. R. Wright, Openshaw, near Manchester, and T. J. 

Mercer, jun., Coventry — Improved motive power 
engine. 
2581. E. H. Maberly, Stowmarket, Suffolk— Construction of 
ships of war and other vessels, their machinery and 
appurtenances. 

2532. M. Benson, Newcastle — Rails for railways. 

2533. T. Gray, Bride-lane — Separating wool and animal 

fibres from vegetable fibres contained in mixed 
fabrics. 
2533. A. V. Newton, Chancery-lane — Improved apparatus 
for securing doors of safes, closets, and apartments. 

2535. J. Rae, Alpha-road, New-cross, Kent — Cisterns suit- 

able for containing water for household uses. 

2536. A. Mickelthwaite, Sheffield— Manufacturing buffalo 

and other horn, so as to be used as a substitute for 
whalebone and for other useful purposes. 

2537. J. Buchanan, Greenock, Renfrew, N.B.— Propelling 

vessels, ships, and boats. 

Dated 12th November, 1858. 

2538. T. F. Cocker, Sheffield— Manufacture of steel and iron 

wire, also of sheets and strips of steel. 



2539. J. Ogden, Liverpool, Lancashire — Shuttles for looms. 

2540. J. G. Martien, Ampthill-square — Manufacture of iron. 

2541. D. Turner, High-street, Whitechapel — Manufacture of 

wood soles for clogs, boots, and shoes. 

2542. G. T. Bousfield, Loughborough-park, Brixton — Ap- 

paratus for illustrating conic sections and the lines 
of the globe. 

Dated \3th November, 1858. 

2543. M. N. Mills and N. Sidebotham, Ashton-under-Lyne, 

— Looms for weaving. 

2544. J. Benyon and J. W. B. Bowden, Swinton, near Man- 

chester — Looms for weaving. 

2545. J. Wadsworth, Salford, Manchester — Construction of 

moveable or adjustable heels for boots and shoes, 
and of spurs adapted thereto, to be used therewith. 

2546. W. Ashton and T. Cartmell — Air pumps. 

2547. J. Courage, Horsleydown, Surrey, and F. Bennett, 

Holywell, Flintshire — Furnaces for reducing and 
smelting ores, scoria, slag, and waste. 

2549. D. Auld, Glasgow — Furnaces and boilers, and in the 

generation and treatment of steam. 

2550. M. Swan, Henstridge-villas, St. John's-wood— Con- 

struction of floating docks and other floating struc- 
tures. 

2551. L. Petre, Hatton-garden— Application of glass to orna- 

mental and useful purposes. 

2552. I. Livermore, 5, Shrubland-grove East, Queen's-road, 

Dalston — Manufacture of shuttlecocks. 

2553. M. L. J. Lavater, Strand — Manufacture of mats, 

coverings for floors and other surfaces. 

2554. C. J. Thomas, T. Thomas, H. Thomas, and C. Thomas, 

Bristol— Manufacture of caustic alkaline lees. 

2555. A. B. Woodcock and J. M. Dunlop, Manchester — 

Covering rollers, shafts, and tubes of any figure or 
material, wilh elastic shells or covers of vulcanised 
india-rubber. 

2556. D. Frodsham, Rose-cottage, Gurney-road, Stratford — 

Apparatus used in combination with fire-boxes of 
tubular steam boiler, in order to supply air and 
steam thereto. 

2557. M. Pullan, Horsforth, near Leeds — Machinery for 

drying yarns and other materials. 

2558. J. A. Hopkinson, Huddersfield— Steam boilers. 

Dated 15th November, 1858. 

2559. S. St. Clair Massia, Welbeck-street, Cavendish-square 

—A new economical guard for candles and wax 
lights. 

2561. A. Dick, Holywell, Flintshire —Manufacture of a 

yellow pigment. 

2562. G. Davies, 1, Serle-street, Lincoln's-inn— Process of 

finishing piled fabrics. - 

2563. B. Predevalle, Hart-street— Obtaining motive power. 

2564. W. G. Armstrong, Newcastle-upon-Tyne — Manufac- 

ture of ordnance. 

2565. M. G. Deschamps and A. J. Quinche, Rue Beau- 

bourg, Paris— A new compound metal called lutetia 
metal. 

2566. W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane— Colouring, preserving, 

and desiccating wood and marble. 

2567. W. Clark, Chancery-lane— Advertising. 

2568. J. G. Bunting, Trafalgar-square, Charing-cross — 

Horse-tamer or break. 

Dated 16th November, 1858. 

2569. J. Brennand, Manchester— Method of effecting the 

locomotion of carriages. 

2570. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Apparatus 

for kneading dough or working and mixing plastic 
materials. 

2571. J. C. Boisneau, Chatelleraut, France— An improved 

horse-mill or gear. 

2573. J. Samuel, Great George - street, Westminster — 

Sleepers or bearers of rails. 

2574. S. Taylor, Temple — Fountain pens. 

2577. T. Knauth, New York, U.S. — Fire-arms and ord- 

nance- 

2578. A. M. Bruere, Paris — The novel application of hy- 

drogen gas to various purposes in the arts. 

Dated nth November, 1858. 

2579. F. A. Gatty, Accrington, Lancashire — Producing 

certain colours on cotton, linen, and silk fabrics. 

2580. S. Hoga, 14, Nassau-street, W. V. Pigott, 16, Argyle- 

street, Regent-street, and S. Beardmore, 37, Upper 
Berkeley-street West — Electric telegraphs. 

2581. M. A. Muir and J. Mellwham, Glasgow — Looms for 

weaving. 

2582. C. F. Vasserot, 45, Essex-street, Strand — A water- 

proof coating. 

2583. C. F. Vasserot, Essex-street, Strand — A flat clothes 

smoothing-iron, with moveable handles. 

2584. T. J. H. Tuck, Great George-street, Westminster- 

Mode of laying and securing telegraphic cables. 

2585. D. W. Hayden, Coleman-street, Arlington-square — 

Apparatus for heating water and other liquids. 
2587. J. Robertson, St. Ninians, Stirling, N.B.— Musical 
instruments. 

2589. E. Mellor, Rochdale, Lancashire — Mules and other 

machinery for spinning cotton and other fibrous 
substances. 

2590. M. Caton, Preston — Treading motion of looms for 

weaving. 

2591. J. Brennand, Manchester — Ploughs, and other agri- 

cultural implements. 

2592. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street— Apparatus for the 

manufacture of lace and net. 



28 



List of New Patents. 



r The ARTizAir, 
LJanuary 1, 1859. 



2593. S. Wheatcroft, Brudenell place, New North-road— 

Improved apparatus for uniting lace to blond and 
other fabrics. 

2594. J. Piatt. Oldham, and H. Chubb, Brecknock-crescent, 

Camden-town — Apparatus for making bricks or 
tiles. 

2595. W. Clark, Chancery-lane— A process of thickening, 

strengthening, and improving tanned hides. 

2596. H. Douglas, Bart., Green-street, Grosvenor-square— 

Screw propellers. 
2587. W. Clark, Chancery-lane — An improved bit or bridle 
for horses. 

Dated \&th November, 185S. 

2598. S. Riley, Oldham— Manufacture of hats, bonnets, and 

caps. 

2599. C. Cowper, 20, Southampton-buildings, Chancery- 

lane — Separating combed fibres. 

2600. E. Briollet. 58, Torrington-square— The obtaining of 

caloric by a new chemical and mechanical process. 

2601. Sir C. T. Bright, Harrow Weald, Middlesex — Insu- 

lators, and improved mode of connecting insulators 
to posts and other supports. 

2602. J. and H. Sharp, Bradford — Jacquard machines em- 

ployed in weaving. 
2608. H. Stott, Greetlund, near Halifax— Warping mills. 

2604. J. Leslie, Conduit-street, Hanover-square— Manufac- 

ture of gas. 

2605. J. Oakes, Exeter-row, Birmingham— Manufacture of 

spurs. 

2606. J. M. Miller and J. Fear, Barnstaple — Machinery for 

winding fibrous substances or materials when in the 
form of thread or yam on to the bobbins or wheels 
used in lace machinery. 

2607. D. Stoten, Ponder's-end, Middlesex— Ploughshares. 

2608. E. T. Archer, Bridgefield-house, Wandsworth — Hat 

ventilators, and for appliances connected therewith. 
2909. B. Eider, 61, lied Cross-street, Borough — Ventilating 
hats and caps, and in the preparation or manufac- 
ture of the material of which those articles are 
made. 

Bated 19r7» November, 1858. 

2610. P. Marchand, E. Marchand, and J. Marchand, Dun- 

kirk, France — A new process for refining lamp oil. 

2611. J. Brown, Bolton-le-Moors — Index and Jacquard 

machines. 

2612. W. S. Hayward, Wittenham House, Abingdon— 

Manufacture of a glutinous substance to be used in 
the manufacture of paper and in dressing textile 
fabrics. 

2613. G. Howe and J. Norton, Sheffield — Method of boiling 

water or worts for breweries, distilleries, &c, by 
steam. 

2614. S. C. Leech and J. Leech, Manchester — Construction 

of self-acting temples, to be employed in looms for 

weaving. 
261G. W. Hancock, Upper Chadwell-street. — Manufacture 

of electric telegraph wires and cables. 
2617. J. Edwards, 77, Aldermanbury — Manufacture of 

trouser buttons. 

2617. C. F. Vasserot, 45, Essex-street, Strand — Apparatus 

for condensing and cooling vapours and liquids. 

2618. H. H. Henson, 38 Parliament-street— Waterproofing 

fabrics. 

2619. W. Kamscarand J. G. Scott, Manchester — Fire-arms. 

2620. E. A. Pontifex, Shoe- lane. External surfacecondensers. 

2621. H. Bailey, 35, Golden-square — Heating razors. 

2622. W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane— Purifying natural 

phosphates of lime. 

2623. A. Felton, 184, Brick-lane, Spitalfields— Fastening 

buttons and studs to dress and other articles. 

2624. J. E. F. Luedeke, Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire 

Motive power engines. 

2625. W. Marshall, Leith-walk, Mid-Lothian, N.B.— Steam 

engines. 

2627 .A.J. Thorman, 8, Lime-street, City — Chain cables 
and chains. 

2628. J. Easton, sen., and C. E. Amos, The Grove, South- 

wark — Improved apparatus applicable to drains 
sewers, and water-courses, for the purpose of re- 
moving extraneous solid matters therefrom. 

2629. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Improved appa- 

ratus for transmitting motive power. 

2630. T. S. Cressey, High-street, Homerton — Machinery 

used in the manufacture of casks. 

Dated 20th November, 1858. 

2631. E. Warry, Chatham — Loading cannon at the breech 

2632. J. Wadsworth, Salford— Gas burners, and in the 

means for moderating or retarding the flow and 
pressure of gas used for purposes of illumination, 
and in street lamps or lanterns for shielding flame 
from the action of wind and rain. 
2683. C. F. Vasserot, 45, Essex-street, Strand— Fire-arms 
and ordnance. 

2634. D. Eowan, and S. Eobertson, Greenock — Steam 

engines 

2635. H. Ellis, Holbeach, Lincolnshire— Apparatus for cul- 

tivating, cleaning, and pulverising land. 

2636. C. Tomlinson,Woreester-street, Wolverhampton — Stop 

taps or valves. 

2637. C. Cuit, Paris— Eailway brakes. 

2639. B. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street— Manufacture of 
dolls, statuettes, figures of animals and others, and 
toys. 

3640. H. Jordan, Liverpool— Imp. applicable to navigable 
vessels. 



2641. D. Evans, Chobham-cottages, New-town, Stratford — 
Tubular steam boilers and fire-places. 

2642. L. Percivall, Birmingham, and J. Houghton, Edgbas- 
ton, Warwickshire— Imp. in attaching knobs of 
glass, china, and earthenware, to the spindles of 
locks and latches, and to doors, and other articlts. 

2643. J. Young, Wolverhampton— Fastenings for window 
sashes and casements. 

2644. H. Swan, 5, Bishopsgate without— Stereoscopes and 
other optical instruments, and in stands or supports 
forstereoscopes. 

2645. H. Boden, Crescent-cottage, Cambridge-heath, Hack- 
ney, and T. Cooper, Ann's-place, Hackney-road — 
Plaiting or braiding machinery. 

2646. H. Gardiner, New York, U.S. — Compound axle hub 
and wheel for railroad ears. 

Dated 22nd November, 1858. 

2647. C. H. Mellur, Oldham — Manufacture of woven 
fabrics. 

2648. E. Nelson, New York, U.S.— Apparatus for raising and 
lifting water and other liquids. 

2649. F. A. Theroulde, 67, Eue C;tumartin , Paris— Obtain- 
ing salts and products from the ashes of marine 
plants. 

2650. S. W. Johnson and J. Varley, Peterborough— -Pressure 
and vacuum gauges. 

2651. A. V. Newton, 66, Cbancery-lane — Apparatus for 

propelling and steering vessels. 

2652. E. H. Bentall, Heybridge, Essex— Construction of 

turnip cutters. 

2653. T. Spencer — Manufacture or construction of springs. 

Dated 2.3rd November, 1858. 

2654. W. Ealston, Manchester — Embossing and finishing 

woven fabrics. 

2655. W. H. Dawes, Bromford Iron Works, West Bromwich, 

Staffordshire — Forge hammers, and in the anvils 
used with forge hammers and squeezers. 

2656. W. Gorman, Glasgow — Furnaces, and in the combus- 

tion of fuel, and in apparatus connected therewith. 

2657. J. Fairweather, Dundee, N.B. — Weaving bags, sacks, 

and other tubular fabrics. 

2658. N. F. Boreiko de Chodzko, Paris— Asmoke-preventing 

apparatus. 

2659. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane— Eetorts for generating 

illuminating gas. 

2660. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane— Improved machinery 

for sweeping floors. 

2661. W. Warne, J. A. Jaques, and J. A. Fanshawe, Totten- 

ham — An improved fabric, applicable for covering 
floors and walls* and for other analogous purposes. 

Dated 2lth November, 1858. 

2662. B. H. Hughes, H atton-garden — Apparatus employed 

when lighting by gas. 

2663. E. A. Brooman, 106, Fleet-street— Cigar cases. 

2664. Sir Charles Shaw, Old Cavendish street — Construction 

of ball and bullet proof shields or mantlets. 

2665. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Mills for grinding 

corn. 

2666. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Improved ma- 

chinery for making bolts and rivets. 
2657. E. H. Hess, Islington— A new manufacture of articles 
and ornamental works from talc and other silicates 
of magnesia. 

2668. C. Peterson, Lowcliffe-lodge, Isle of Wight— Manu- 

facture of paper cartridges, and in paper applicable 
for waterproof purposes. 

2669. J. S. Nibbs, Aston, Warwickshire — Lighting, heating, 

and ventilating. 

2670. J. H.Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields— Employment 

of electricity as a motive power. 

Dated 25lh November, 1858. 

2671. C. B. Amos, The Grove, Southu-ark — Improved ap- 

paratus for raising and supporting- ships- or vessels 
while undergoing repair,, which apparatus is also 
applicable for facilitating the passage of ships or 
vessels over bars, sandbanks, or in shallow, waters. 

2672. F. C. Calvert and C. Lowe, Manchester— Manufacture 

of size. 

2673. H. Eastwood,. Elland, neasc Halifax — Purifying gas for 

illuminating purposes. 

2674. E. Bodmer, 2, Thavies-inn, Holborn— Valves for 

regulating the supply of steam. 

2676. C. F. Vasserot, 45, Essex-street, Strand— An improved 

petticoat and bustle. 

2677. J. Nuttall, Old Accrington, G. Eiding, Clayton-le- 

Moors, and W. Coulthurst, Old Accrington— Sizes 
for sizeing cotton linen or other warps or yarns for 
weaving. 

2678. F. H. Maberly, Stowmarket, Suffolk — Candlesticks. 

2679. C. Parker, Dundee — Looms for weaving. 

2680. F. Loos, Mercer-street, Long-acre — Imp. in gas 

regulators. 

2681. C. Mather, Salford— An improved steam trap for 

allowing the escape of water and air from pipes, 
vessels, or chambers heated by steam. 

2682. W. Burton, Bethnal-green — Preparing colouring- 

matter for dyeing. 

Dated 26th November, 1858. 

2683. J. Luis, 1b, Welbeck-street, Cavendish-square — Anew 

sort of drawers or trousers for ladies or children. 

2685. E. Dixon and J. Fisher, Wolverhampton — Manufac- 
ture of welded iron tubes. 

2687. M. Meyers, 9 Great Alie-street, Goodman's-fields— 
Parasols. 



2689. 
2691. 



2695. 
2697. 



2701. 
2703. 

2705. 

2707. 
2709. 

2711. 
2713. 

2715. 

2717. 
2719. 
2721. 

2723. 



2727. 
2729. 
2731. 
2733. 

2735. 
2737. 

2799. 
2741. 

2743. 
2745. 

2747. 
2749. 

2751. 
2753. 



G. Richardson, 1, New Broad-street — Machinery or 
apparatus for pressing tales of goods. 

J. B. Booth, Preston — Machinery fur preparing, spin- 
ning, doubling, and windingcotton andother fibrous 
materials. 

P. Griffiths and J. Brennand, Burnley, Lancashire; — 
Lubricators for introducing lubricating matter into 
steam cylinders and other chambers or parts under 
pressure. 

Dated 2?ih November, 1858. 

J. Tangye, Birmingham — Hydraulic presses. 

G. Collier, Halifax— Means or apparatus employed in 
weaving; 

F. C. Kinnear, Hoxton, and D. Po=ener, Windmill- 
street, Haymarket— Means of preserving life and 
propert) 1 " in navigation. 

C. Burretl, Thetford — Traction engines and carriages. 
W. Tillie, Londonderry, Ireland— Manufacture of 

shirts and shirt fronts. 
H. Sterner; 2, Garwsy-road, Bayswater — Mode of and 
apparatus for manufacturing gas for illumination 
and heating. 

Dated 29th November, 1858. 

G. Gates, Gatefield Works, Sheffield— Manufacture of 
scissors. 

F. S. Perrare-Michal, 20, Eue de la Chaussee d'Antin, 
Paris — Manufacture of bridles (without bits and 
without curb-chains) for riding, driving, or other- 
wise conducting horses. 

W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Improved expan- 
sion or cut-off gear, for steam-engines. 

W. Parsons, Bittern, near Southampton — Doing away 
with the smell arising from the melting fat, tallow, 
&c, and also for an improvement in stirring and 
straining the same. 

J. Lea and W. A. Shewing; Cecil-court, St. Martin's, 
lane- — Treatment of vegetable fibres for the manu- 
facture of paper, spinning, and other purposes. 

J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields, locomotive 
engines. 

L. A. Normandy, jun., 67, Judd-street, Brunswick- 
square— Imp. in manufacturing files. 

J. Gresham, Hull— Apparatus for preserving ship's 
papers, and other papers and writings, in case of 
loss or accident to a ship whilst at sea. 

D. Evans, Chobham-cottages, New Town, Stratford, 
and G. Jones, Charlotte-place, Upper Kennington- 
lane — Pumps and water-gauges. 

Dated 30th November, 1858. 
J. Luis, 1b, Welbeck-street, Cavendish-square — A new 

railroad with continued supports splintered together 

without any wood being used. 
A. Marks, London-wall— Manufacture of braided 

articles. 
J. Thow, and T. Hall, Preston— Preventing the fusion 

of the fire-bars in locomotive or other furnaces. 

G. Boccius, Totoes, Devonshire— Construction of fur- 
naces. 

J. Colyer, Leman-street — Machinery for cutting and 
shaping staves and other parts of casks. 
Dated 1st December, 1858. 

A. Stenger, 4, Gresham-street— Manufacture of cravats, 
braces, belts, and waistbands. 

J. Loach and J. Cox, Birmingham— Ornament- 
ing the surfaces of japanned goods, and which 
said improvements are also applicable to the orna- 
menting of other surfaces. 

T. P. Purssglove, Battersea — An improved pressure 
gauge for steam, gas, or other fluids. 

C. F. Vasserot, 45, Essex-street, Strand— An apparatus 
for printing with different colours thread, to be 
applied to the manufacture of textile fabrics. 

E. Viney. Cornhill -Construction of portmanteaus, 
desks, dressing-cases, and other like articles. 

Fl Warner, Jewin-sbre^t, J. Derbyshire, Longton, and 
A. Mann, Little Britain — Manufacture of cocks or 
taps. 

H. Bessemer, 4, Queen -street-place, New Cannon- 
sffeestf— Kail way and- other wheels and wheel tyres. 

A. E. Davis, 1, Pulboro'-place, Harleyford-road, Vaux- 
hall, and E. Wright, 28, Grosvenor-park, Camber- 
well— Manufacture of colouring matter for spirits 
and other liquids. 

L. Bissell, New York, U.S.— Trucks for locomotive 
engines. 

E. L. Benzon, Sheffield— The manufacture of useful 
alloys of aluminium. 



INVENTION WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS 
FILED. 

2560. T. R. Butcher, F. Stevens, W. T. Johnson, and T. 
Jarvis, Frome, Somersetshire — Hammer rails of 
pianofortes. — 15th November, 1858. 

2575. C. J. C. Perry, Williamstown, Victoria — An instru- 
ment to be used chiefly on board ship for approxi- 
. mating in certain cases the course of an approach- 
ing vessel, either in the day or night, and the rela- 
tive angle of both ships' courses to avoid a collision, 
to be called " Perry's Anti-collision Dial.' 7 — 16th 
November, 1858. 

2675. J. Luis, 1b, Welbeck-street, Cavendish-square — A 
safeguard against burglars— 25th November, 1858. 

2809. M. A. F. Mennons, 39, Eue de l'Echiquier, Paris— An 
improved apparatus for ascertaining and registering 
the work of certain kinds of lever balances. — 7th, 
December, 1858. 



jPlate, 738. 



m ii c® 




J 



VT-smift,, (r 



THE ARTIZAN. 



No. 193.— Vol. 17-— FEBRUAKY 1st, 1859- 



COPPER MINING IN THE SOUTH OF SPAIN. 
"When in the sixteenth century the genius and enterprise of her navi- 
gators had laid open to Spain the almost fabulous riches of a new 
world, her own internal resources — although in some respects rich and 
important beyond those of any other European country — seem to have 
been gradually neglected, and arts and commerce, which up to that 
time had been successfully pursued, appear to have dropped into a state 
of desuetude. Intoxicated with anticipations of boundless wealth from 
the golden regions of the West, the means of acquiring it by a more 
tedious process became distasteful; and this feeling seems to have been 
shared with the people of Spain, even by the Government. 

From a very remote period the mineral wealth of Spain has been a 
remarkable and characteristic feature of the country. In the most 
ancient times, the Iberian lead mines brought Phoenician commerce to • 
her shores; and during the Roman occupation the mines of lead, and 
copper, and quicksilver were actively and profitably worked. Actuated 
by the same indomitable spirit and concentrativeness which conducted 
them during the time of the Republic to conquest wherever they turned 
their arms, the Roman people, even when applying themselves to in- 
dustry, have left behind them unmistakeable evidences of their skill and 
perseverance. Within the present century there existed in the south- 
eastern part of Spain, in the provinces of Murcia and Almeria, enormous 
mounds of lead scoria, from which, owing to the insufficiency of the 
ancient processes of extraction, the lead had been but partially removed ; 
and from which the improved methods of modern times have enabled 
metallurgists of a later day to obtain a rich yield of metal. The most 
remarkable proof of the skill and energy of the Roman miners is not 
found however in the lead mines of the provinces just mentioned, nor in 
the quicksilver mines of central Spain, but in a locality which has been 
hitherto but little known beyond its own boundaries, although it is 
doubtless one of the most interesting and valuable in the world in a 
inineralogical point of view. 

In this district, mining seems in a general sense to have died out 
with the Romans themselves. The lead mines of the south-east, the 
smelting-works near to Carthago Nova (the modern Carthagena), the 
quicksilver mines of Almaden, appear all to have remained in active 
operation after the Roman period, up to the time of the discovery of 
America ; but in the district of which we purpose to give some account 
all activity vanished with the enterprising and dauntless people in 
whom it originated, and with one solitary exception, the numberless 
productive mines which in ancient times characterised the locality, until 
within comparatively a few years, have laid absolutely quiescent and 
unfruitful. When, after the discovery of South America and Mexico, the 
expectations of the Government and people of Spain were raised to an 
inordinate height as to the metallic wealth obtainable from the new 
"world ; all mining enterprise in the mother country was stopped by 
law, the Government retaining in its own hands three great mines — one 



of lead, in a locality which has since become known through the esta- 
blishment of the Linares English Company, one of quicksilver at 
Almaden, and the third of copper, at Rio Tinto, in the province of 
Huelva. These mines have been worked up to the present time, but 
imperfectly, and entirely without the assistance of improved appliances ; 
occasionally they have been farmed out to speculators, but have been 
again taken into the hands of the Government, by which they are at 
present worked. 

In 1825, the law prohibiting the working of mines by private indi- 
viduals was repealed, and since that time mining operations have been 
vigorously pushed forward, but according to rude and antiquated 
principles; and although the mines of Spain are at this moment the most 
productive in Europe, and the country itself must be considered a most 
valuable mineral region, it is well known that not one-fourth of the 
riches are obtained from the mines which they are capable of yielding. 
In the province of Huelva, wherein the great Government mine Rio 
Tinto is situated, there exists an accumulation of deposits of copper, 
— if such an expression be admissible, — which extends in an easterly 
direction into the province of Seville, and to the westward into the 
southern part of Portugal, reaching to the sea. It is a remarkable and 
even a surprising circumstance, that although the Kio Tinto mine is 
known to have been worked from the time of the Romans to the present 
day, during not less than 1,800 years, and the workings can be traced 
back century after century, the capabilities of the district at large 
remained unheeded or undiscovered until a very late period. This is 
the more extraordinary as the evidences of the presence of copper are 
extended beyond the immediate neighbourhood of this mine, and the 
waters of the river from which it takes its name, Rio Tinto, are impreg- 
nated with the metal. 

The mass of copper ore existing in this mine can in no respect be 
compared with the lodes of Cornish and other mines: it is nothing less 
than an immense aggregation of mineral of a uniform character, compact 
in structure and containing scarcely any foreign matter. The deposit, 
as it runs through the Rio Tinto mine, acquires in some places a width 
of 100 yards, and is of an average width of 80 yards throughout. Its 
depth is incalculable; as at present, although the mine has been sunk to 
a sixth level, the mass of ore increases in width, and it is impossible 
to form any idea of the vastness of the mass in which the miners are 
now burrowing here and there, meeting in every direction with nothing 
but the pure mineral. An eminent English mining engineer who visited 
this mine has stated that it was with absolute wonder that he found 
himself, in passing through the different workings, threading in every 
direction a solid deposit of pyritic copper ore, not existing in lodes but 
in one boundless compact mass, — floor, sides, supports, roof, all of the 
same character. 

The percentage value of this ore in copper is small, seldom exceeding 
4 - 5 per cent.; although since other mines have been opened in the same 



THE ARTIZAN, FEB? I J T, IB59. 



■'• ; I = UK IN DM !PAS iEN'£!E!S-!L©1 i 1 il 



: I 




Side Elevation. 






30 



Copper Mining in the South of Spain. 



(" The Aktizan, 
LFebruary 1, 1859. 



district, deposits have been discovered containing a very much higher 
percentage of the metal. It is, however, upon the ore of small value 
that the operations at Eio Tinto are carried on : this mineral contains 
copper, iron, sulphur, and a little earthy matter; the sulphur on the 
whole amounting to about 45 per cent. The ore is too poor generally to 
bear the cost of exportation, — at least, such was the case until within a 
very few years ; it is therefore worked on the spot by a peculiar process, 
which has only been adopted in a few localities, and which is only 
applicable to sulphureted ores. This process, which is called cementa- 
tion, has been long employed in Sweden, and is now used upon the 
Wicklow ores at the mines; precisely the same treatment, in principle, 
is applied to the alum schales, in the North of England, in the manufac- 
ture of alum. The process itself consists in roasting the sulphurets of 
iron and copper in the open air : a huge mound of the broken-up ore is 
so piled upon a foundation of brushwood, that when the latter is ignited 
the flame can gradually penetrate the [heap. The ore, owing to the 
large quantity of sulphur which it contains, burns readily, emitting a 
great deal of sulphurous acid gas; at the same time, the sulphur com- 
bined with the copper and a portion of that combined with the iron, 
are oxydized and converted into sulphuric acid, which remains in 
union with the copper and a portion of the iron. This process of 
burning or calcination is continued upon the ore during five or six 
months, until, indeed, the sulphur begins to be exhausted. The result 
of the calcination is the conversion of the sulphurets of copper and 
iron, which are insoluble in water, into sulphates of the same metals 
which are soluble; so that when the ore is afterwards treated with 
water in great tanks employed for the purpose, the copper, with some 
iron, is washed out and remains with the water; thence it is recovered 
in the metallic state by plunging in the liquid plates or pigs of iron, 
which, according to a well-known chemical action, causes the precipita- 
tion of the copper in the form of metal, which has afterwards to be 
refined and run into ingots for the market. 

By this simple and inexpensive process— the details of which we are 
compelled by want of space to pass over — thousands of tons of the poor 
ore of the Huelva mines are now being reduced : but in addition to this 
a new state of things has arisen, which gives a further value to the 
district. It is generally known that the enormous quantities of sulphur 
which are annually consumed in this country, in the manufacture of 
sulphuric acid, were for a long period drawn almost exclusively from 
the kingdom of Naples, — a circumstance so important to this country 
as to possess even a political influence. The ores of Huelva, containing 
as we have seen a great excess of sulphur, which can be easily 
obtained from them in burning, are perfectly suitable to the production 
of sulphuric acid; and from this a large trade has sprung up, the ore 
being now introduced into this country, and after being deprived of the 
sulphur by the vitriol manufacturers in the neighbourhood of New- 
castle, Glasgow, and Liverpool, are sold and smelted as copper ores in 
the usual manner. 

The mine of Eio Tinto is the type of the district, with regard to the 
character of the ore, and the system of working it; but within a few 
years the locality itself has received the attention it merits from the 
Spanish Government. A proper survey showed that the Romans had 
extended their mining operations as far as the deposit of ore can be 
traced : ancient adits and shafts have been discovered in all directions, 
and when cleared from the accumulated detritus with which they 
are choked, have in almost every instance led to masses of ore similar to, 
though generally less in extent than, that of Rio Tinto. The consequence 
has been the re-opening of many of the old mines; which are now in a 
state of productiveness, yielding a prodigious quantity of ore, part of 
which is exported for its sulphur, and the rest treated by the process 
described, to obtain from it the copper in the metallic state. 

To the geologist this district must afford as much interest as to 
the miner and mineralogist, the situation of the deposit of ore being 
most remarkable with reference to the rocks in which it is found. The 
general character of the district is clayslate, with protrusions or erup- 
tions of porphyry, which has evidently been thrown up, so as to cause 



disruption and extensive disturbance of the slate : it is not as veins 
traversing the rocks that these metalliferous deposits exist, but as 
masses filling cavities between the slate and the porphyry. "Viewed 
generally, this district of Huelva and part of Seville is therefore one 
which ought to attract the attention not only of miners but of the 
scientific mineralogist. Commercially, it is daily being brought into 
notice both in France and England. T. W. K. 



WOOD-BURNING PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE. 

By William Mason and Co., Taunton, Mass., U.S., &c. 
Illustrated by Plate, No. 188. 

We last month published a large folding Plate, illustrating the con- 
struction of an American passenger locomotive engine, the furnace or 
fire-box of which is designed for the use of wood fuel. The sectional 
elevation and plan, given in Plate 137, have the dimensions of every part 
accurately figured in, which renders them of great value to the engineer 
and the student. 

With the present Number we give a side elevation of the same engine 
illustrated by Plate 137, but on a reduced scale, and exhibiting various 
fittings and accessories which, for the sake of clearness, and to econo- 
mise space, were omitted from the former illustrations. 

This engine represents the standard modern practice of locomotive 
engineers in the United States — horizontal cylinders and coupled wheels. 
It is distinguished from English engines by the bogie, or " truck," in 
front, for facilitating the passage of the engine round the guide-curves, 
common on American lines; — by the chimney, or " stalk," funnel-shaped, 
having deflectors inside to throw down wood sparks and collect them ; — 
by the " cab," or house for the protection of the engineman and fire- 
man — a feature worthy of adoption in this country. 

The wheels are of cast iron, with hollow spokes; and the driving and 
hind wheels are coupled — an old practice which English engineers are 
only within the last two or three years adopting generally for passenger 
traffic. The sand-box is on the middle of the boiler, and the alarm-bell 
near it, pulled by a chain to the cab. The fender in front is to drive 
off stray cattle — more frequently occurring in America than in this 
country. The head-lamp is large and powerful. The framing is made 
of bars welded and framed together : plate-frames are scarcely known in 
America. The link-motion is adopted in this engine, and it is rapidly 
superseding the old " hook " motion and double-valves. The grate is of 
cast-iron. There are air-vessels on the feed-pumps. These and other 
details are clearly exhibited in the plates. 

We are indebted for these illustrations to the courtesy of the Authors 
and the Publishers of " Recent Practice in the Locomotive Engine," 
which we briefly noticed in The Artizan for December last, and 
having promised to give illustrations therefrom, we have thus been 
enabled to perform that promise ; and we have much pleasure in re- 
cording our opinion of the very complete and masterly manner in which 
Messrs. D. E. Clarke and Z. Colburn have treated the subject in the 
four numbers already published, and which, by-the-by, are got up in 
the usual excellent style of Messrs. Blackie and Son, the publishers, 
who also issued the former work by Mr. D. K. Clarke— " Railway 
Machinery." 



LEAD SHOT MAKING. 

(Illustrated by Plate 139.) 

In continuation of the series of Plates illustrating the manufacture 
of Lead Shot, we now give four views of the Shot Tower. Fig. 1 being 
a front elevation of the building ; Eig. 2 an end view; and Fig. 3 a back 
elevation. Fig. 4 is a ground-plan of the tower and of the disposition of 
the rooms in which the various operations connected with the melting 
and mixing of the metal, the sorting and storing of the finished shot, &c, 
are carried on. 

In the next and succeeding Plates of this series, will be found views of 
the various mechanical and other contrivances employed in shot making, 
which will be minutely described. 



The Aktizan, "1 
February 1, 1859. J 



How Dies are Made. — On the Economic Performance of Steam- Ships. 



31 



HOW DIES ARE MADE. 

The very brief and perhaps somewhat imperfect account of " how 
money is made" which appeared in our January Part, may be, not 
inappropriately, it is thought, followed this month by some remarks 
upon the manufacture of dies. In the London Mint there is a separate 
department for this especial purpose. Cast-steel bars are here trans- 
formed by a variety of processes into the beautifully impressed seals, 
so to speak, which stamp the whole of the well-finished coinage of this 
kingdom. With as much brevity as is consistent with clearness we 
shall advert to the different stages through which a die passes before 
reaching the coining press. 

After the engraver has completed the device which is to appear upon 
a new coin— say, for instance, a florin, or some other member of the 
decimal family— he copies it carefully upon a well-prepared piece of 
softened steel of the requisite dimensions for his purpose, and com- 
mences engraving it with small steel tools. Having, after an amount of 
tedious and sedentary labour altogether unknown to those of more physical 
activity, completed his work in intaglio, and satisfied himself, by taking 
repeated impressions in clay, of its good effect and finish, the engraver 
proceeds to the next operation, that of hardening it. Here he is met by 
practical difficulties which are sometimes insurmountable, and which 
may mar the entire work which has cost so much time and care. It is 
highly necessary that the face of the die be protected during its harden- 
ing. Various substances have been used for this, but linseed oil and 
lampblack are effective enough. This is thinly spread over the surface 
of the die, which is next placed face downwards, and surrounded by pow- 
dered charcoal. It is heated to a particular temperature, and in that 
state plunged into cold water. In this latter it is kept in a state of 
agitation until all ebullition ceases. 

Much of the art of die-hardening must be got at by practice alone, and 
as none of our readers contemplate establishing private mints — which, 
although permissible in Mexico, are quite illegal in England — it may be 
not worth while going minutely into the signs and portants which speak 
of the quality of the die and enable the hardener to judge of its chances 
of standing its work when completed. 

The die, which we have thus far watched from the forge, where it 
was cut from the end of a square bar of steel, until it has gone through 
the hands of the artist and the ordeal by fire, is now prepared for 
tempering. This is another operation which requires care and prac- 
tice. At the Soyal Mint both exist, and failures consequently uncom- 
mon. We have now a matrix, the parent of the punch, destined 
in its turn to be the fruitful author of many money-niaking dies. In 
order to produce the punch, another piece of softened steel is obtained 
from the bar, and turned obtusely conical on one end and flat on the 
other. In this state it is placed on the bed of the die-press, with the 
matrix immediately above it, its face (that of the matrix) resting on the 
top of the cone. A heavy blow is next given by the force of several 
revolutions of the heavy fly-arms of the press. After one such striking 
a considerable effect will be found to have been taken upon the coned 
and soft steel. A portion of the engraved work of the matrix will have 
become imprinted upon the embryo punch. Several annealings of the 
latter and several more strikings in the press, make it a complete copy 
in relief of the intaglio-engraved matrix. This is placed then on the 
shelf, its mission for the time being at an end. The punch is now 
hardened, retouched, if need be, and is ready for use. A large number of 
impressions, we had almost said, an innumerable supply of coining dies, 
may now be obtained without much difficulty. Good material in the 
shape of steel — and that of Turton, of Sheffield, is, we believe, used exclu- 
sively now at the Mint — and an ordinary amount of skill in working it 
are all that is wanted for the production of good coining dies. Short 
pieces of steel, cut from the bar, forged, and turned conically, as in the 
case of the punch, are put through the same operations to which it was 
submitted, and receive from it perfect impressions in intaglio—; facsimiles, 
indeed, of the matrix. 

Thus are dies multiplied. Afterwards they are put into the lathe, 
and turned to the proper gauge as regards diameter and height, then 
hardened, tempered, and submitted to the coiner. It will be observed 
that by this method of creating dies perfect uniformity is obtained — 
the coins got up from them must resemble each other exactly. Were 
each die engraved separately, it is needless to say that this resemblance 
could not be preserved ; Her Majesty's benign features, which all love 
to observe on a piece of gold — of their own — would sometimes be dis- 
torted by imperfect engraving, and the counterfeit coiner have a 
greater chance of success ; besides, the expense would be inordinately 
increased. 

As in our last Number the mode of making money was alluded to, 
the die question may not require further tracing than to say, that each 
pair of dies ought, with discs of metal of ordinary size and thickness 
to deal with, to give birth to from 20,000 to 30,000 coins. Small and 
thin coins are necessarily more fatal to dies than fairer-proportioned 
ones. In the British coinage the sovereign may be deemed one of the 



most justly proportioned, as it is one of the handsomest of coins. The 
half-sovereign, too, has a good device. Humbly and reverently, it 
might be suggested that Queen Victoria is older now than when the 
matrixes for the two gold coins mentioned were engraved by the late 
celebrated engraver to the Mint. 



ON THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF STEAM-SHIPS 

Vice-Admiral E. Paris, of the Imperial French Navy, has just issued from 
the press a work upon this subject, under the title, " Utilisation Economique 
des Navires a Vapeur; moyens d'apprener les services rendus par le combus- 
tible suivant la marche et la grandeur des Butiments." 

The Author is doubtless known to many of our readers, from having already 
written several excellent and practical works upon the Marine Engine, the 
Screw Propeller, &c, &c, which are standard books of reference in the French 
steam naval departments. 

The subject which Admiral Paris treats in the work before us is one which 
is engrossing a considerable share of attention amongst those of the scientific 
world connected with steam navigation, and who are interested in the develop- 
ment of economy therein ; and so important is the subject considered at the 
present, that a committee of noblemen and gentlemen of high scientific attain- 
ments are engaged upon an extensive series of investi gations connected with 
the subject, having been appointed for the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, at the recent meeting at Leeds. We have therefore thought 
it would be received as very useful and timely service to enter upon the inves- 
tigation of Admiral Paris's work, and give such extracts therefrom as are in 
our opinion likely to prove most interesting and serviceable to our readers, 
although it is but fair to the author to state that we find it difficult to do him. 
sufficient justice in making extracts, however fully, and we hope carefully, we 
may be able to quote from his work. 

As the best way of applying economically any mechanical force is to keep an 
account of the expense incurred, compared with the result, it has been sought 
to establish such calculations for steam-ship economy, and the question has 
been considered from different points of view. 

The engineers and shipbuilders anxious to study these products have consi- 
dered the question on its dynamical side, and then compared together the 
resistance, the speed, and the force measured by the indicator. But this, how- 
ever, is quite useless to the seaman who receives a ship with a small engine and 
confined stowage for coals, and who has had no influence or opinion either in 
the construction of the hull, or in the disposition of the machinery, but must 
take her and make the best of the whole. 

He compares the result, not to a force measured with but little exactness, 
but to the coal, which is the first cause of that force. It is a natural consequence 
that in looking at this new side of the question, the formulae generally used 
to obtain what has been called the efficiency, have been changed for new ones, 
in which coal is substituted as the measure of the force. This is the main 
difference of the calculations made in the " Utilisations Economique," when 
compared with the manner in which the question had been considered by other 
writers. 

Before examining the true objects of the new work, the author considers the 
variety of the unity of force used now in France, and taking some experiments 
lately made at Brest and Toulon, he shows seven different values to what is 
called a H.P., as is shown in the annexed Table : — 



Sovereign . . \ 



Eylau 

Impiratrice. 
Sevre 



Z* 



615 
631 
801 
701 
789 
371 



II % ~ 

1 e- 53 



y 



124,946 
119,380 
149,603 

91,584 
132,530 

30,631 



o I * 

a S •« 



1,665 
1.538 
1,995 
1,221 
1,767 
408 



a * 






1,249 
1,194 
1,496 

916 
1,325 

306 



■£, a « 



-ci 



625 

57 

748 

408 

662 

153 



X. b c 



944-5 

872-3 
1131-5 

690 
1002 

232 



93 

•* S.- 
°8gS 
■x S-S-e 
8 5 "S 
a a ojt- 

a S3 o 

COf| 



608 
661 
696 
415 
651 
168 



In all these formula? a = the number of cylinders; d = diameter of the 
piston; c = length of stroke; N = the number of revolutions per minute; 
» = the mean pressure in centimetres of mercury, taken from the mean 
ordinate of the diagram. In this manner they have the work done by the 
piston, and to obtain that done by the shaft they deduct 6 centimetres; so 
it is p - 6. , 

The author proposes to count in kilogrammes, or square centimetres, as the 
English do in lbs. per sq. in.; and as an atmosphere, or 76 centimetres of 
mercury is = 1-033 kilogrammes, or a square centimetre, the formula would 
become 2,618 d 2 c N p in kilogrammetres, 3,442 d 2 c N p in horses of 75 
kilogrammes, and 2,618 d^cNy, should the H.P. of 100 kilogrammetres. 
be adopted. 



32 



On the Economic Performance of Stecmi- Ships. 



' The Artizaw, 
L February 1, 1859. 



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omparative trials of Bretagne and /sty ,- 
full power between Titan and Portcross 
and back ; dead calm and light W. breeze, 
eport of trials of 10th December, 1855. 
etwecn Toulon and Marseilles ; light breeze, 
fresh sea, no sails. 

etwecn les Medes and Bagau ; stern swell, 
etwecn Benat and Briangoii ; light head 
breeze, light cross breeze. 


rom one extremity of Titan to the other ; 
light head breeze. (What belongs to Na- 
poleon is taken from experiments of 1852). 
le ship being alone had once 13 knots with 
2,239 H.P. of 79 ldl., and 0-182 of efficiency. 


oth ships full power, working alone against 
a fresh easterly breeze, smooth sea in the 
beginning, and agitated at the end of a 
track of 114'. 

Igeziras following Arcole, working at full 
power ; calm, smooth sea from Sanguinaires 
to the Isle of Hyeres. 

oth ships, free way, half of flres lighted 
from the Isle of Hyeres to Villafranca, 
W.N.W., freshening at the end of the track. 
Igeziras following Arcole, using only the 
half of boilers from Villafranca to the Isle 
of Hyeres ; light east breeze, freshening at 
the end of the track. 

can of four travels between Cape Benat 
and Medes ; all boilers lighted ; calm, little 
agitation on the sea. 


can of four travels between Benat and 

Medes ; calm, very smooth sea, all boilers 

lighted. 

ean of four travels between Benat and 

Medes ; dead calm, smooth sea, all boilers. 

ravel of 36 miles on the African Coast ; 

calm, smooth sea, three boilers lighted. 

■esh head breeze, high sea, three boilers 

lighted. 

xperiments, light breeze, smooth sea. 

xperiments, light breeze, smooth sea. 


ick from Algiers, 148 miles, light breeze, 

two points from head, some swell, all 

boilers lighted. 

ean of four trips of 14 miles along the 

African Coast ; calm, smooth sea. 

rial with four boilers along the African 

Coast ; calm, smooth sea. 


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om Mahon to Point Pescade, strong wind, 
very heavy sea, the bearings giving a 
mean speed of 7*10, and the log 8'*58. 
rials of receipt, 
■nooth sea, light stern breeze; very short 


trial. 

uring a whole day of dead calm. 
uring 106 hours of calm, 
ean of several days of calm. 






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The Artizan, "1 
February 1, 1859. J 



On the Economic Performance of Steam-Ships. 



33 



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Between Algiers and Marseilles— head wind ; 
Tmp6LuGU&e>& boilers; Impiratricc, 8, 6, 
and 5 boilers. 

Between Medes and Lardier — little breeze, 
sometimes ahead, sometimes astern ; free 
way; half of the boilers. 

Between Medes and Lardier — two inverted 
travels, smooth sea, fair breeze, Impera- 
trice following Impifrtteuse, who did her 
best, with four boilers. 

Trial with equal speeds between Medes and 
Titan — Impctueuse, four boilers; Impera- 
trice following, with two boilers : fair 
breeze shifting ahead or astern. 

Between Lardier, Taillat, and Frejus— little 
beam breeze, smootli sea; both frigates 
using all boilers. 


Little head breeze, smootli sea ; IJ days 

travel. 
Little head breeze, smooth sen, little back 

swift; 12 hours trip. 

Comparative ti-ials with Bretagne. 

Jleans of four trips, during trials of receipt. 
Experiments of receipt. Screw of Mr. Holm. 
Abstract of experiments of receipt : speed 
measured on a base ; short of steam. 

Trials of receipt. Weight of coal uncertain. 

Trials at Brest. 

Trials of receipt in 1855. 

Trials of receipt in 1852. 

Trials of receipt. Speed by patent JIassey 

log from Havre to Chcrbouig. 
Trials of receipt. 

Jleans of numerous observations made by 
JI. Dupricz, chief engineer, now on board 
the Arcole. Coals had been exaetly mea- 
sured, and in similar circumstances — that 
is to say, with calm and smooth sea. 

The Fawn, built by JI. Moissard. Instead 
of being the results of trials always made 
during a calm, they are the means of 282 
trips, half of which were during the night 
between Calais and Dover. The speed has 
been 14,83 knots steam and sails. 


•SUB3JI 


55 




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34 



On the Economic Performance of Steam- Ships. 



(" The Artizan, 
[.February 1, 1859. 



On examining the various methods, it is easily seen that the first is no 
more than a measure of volume, and not at all of force or power, as the 
pressure is overlooked ; and the second, third, fourth, and fifth are all based 
on the number of kiloarammetres acting on the piston, as calculated by the 
card. The sixth is a kind of correction of the nominal power made for the 
pressure in use when we began to employ tubular boilers, and the last one is a 
high-pressure non-condensing, though included with the low-pressure. 

As three or four of these different methods of calculating are frequently met 
with in the same reports of trials, it is easy to perceive what a disorder it pro- 
duces in estimating the qualities of engines. Thus a real H.P. of a new engine 
costs no more than a quarter of the same in an old engine working at 6 in. 
pressure. 

The author also remarks that the diagram is not a commercial measure, 
though in fact it is the basis of all bargains, being the only means of calcu- 
lating the quantity of sensible steam in the cylinder, which must be given by 
the maker in the cylinders. The indicator is an admirable means ot testing 
the internal functions of an engine, but not of measuring its value in pounds 
and shillings. It gives the power at the very moment the card is traced, and 
is not a means of measuring the work when lasting a long time ; but it can be 
used to know the pressure on the piston of a good many engines, and then by 
adopting the means — a kind of gauge H.P. (cheval de jauge) would be 
obtained, and calculated as easily as the nominal H.P. for whatever pressure 
is used in the engine. To show this system, the author has taken the mean 
ordinate of several ships, and the pressure in the boiler, and he found that 
by taking the half of this one, he had quite the mean ordinate. This would 
hold good for high-pressure engines, which would require peculiar trials. 

Many more observations would be wanted to admit half the effective pressure 
in the boiler as representing the value of the mean ordinate ; but whatever 
would be the fraction adopted, it would be a simple manner of calculating the 
real -power ; and this being specified in the bargains, the indicator would be 
used to know if the engines perform their duty. If after long use the pressure 
is diminished, they wiil have the power really remaining ; and it would thus 
furnish a means of understanding each other, which we are quite unable to 
do according to present practice. As the same disorder exists in England, 
it is to be wished that some decision should be taken to have a method of 
measuring the power as simple and practical as that of the tonnage of ships 
should be. Tf not truly exact, this method would be much better than that 
we are using now, and it is the reason of this proposal. 

As the engine loses its power by a long working, the French author proposes 
to make the experiments with a certain number of furnace sheets, this being 
clearly established in bargains, and being also a security against the loss of 
production of steam, which is the chief cause of that of speed, when steam-ships 
are becoming old. So it would be specified that the trials should be made 
with one furnace sheet on four of them, and not that the diagrams would give 
by calculations 30 kilogrammes of sensible steam per H.P. The falling off 
in steaming power of the boiler is caused by the scale, which cannot be 
entirely avoided with our present pressure (20 or 30 lbs. in the sq. in.), and 
also by the rust, which in the bottom of ships quickly weakens the plates, their 
rivets, and their stays. So a well-cared engine will work as well as new, and 
the pressure of the boiler would be necessarily lowered, and a new power calcu- 
lated ; but if there is a sufficient quantity of steam the power will be preserved 
by using less expansion. Many of our ships became slow because they wanted 
steam, and they would have kept their speed had what has been said been 
observed. 

The purpose of a force being exerted is to produce motion, the work done 
being measured by the weight moved, and the distance, it would seem easy to 
know the performance of ships. But they are not in the same condition as 
weights; their resistance through water is not exactly known, and it varies 
from one ship to the other, according to the variety of forms. This difficulty is 
probably the cause of the indifference with which this question has been con- 
sidered, when it has produced in those the remarkable results of the Cornish 
Association. These prove how desirable it would be to measure the perform- 
ance of sea steam-engines as well as that of pumping or hoisting engines. 
Unfortunately it is not possible, not only because the resistance of ships 
through water is not well known, but also the action of the propeller, what- 
ever it may be, is unknown. But if true exactness is not possible it is not a 
reason to abandon the question, and not to search if some observations would 
not give results of a sufficient exactness for common practice of steam naviga- 
tion. It is what the French author tried after he had admitted as a principle 
that the resistance of ships is in the ratio of the square of the speed, and the 
surface of the midship section, as it has been used by Messrs. Bourgois and 
Moll, in their valuable trials on various kinds of screws, translated in the 
"Treatise of the Screw Propeller," by Mr. Bourne. But instead of using the 
midship section he has adopted the displacement!, as the Admiralty did in the 
trials of British men-of-war; and Mr. Atherton, in his work on "Steam-ship 
Capability," of which an abstract of the text, as well as of several tables, are 
given in the French work, to show the question on the side in which it has been 
examined in England. 

It is only after all these preliminaries that the Admiral Paris enters really 
into the matter he intends to study, and he explains the reasons of the adoption 
oi displacement two-thirds, instead of the displacement of the midship section, 
in the following words : " The purpose of a ship is not to set apart water, as a 
cutting tool does, or rather a plough through the ground under the traction of 
horses, the real work being expressed by the width and depth of the furrow. The 
ship cuts the water, but she does so only to transport goods, and her midship 
section represents only the obstacles to what she intends to perform ; but the 
real work done by her is the weight transported. If she first gives a dynamical 
result, , tlle second is suited to the economical appreciation ; and we can say 
that if for a mine the work is the quantity of coal hoisted from the well on the 
sea agamst the abstract of gravitation, it is the transport of a weight through 
water ; in one case the abstract of gravitation has been overcome, in the other 



it has been the inertia of water. Then it would be really with the cargo that 
calculations should be made, as Mr. Atherton did with arbitrary numbers 
But as the hull and engine are necessary to the transports as well as waggons 
on railroads, and as the proportions of cargo to the whole weight are very 
variable, it has been found better to consider the whole, that is to sav, the dis- 
placement. It is for these reasons that in the second part of the " Treatise on 
the Screw Propeller" are several tables, in -which the coal burnt to carry one 
ton of displacement a mile has been calculated. We shall see further what 
can be done with that mode of acting. 

Now we must say that for a general measure the displacement cannot be 
used, because it has too much influence on the result. So if we consider ships 
of equal relative power, we shall see that then- engines will grow larger in the 
ratio of the square of dimensions, when the volume or weight of the ship will 
follow the ratio of the cube, and the ship twice the capacity of another will 
have an engine four times more powerful, but will carry eight times more, so 
the engine will do double work. Now let us see if the midship section is better 
fitted to a general measure, and we shall consider that when all ships had 3£ or 
4 times their beam for their length, it was quite true, but that now we see daily 
the proportions of 6, 7, 8, and even 85 adopted by the best shipbuilders. 

For instance, let us suppose an old man-of-war of 100 guns, having 98 
metres midship section, and displacing 4,450 tons, and let us suppose another, 
having the same beam, but having her frames placed double the distance 
apart; this second ship will have the same midship section, but her dis- 
placement will be double. How then can we say that the engine which propels 
double the weight will have no more power than if simply lifting the weight? 
This cannot be admitted : however, this is what they do when calculating by 
the midship section. As a proof, we can see that speed and power being the 

same, and represented by one, we have in one case s x , and in the second 

2H x 1^ 

ii— — __ P587; which is to say, that the economy of the large ship will be 

to that of the small one as 1 : 1-387 — that is to say, that in the case of a ship 
of 100 square metres midship section, the second one should have 158 metres, 
and this shows that the utilisation calculated with the imaginary surface 

called D 3 , answers well with a midship section proportional to displacement : 
there is only this difference, that for the same speed the lengthening of the 
hull does not require more power, whilst enlarging her would ; and that if the 
first ship has 1,000 H.P., the second should be propelled by 1,587 for the same 
speed. Here we see a proof of one of the advantages of long hulls : and in the 
course of this work we shall see many evidences of this important fact. 

The JSylau is an example of what has just been said. She has been lengthened 
6-75 metres, which for 98-7 metres of midship section gives 663 tons more, which 
added to the 4,450 of the old ship, gives 5,113 for her new displacement. 
Admitting that in both cases the speed is 10-6,* and that the engines gave 
out 1,230 H.P. of 75 kilogrammetres, in both cases it is 12-46 horses per 
square metre; but in one 3-618 tons are drawn by each horse, and in the other 
4-157 tons. At that speed the ship was burning 54 tons a day — viz., 2,500 kilo- 
grammetres an hour, that is 25 kilogrammetres to force 1 square metre 
through water at 10-6 miles per hour, but 1 ton weight costs 0-562 kilogram- 
meti-es in the small ship, and only 0-488 kilogrammetres in the enlarged one, 
that is a gain of 14 per cent, by the mere lengthening. This is the real profit, 
because Eylau had a good efficiency (by MM. Bourgois and Mott's formula). 
She used 0-186 kilogrammetres in a calm, when Fleurus had 0-160 kilogram- 
metres at 9-7 knots ; Jean Hart, 0-153 kilogrammetres, at 9'2 knots ; 
Algeziras, 0-177 kilogrammetres at 9-8 knots, and Napoleon, 0-173 kilo- 
grammetres at 12-0 knots. 

From this fact, some would perhaps conclude that lengthening in the middle 
without sharpening extremities, is a cause of better speed, but it is probably 
owing to the energy of impulsion of her engines with equilibriated cranks, as • 
found when the engine was tried with the dynamometer at the fixed point 
on shore. 

Now if we look to the economical utilization, that is to say, to the quantity 
of coal burnt in one hour, we remark that according to midship sections the 
result is 470 for both ships, and that with Df they have 128-8 for the old one, 
and 141-4 for the new. These examples, and many others, would show that 
by using Df we have a correct estimate of the duty performed by a ship, 
and it will be enough to look at the numbers in the tables and positions 
of various points in Plate I., representing the economical efficiencies of 
various ships of the Imperial navy and Messageries lmperiales, which show a 
great variety of results ; and, notwithstanding this, it is to be remarked how 
the efficiency increases with the size of ships, especially when calculated with 
displacement. 

It is easy to conclude the merits of ships of the same size, as of Algeziras, 
Napoleon, and Arcole, where the utilisation of the first is double that of the 
last. The old paddle frigates show the same difference with the packets of the 
Messagerie, and. in the lower part of the Plate stronger differences are proofs 
of the high influence of skilful management and good care. To show this, 
lines are traced from the best and worst results of large ships to the same of 
smaller ones, and along or beside these lines ships are placed according to their 
true merit. 

The utilisation of economy, as calculated with the midship section, are on the 
left of the first Plate, and present interesting comparisons with those calculated 

according to D 3 . The comparison of the packet boats of the Messageries, the 
Simois, Mersey, Mitidjah, and others, of 220 H.P., built by Moissard, show 
these differences, inasmuch as their length is 7J times their breadth, whilst the 
old ones have only 5-88. Some curious results may be obtained by comparisons 
of this kind with a number of ships of various proportions. 

" In all this work speed is always counted in knots, or nautical miles. 



The Artizan, "1 
February I, 1859.J 



The Barometer as an Engineering Instrument. 



35 



The three methods, of which the economy will have to be considered, show, 
that whether according to D* or by the midship section, the large ship is far 
superior to the 9mall one. 

A similar method will not suit for general comparisons, because a true mea- 
sure will not be influenced by the greater or less size of the objects to which it 
relates. 

The utility of such a general measure led Admiral Paris to try and discover 
if, in the general dimensions of a ship, there could not be found a correction, if 
it may be so termed, for the curve of M. Le Bouleur, which, when applied to 
the economic efficiency, might reduce them to a common measure. He has 
not yet obtained it, because of the anomalies which have arisen from the state 
of the boilers, firing, &c, but he prefers the theoretic curve, such as Mr. 
Bourgois has traced in the last work he published on the " Resistances des 
Carenes." This curve is represented by M G in the Plate II., and it is from 
this that he has deduced the theoretic economy as shown by the scales at the 
top and bottom of the Plate. For greater facility he has multiplied them by 
1,000, and they are found in the following Table, in columns 2 and 5. Then, 
admitting that the distance to the point M expressed the beam of the largest 
ship Bretague, all other beams were marked by this sign (.), and the dotted 
curve traced. As it is seen, this one has but a little difference with the first 
one, and subsequently on dividing the efficiency by the beam a constant number 
was to be obtained, and procured a true comparison. But as the theoretical 
efficiency is a fraction, it has been multiplied by thousands, and after that 
divided by the beam, the results being the line A b. 
{To be continued.) 



THE BAROMETER AS AN ENGINEERING INSTRUMENT. 

By John M. Richardson, B.S.* 

One of the first duties of an engineer after taking charge of any 
proposed line of railway, plank road, or canal, is to make himself 
thoroughly acquainted with the physical features of the country between 
the termini of the same. He should know every forest and cultivated 
field, every mountain and plain, every river and rivulet, every valley, 
and every range of hills. All these should be as indelibly engraved 
upon his mind as upon a map. Indeed, he should be as , familiar with 
every feature of the country over or through which the improvement is 
to run, " as though he had passed his hand over every foot of it." Such 
precise information can only be gained by a close and careful instru- 
mental survey, using for that purpose the level, chain, and compass. 
These surveys, however, are very expensive, costing both time and 
money ; and as several routes are usually surveyed, whilst only one is 
finally adopted, it follows, that if any feasible method can be suggested 
whereby the number of these^ surveys may be diminished there will be a 
great saving of both the important elements, time and money ; or, since 
in this utilitarian and practical age, time is money, the saving may be 
regarded as one of money alone. 

It is firmly believed that a proper use of the barometer in all recon- 
noissances will lessen the number of experimental lines usually surveyed, 
facilitate the location of the road or canal, hasten its construction, and 
thus confer a benefit upon the public. 

Before setting any survey on foot, it is the usual custom for the chief 
to pass over the proposed line and examine it with the eye alone, select- 
ing "guiding" or "ruling" points through which the road must pass, 
and gaining all possible information with regard to the country from the 
inhabitants along the route. The knowledge thus obtained is of great 
importance, and its benefit is felt when the more careful anu accurate 
observers, the level and chain, follow after, noting with the utmost 
minuteness every change of grade. But the eye is a very unsafe engi- 
neering instrument, and should not be too implicitly relied upon when 
used without the aids which science and art have given it. It is true 
that by long practice some can judge pretty correctly as to the distance 
of two objects apart, or as to their relative difference of level, so long as 
they both remain in sight ; but when space, and forests, and mountains 
intervene between two stations, a and b — especially if there be a suc- 
cession of ascents and descents between the two — an engineer, aided by 
the eye alone, cannot say with any certainty when he has arrived at b, 
" I am below a," or " I am above a," except in one case, viz. : when he 
has been following the course of a stream. In confirmation of this, two 
facts will be detailed. The writer was once travelling over a very 
rough and broken portion of country in company with an experienced 
and distinguished engineer ; they passed from the valley of one stream 
to that of another nearly parallel to the first, and at about right angles 
to their direction. The road along which they journeyed ran over a 
succession of ranges of hills, so that they kept ascending and descend- 
ing ; but as far as they could judge, the ascents and descents appeared 
to balance each other ; and when they arrived at the second stream, 
they thought they were about on a level with the one they had left. 
Upon examination, however, the difference of level of the two streams 
proved to be over 200 ft. ! The engineer alluded to (who was formerly 
an officer in the U. S. A., and who is well known as an able topographer 



' Extracted from the " Journal of the Franklin Institute.' 1 



and skilful engineer) exclaimed vehemently against the reliance of 
engineers upon the unaided eye in reconnoissances of long lines. The 
second fact is quoted from Lieut. R. S. Williamson's " Report " of ex- 
plorations made by him in California, to aid in solving the problem 
relative to the practicability of the " Pacific Railroad." This Report 
will be referred to hereafter, though enough will be extracted now to 
answer another as well as the present purpose. 

I will now give the results of the survey, merely mentioning here 
that the profile, as determined by the spirit-level and barometer, agreed 
remarkably well. 

"From the Depot Camp to the point where the Tejon Creek de- 
bouched from the mountains was a distance of 2^ miles, over unbroken 
ground. To the eye this appeared very slightly deviating from horizontalily. 
The level showed a difference of altitude of 483 ft., giving a grade of 173 ft. 
to the mile. The barometer made the difference of level 15 ft. greater. 
I was surprised at this result, which taught that very erroneous impressions 
must generally be conceived with regard to differences of level if the eye alone 
is trusted to." 

The use of the barometer will prevent the occurrence of any such 
errors, and it is probable that they are numerous. By it the level of one 
gap in a range of hills or chain of mountains can be compared with that 
of another, and thus the comparative ease or difficulty of connecting 
the contiguous plains or valleys by passing through one or the other, 
ascertained in the shortest possible time, and with the least expense. If 
merely examined par un coup d'ail in the reconnoissance, experimental 
lines must be run through both gaps, and the two routes can only be 
compared, their relative merits and demerits ascertained, after a long, 
laborious, and expensive instrumental survey. 

By using the barometer, the chief, after his reconnoissance, can say, 
with almost absolute certainty in any case, which terminus is above the 
other, which is the highest point along the route, which the lowest, and 
where the greatest difficulties are to be encountered. The barometer 
does not, indeed, give horizontal distances, but in determining the 
practicability of any proposed route, they are of subordinate importance 
compared with differences of elevation. A pedestrian, a carriage, a 
locomotive, can accomplish horizontal distances with ease, but they 
cannot so easily ascend and descend hills and mountains. " These are the 
chief obstacles to the construction of roads and canals, and are the 
natural enemies of the engineer." By using the barometer, he does not 
lessen their hostility to his improvements, but he discovers in the most 
expeditious manner where they are weakest, and where he can best 
attack and most easily overcome them. This is all that is claimed for 
the barometer as an engineering instrument ; and it is enough. Its 
results are not so correct as those of the level. They are only approxi- 
mations. It goes before, and, as it were, sketches out the work, gives 
the outline ; the level follows after and completes the picture. But by 
means of the sketch which the barometer furnishes the level, the latter 
is enabled to accomplish its work in much less time, and at a vastly 
diminished expense. Up to the present time the barometer has been 
chiefly used by travellers in determining the approximate altitudes of 
mountains, by chemists in ascertaining the specific gravity of gases, and 
by mariners as a weather glass. Its utility as an engineering instrument 
has been recognised practically but by few, either in this country or in 
England ; on the continent of Europe it has been (such is the writer's 
information) more extensively employed. 

The recent " Pacific Railroad Surveys," instituted and carried out by 
the General Government, have been instrumental in calling the atten- 
tion of engineers more particularly to the barometer, and have demon- 
strated beyond the shadow of a doubt, its great value as an engineering 
instrument, particularly where the reconnoissance extends over long 
lines, and where there are, anywhere along the line, considerable 
changes of level. 

The reports of the surveys alluded to, and more particularly that of 
Lieut. Williamson, afford much valuable information on this subject. 
Lieut. W., as already quoted, states that the profiles "determined by 
the spirit level and barometer agreed remarkably well." This is im- 
portant as bearing upon the relative accuracy of the level and baro- 
meter. It will be well, however, to examine in some little detail the 
comparisons made between the level and barometer by Lieut. W. In 
the remarks already quoted, he states that the difference of elevation 
between two points as determined by the level is 483 ft. ; as determined 
by the barometer, 498 ft. Assuming that the result given by the level is 
absolutely correct, the error, in that particular case of the barometer, is 
15 ft., or + -031056 of the whole, or — '030120 of its own determination. 
The result of this comparison is, that the barometric difference of alti- 
tude of two stations must be diminished by about three-hundredths ot 
itself to get the true difference of altitude. 

Denoting by h the true, and h the barometric difference of level of 
two places. 

H = h (1— -03012) = -96988 k (1) 

(1) is the result of a single comparison only, and of course cannot be 
relied upon unless it is confirmed by others, it is proposed to examine 
the other comparisons made by Lieut. W., and, rejecting only those 



36 



The Barometer as an Engineering Instrument. 



tTEE Artizan, 
F- 



. February 1, 1859. 



which are obviously or probably incorrect, to determine the mean error 
of the barometer according to his observations. If the result thus 
ascertained is confirmed by other and more extended observations and 
comparisons, it can be relied on with more confidence. 
Table I. — Tejon Ravine. 



Level. 


Altitudes. 


Barometer. 


Altitudes. 


Differences. 


Per cent. 


U) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


— 2-1 


2333-0 




2327-3 


5-7 


•002449 


— 39-0 


2294-0 


i.4 


2328-7 


—34-7 


— -014901 


—164-2 


2129-8 


—127-5 


2201-2 


—71-4 


— -032433 


—392-8 


1737-0 


—401-3 


1799-9 


—62-9 


— -034947 


— 352 -e 


1384-4 


-411-1 


1388-8 


— 4-4 


— -003188 


—226-5 


1157-9 


—249-7 


1139-1 


18-8 


•016504 


—218-7 


939-2 


—224-4 


9147 


24-5 


•026784 


—170-3 


768-9 


—180-6 


73-Tl 


34-8 


•047-105 


—243-1 


525-8 


—270-9 


463-2 


6i-6 


•135146 


—136-2 


662-0 


148-3 


611-5 


50-5 


•082583 


—173-1 


488-9 


—116-6 


494-9 


— 6-0 


— -012124 



Explanation of Table. — This table is taken from Appendix C. of 
Lieut. Williamson's Exploration. (See vol, v., "Explorations for a 
Railroad Eoute from the Mississippi River to the Pacific") 

Column (1) gives the level-altitude of each station above the preced- 
ing station ; (2) the total level altitude of each station above an assumed 
station ; (3) the barometer-altitude of each station above the preceding 
one ; (4) the total height of each station as determined by barometer 
above the assumed one ; (5) the difference between the corresponding 
numbers in (4) [and (1), obtained by subtracting the numbers in (4) 
from the corresponding ones in (1); (6) the percentage of the barometric 
error, and is obtained by dividing the numbers in (5) by the corre- 
sponding ones in (4). 

The mean result of this comparison is, that the barometer-difference 
of altitude is too small bv + "032597 of itself. Hence, 

H = (1 +-032597) h = 1-032597 /( (2) 

Comparing this with (1), it is seen that the errors are just the oppo- 
site of each other. Combining (1) and (2) the mean result is, 

h = 1-0012.385 h (3) 

Table II.— Tejon Pass. 



Level. 


Alts. 


Baro. 


Alts. 


Differences. 


Level. 


Alts. 


Barom. 


Alts. 


Differences, 


U) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) (6) 


(I) 


(2) 


(3) 


(*) 


(5) (6) 


59-2 


59 -i- 


60-8 


60-8 


— 1-6,— 1-6 


109-7 


2405-7 


125-2 


2457-3 


— 15-51— 51-6 


239-2 


298-4 


281-6 


292-4 


8-6 


6-0 


186-7 


2592-4 


191-4 


2648-7 


— 4-7—56-3 


184-5 


482-!> 


205-8 


498-2 


—21-3 


-15-3 


202-3 


2794-7 


122-5 


2771-2 


79-8 


23-5 


217-4 


700 -a 


228-6 


726-8 


—11-2 


—26-5 


353-4 


3148- 


348-1 


3119-3 


5-3 


28-8 


217-4 


700-3 


216-7 


714-8 


0-7 


—14 6 


689-7 


3837-8 


797-7 


3917-0 


-108-0 


— 79-2 


165-2 


865 -S 


202-3 


917-2 


—37-1 


—51-7 


—588-9 


3248-9 


—600-1 


3316-0 


11-2 


— 67-1 


77-9 


943 -4 


39-1 


956-3 


38-8 


—12-9 


—147-6 


3101-3 


—121-7 


3195-2 


— 25-9 


— 93-9 


382-2 


1325-1 


408-9 


1365-2 


—26-7 


—39 6 






— 68-3 


3126-9 






182-1 


1507-7 


188-9 


1554-1 


— 6-8 


-46-4 


— 93-1 


3008-2 


— 88-5 


3038-4 


— 4-6 


— 30-2 




1471-8 




1474-9 




— 31 


—290-4 2717-8 


—220-1 


2809-3 


— 70-3 


— 91-5 




1471 -t 




1439 6 


.. 


32-2 


— 56-9 2660-9 


— 24-7 


2784-6 


— 32-2 


—123-7 




1471 -t 




1411-3 


.. 


60-5 


—104- 1'2556-8 


—110-2 


2674-4 


6-1 


—117-6 




1471-8 




1487-4 


.. 


—15-6 


—228-0 2328-8 


—234-2 


3440-2 


6-2 


—111-4 


182-1 


1507-7 




1527-0 




—19-3 


—120-1 2208-7 


-135-6 


2804-6 


15-5 


— 95-9 


106-5 


1614-2 




1644-0 




-29-8 


—112-0 2096-7 


—121-1 


2183-5 


9-1 


— 86-8 


104-1 


1718-3 


82-7 


1726-7 


21 -4 


— 8-4 


— 95-3 2001-4 


— 69-0 


2114-5 


— 26-8 


—1131 


577-7 


2296-0 


605-4 


2332-1 


-27-7 


—36-1 


— 60-64940-8 


— 78-1 


2036-4 


17-5 


— 95-6 



Columns (1), (2), (3), (4), and (6) are copied from the table in the 
" Report." Column (6) is obtained by subtracting the numbers in (4) 
from the corresponding ones in (2); (5) by subtracting the numbers in 
(3) from the corresponding ones in (1). 

The mean result is, that the barometer-altitude must be diminished 
by -020999 of itself. 

H = (1— -020999) h. = -979001 h (4) 

Combining (4) with (3), 
h = -990170 h. 

Table III.— Canada de los Uvas. 



Level. 


Alts. 


Baro. 


Alts. 


Differences. 


Level. 


Alts. 


Barom. 


Alts. 




(1) 


C2) 


13) 


(4) 


(5) (6) 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) (6) 


319-8 


193-4 


.. 


213-4 




—20-0 


246-1 


2618-6 


235-5 


2673-8 


_ 10-6 — 55-2 


190-9 


384-3 


190-3 


403-7 


0-6 


—19-4 


190-9 


2809-5 


194-9 


2868-7 


— 4-0 


— 59-2 


33S ■ 1 


720-4 


335-7 


729-4 


10-4 


— 9-0 


— 51-5 


2728-0 


— 74-7 


2794-0 


23-2 


— 36-0 


197-3 


917-7 


200-1 


920-5 


— 2-8 


— 2-S 


—322-8 


2435-2 


—333-1 


2460-9 


10-3 


— 25-7 


138-0 


1055-8 


152-0 


1081-5 


—14-0 


—25-7 


— 55-0 


2280-2 


—146-5 


2314-4 


91-5 


— 34-2 


102-8 


1158-6 


• • 


1205-3 




—46-7 


—148-8 


2131-4 


—170-0 


2144-4 


21-2 


— 130 


102-2 


1260-8 


65-7 


1271-0 


36-5 


—10-2 


— 63-0 


2068-4 


— 71-9 


2072-5 


8-9 


— 4-1 


126-2 


1387-0 


145-2 


1416-2 


—19-0 


—29-2 


—103-6 


2172-0 


117-7 


2190-2 


— 14-1 


— 18-2 


79-B 


1466-6 


65-8 


1482-0 


13-8 


—15-4 


—169-3 


2002-7 


—152-9 


2037-3 


— 16-4 


— 346 


161-4 


1628-0 


140-0 


1622-0 


21-4 


6-0 


— 93-0 


1909-7 


—100-5 


1936 8 


7-5 


— 27-1 


146-4 


1774-4 


147-6 


1769-6 


— 1-2 


4-8 


4-7 


9114-4 


30-8 


1967 6 


— 26-1 


— 53-2 


35-3 


1809-7 


38-9 


1808-5 


— 36 


1-2 


39-7 


1874-7 


55-1 


1912-5 


— 15-4 


— 37-8 


643 


1874-0 


52-6 


1861-1 


11-7 


12-9 


47-6 


1922-3 


71-0 


1983-5 


— 23-4 


— 61-2 


57-1 


1931 ■ 1 


68-5 


1929 6 


—11-1 


1-5 


— 52-7 


1869-6 


— 49-7 


1933 8 


— 3-0 


— 64-2 


36'6 


1967-7 


41-4 


1971-0 


— 4-8 


— 3-3 


— 51-9 


1817-7 


—108-6 


1825-2 


56-7 


— 7-5 


77-3 


2045-0 


58-0 


2029-0 


19-3 


16-0 


— 67-3 


1750-0 


— 52-5 


1772-7 


— 14-8 


— 22-3 


61-1 


2160-0 


106-2 


21352 


—45-1 


24-8 


— 71-9 


1678-5 


—133-5 


1639-2 


61-6 


39-3 


260-4 


2372-5 


303-1 


2438-3 


—36 7 


—65-8 















The columns in Table III are the same as in II. The percentage is 
determined as before, by dividing the numbers in column (6) by the cor- 
responding ones in (4). The mean result is — -006898. Hence, 

H = (1— -006898) h = -993102 h (6) 

Combining with (5), 

H = -9916365 h (7) 

In the body of the Report, pages 23 and 24, are recorded two other 
observations, which give as a mean result + -019331. Therefore, 

H = (1 + -019331) h. = 1-019331 h (8) 

Combining with (7), 

H = 1-00598375 h (9) 

With regard to the three observations taken from the body of the 
" Report," pages 23 and 24, viz: — 
Level 483. Barometer 498. Difference — 15. Per cent, — -030120 

" 2665. " 2621. " + 44. " + -016787 

" 1308. " 1280. " + 28. " +"021875 

It is proper to remark, that they do not appear in the tables extracted 
from the Appendix, and consequently they enter the calculations only 
once, as they should. 

Formula (9) is the final result deduced from the observations of Lieut. 
W. It shows that the barometer-altitude is too small by -00598375 of 
itself. For differences of level less than 1,000 ft. it will be almost inap- 
preciable. 

If (9) be combined with the result obtained from the reputed mea- 
surements of Black Mountain in North Carolina, the error will be dimi- 
nished a little. 

The following determinations of the height of that mountain have 
been going the rounds of the newspapers, and are presumed to be cor- 
rect. 

Barometer 6708 ft. Prof. Mitchell, 1855 

" 6709 " " Guzot, 1856 

Level 6711" Major Turner, 1857 

(Mean of barometers 6708-5): difference + 2-5; percent. + -000372. 

u= 1-000372A (10) 

Combining with (9), 

h = 1-003178 /( (11) 

If the above reputed measurements of the altitude of Black Mountain 
are the ones determined by the gentlemen whose names are attached to 
them, formula^lO) is valuable. 

The results are remarkable, and, as bearing upon the relative accu- 
racy of level and barometer important. The altitude of the mountain 
was determined by means of the barometer at two different times, by 
two different observers, and, probably, with two different instruments. 
The results differ by one foot. The third determination was made by- 
means of the Y-level, by a third observer, and at a different time. It 
exceeds the loss of the previous determinations by three feet, the greater 
by two feet, and their mean by two and a half feet. The names of the 
observers are a sufficient guarantee that every precaution was taken to 
insure the greatest possible accuracy. 

A few such independent determinations of the altitude of the same 
point are of more value, perhaps, than a number of isolated observations 
made to determine the altitudes of different points by the same indi- 
vidual with the same instrument. And if scientific men, who have oppor- 
tunity, will only multiply the observations with regard to the height 
of Black Mountain, the question with regard to the relative accuracy 
of level and barometer will be set at rest, at least for such high alti- 
tudes. 

The report of Lieut. W. does not state what means were taken to 
secure the greatest accuracy, though it is presumed that every pre- 
caution was adopted. The survey appears to have been conducted thus: 
The party divided ; one portion remained in camp and made hourly 
observations with the barometer ; the other ran a line t>f levels along 
the route to be surveyed, and made hourly observations with the baro- 
meter also ; the heights of those stations at which the levelling-party 
made barometer observations, as determined by the level and barometer, 
were then referred to the station in camp. The three tables extracted 
from the report, give the results of the three lines run to test the rela- 
tive accuracy of the two instruments. The observations made with the 
barometer in camp and along the route were noted at the same instant, 
and thus the party carried out the instructions of Biot on that subject. 

An examination of the tables will show that the difference between 
columns (2) and (4) are relatively much less than the differences be- 
tween (1) and (3). By comparing columns (1) and (3), which give the 
level and barometer altitudes of the stations with respect to each other, 
the final error of the barometer is + -003252. Hence, 

h= 1-003252 h (12) 

(12) agrees very well with (11). If their mean be taken, 
h= 1-003215 k (13) 

Between formulas (9), (10), (11), (12), and (13), there is but little 
difference, and none practically, unless h be considerable. 

(To be continued.) 



The Artizan, 1 
February 1, 1859. J 



Browning Gun-Barrels. — On Copper Smelting. 



37 



H. M. SCREW STEAM-SLOOP " ICARUS." 

The trial of the Icarus screw-steam sloop took place down the river on 
Tuesday, the 21st December last. She left Woolwich dockyard at 10 - 25 a.m., 
and reached Gravesend at 12*12 with a strong tide against her ; after which she 
made several runs with and against tide, at the measured mile Lower Hope, 
under the superintendence of the Woolwich authorities and Messrs Rennie, 
the constructors of her engines. 

The average speed thus obtained was 10J knots. The engines indicated 
above 600 H.P., making from 90 to 94 revolutions per minute. There was no 
heating in any part, and the trial was highly satisfactory to all concerned. 
The dimensions of the Icarus are as follows : 

Ft. In. 

Length between perpendiculars 151 

Beam, extreme 29 1 

Depth 15 10 

Tonnage 0. M 577JJJ 

She was built at Deptford dockyard. 

The engines are 150 H.P. collectively, by George Rennie and Sons, on their 
Patent Single Trunk principle. 



BROWNING GUN-BARRELS, &c. 

We have been asked several times by correspondents to furnish them 
with an accurate description of the process of browning gun-barrels 
followed in the Government Small-Arms Factory, and by the most cele- 
brated barrel -browner s in Birmingham and London. 

All trades are said to have some highly-prized secret, or follow in 
some branch a carefully-guarded secret operation; now, the thoroughly 
successful practising of the art of browning gun-barrels appears to be 
considered just such a secret. By publishing what we, on the best 
possible authority, believe to be the very best process applied to gun- 
barrels, we believe we shall be doing a considerable benefit (beyond 
complying with the wishes of several correspondents) to the makers of a 
multitude of small articles which might with great advantage be thus 
treated, as a protection against weather and the rusting effect of hand- 
ling and of ordinary exposure ; we therefore now give the following 
receipt : — 

The barrels have to be clean and bright, and entirely free from grease, 
to effect which they are rubbed with pounded lime. When perfectly 
clean they are rubbed with the following mixture, viz. : — 

6 oz. spirits of wine, 6 oz. tincture of steel, 2 oz. corrosive sublimate, 
6 oz. sweet spirits of nitre, 3 oz. nitric acid. 

When rubbed with the above they are placed in a warm room twelve 
hours, and then rubbed until the rust produced by the mixture is re- 
moved. The mixture is again applied, and after standing six hours in 
the warm room a scratch-brush is employed to rub off the rust. Then 
the mixture and the scratch-brush is applied two or three times a day 
for four or five days. The barrel is then placed in (real) boiling water 
for three or four minutes, to destroy the farther effect of the mixture. 
It is then rubbed quite dry, and while still warm from the boiling-water, 
it is rubbed over with sweet oil. The operation of browning should be 
performed in a dry, warm room, at a temperature of 70°. 



GEOLOGISTS' ASSOCIATION. 
The number of members is now one hundred and seventy. Mr. Hyde 
Clarke has been invited to become a Vice-President of the Association, 
and has undertaken to deliver an address at St. Martin's Hall, on 
Tuesday evening, the 8th of February, at 7 o'clock, " On the Organi- 
sation of a Geological Survey by the members of the Association." 



ASSOCIATION OF FOREMEN ENGINEERS.-DEATH OF 

THE CHAIRMAN. 

We regret to have to announce the death of Mr. George Sheaves, the 
founder and first president of the Association of Foremen Engineers. 
Mr. Sheaves occupied the chair at the society's monthly meeting in 
December last, but on the very morning of the day fixed for that of 
January, he had ceased to live. Mr. Sheaves was for many years in the 
employ of Messrs. George and Sir John Rennie, where he acquired the 
esteem of his employers and of those under him. As a thoroughly 
practical mechanic his ability was well known, and for careful attention 
to arrangement and the detail of construction of works entrusted to his 
execution he had no equal. For the last ten years he occupied the post 
of manager for Messrs. Grissell, Regent's Canal Iron-works, and was 
there also universally respected. It will be difficult to fill adequately 
the void created by his removal, whether as foreman, or chairman of the 
Association. A host of friends and of workmen connected with the firm 
of which he was so valuable a servant attended the funeral of 
Mr. Sheaves, at Abney Park Cemetery, on Friday, the 14th ult. 

6 



ON COPPER SMELTING. 
By Hyde Clarke, C.E.* 

Copper smelting is of considerable importance in England, not only because 
we smelt our own Cornish and other ores, but because we- have also a large 
business in smelting foreign ores and refining foreign copper, which gives us a 
great command of the trade in manufactured copper; so that, as well by our 
own advantages as the deficiencies of our neighbours, we obtain valuable 
results. Although the copper mines of England do not afford the rich ores of 
Lake Superior or the Burra Burra, they abound in low sulphuret ores, which 
are easily smelted ; and with the benefit of very cheap fuel, we are able to under- 
take the smelting of the rich carbonate ores of other countries on better terms 
than they can do it themselves. Many countries, rich in copper, have dear 
or scarce fuel, and dear labour, and must import their bricks and furnace 
cements, and thus it is found better to export the ore to the fuel, than to import 
fuel and carry it to the ore. Rich ores, too, in many cases, are carbonates, 
which can be more conveniently smelted with the English sulphurets. Then, 
further, France, Belgium, and Holland are almost destitute of copper mines, so 
that the English have an opening there for manufactured copper, and compete 
in Central Europe with the Russian copper, or supply those countries with bar 
copper for refining. 

With all these advantages, it is still to be questioned whether the English 
copper trade has reached its height, or is free from vicissitudes. To suit the 
circumstances of local business, a particular course of smelting by coal in rever- 
beratory furnaces has been adopted ; but this is not the most economical method, 
nor does it admit of the reduction of the lowest class of copper ores. It is quite 
possible, looking to the effective establishment of copper smelting in Chile, the 
United States, and Australia, to the abundant supply of rich copper ores 
abroad, and the competition of very cheap iron, that copper may be reduced in 
price, and thereby the working of the Cornish mines be threatened ; but, on 
the other hand, if processes be adopted for the more economical reduction of 
copper, ores of lower produce or at lower rates can then be brought to market, 
and the reduction in price may be compensated. New combinations of copper, 
new alloys, as with silicium, will likewise open new sources of consumption. 

At present copper smelting is a routine work, pursued on much the same 
plan as of old, and on the same general system in most of our works, followed 
out as a mechanical practice rather than as a scientific occupation ; but the 
description of it is interesting, because it is continually undergoing modifi- 
cations, which result in more economical working, without much affecting the 
general system. There are several accounts of copper smelting, among which 
are those by the late Mr. John Vivian, the head of the great smelting firm ; Iby 
M. F. Le Play, one of the most eminent mining engineers in France, who has 
most minutely observed the processes ; by Dr. Percy, before the British Asso- 
ciation; by Professor Warington Smyth, at the School of Mines; by Mr. C. 
Low, who has introduced several improvements ; by Mr. Napier, the author of 
great improvements in smelting ; by Mr. John Arthur Phillips, a member of 
this society, and by a writer in the Mining Journal : but no account has been 
laid before this society, and I have therefore taken the opportunity, in contri- ' 
buting this account, to bring it up to the present day. It will be seen that in 
the main it will agree with the authorities referred to, but with the difference 
resulting from modifications which, formerly matters of theory and experiment, 
have now been more liberally adopted. There is, however, one inconvenience 
in such a paper, — that it does not admit of the minute details which are neces- 
sary to give a complete view of the processes. Thus, Le Play has devoted a 
volume to the subject, describing each operation as closely as he could ; and so, 
too, my own materials have to be abridged to meet the space which is disposable. 
It is much to be regretted, however, that we have not in English a work on 
this subject as copious as Le Play's, with the requisite drawings on a large 
scale. To produce this, however, would require, as in his case, the aid of a 
government department. 

The copper smelting trade began in Cornwall, and was thence removed to 
South Wales, which, until lately, remained its sole seat, as it is its chief seat ; 
but Liverpool, having a great import of foreign and colonial copper ores and bar 
copper, has favoured the establishment of smelting works on the Mersey, and has 
a copper market, which is yearly growing in importance. 

The classes of copper ores chiefly produced in this country are sulphurets, 
which are made to average about 9 per cent, in the works. As sulphuret ores 
are more convenient for working in reverberatory furnaces, the smelters of 
South Wales and Liverpool are able to treat the carbonate ores from abroad, 
which are richer in metal, but less tractable than the sulphurets of copper. 

The process of sampling copper ores in most of the copper countries of the 
world is now determined by the Cornish practice, which has been introduced, 
or is worked by Cornish samplers, or by Welshmen trained under them. This 
process has been sufficiently described in works relating to mining, and provides 
for the ore of each mine or class being broken up about the size of a French 
walnut, or say J in., and formed into a separate pile. It is desirable the 
pyramidal pile should not be more than about a yard high, and the slope of 
the sides the natural batter determined by the stuff. A small pile is cut through 
with the sampling spade in four sections, by trenches, of about 8 in. wide at the 
base. The pile is cut thus : — ah 

c d 

but if a large pile, thus abc or abed 
d e f e f g h 

In each section, as for instance that of a, two portions are taken with the 
shovel from bottom to top of the inner pieces of the section at each end. All 
these sixteen scrapings are brought together, forming so many vertical sections 
of the pile, and well mixed and ground up, being gradually reduced by dividing 
the mass into four, a b, taking away a 

c d d 

* Read at the Society of Arts. 



On Copper Smelting. 



r The Artizan, 
LFebruaiyl, 1859. 



and leaving only b and c, which are mixed and again divided into four, when 
the process is repeated till the whole produce of the sampling is brought to 
a manageable weight, from which the small samples for assay are taken, 
and likewise a drying sample, to ascertain the proportion of moisture in 
the ore. 

Although a pile of copper ore under 100 tons is only divided into four, when 
above that quantity it is always further divided. 

Copper regulus for sampling is broken to the same size as copper ore ; but, on 
account of the greater value of the article, it is usual, unless the pile is a very 
small one, to divide it into six or more plots. 

Argentiferous copper ore, or argentiferous copper regulus, is broken smaller, 
or even ground up, as there is a greater chance of variation in the average 
sample. 

Abroad, where the ores are shipped in a rough state, and labour is not avail- 
able for breaking up the ores, they are sampled by taking one bucket of ores in 
ten or twelve, and reducing these to a small sample by continued subdivision 
and subtraction, as in the case of the Cornish process. 

In shipping ores from abroad for the English market, the qualities of ores in 
bulk are separated by matting on board ; but the richer ores, as silver ores, are 
shipped in small hide bags, of local make, or in bag's of sacking sent out from 
this country, and in which there is a considerable trade. 

In sampling, much, with all the care that is taken, may be done by a little 
mechanical skill on the part of the sampler in handling and managing his 
shovel, and in taking and leaving richer bits of ore, which he knows by eye, to 
get such a sample as he wishes. 

In the case of ores in all climates, or whether carried by land carriage or sea, 
there is always some proportion of moisture imbibed which affects the net 
weight, and is ascertained by a drying sample, which is tried in an oven 
and reduced to a dry state, the difference of moisture being taken as the differ- 
ence of weight. 

This is not always the true difference, as other portions are volatilised 
besides water, and the difference is in favour of the smelting. In hot countries, 
ores are affected by heavy night dews, and by the muleteers wetting the ores 
on crossing streams. Ores in ships generally imbibe moisture. 

It is to be observed that the drying sample is taken at a different time from 
the assay sample. The maximum moisture of foreign ores imported into 
Swansea is stated by Messrs. Richardson and Co., the eminent ore agents 
of that town, and by other local authorities, as follows : — 

Chile ores '28 drachms, or G to 11 per cent. 

Cobre ores 36 .. 15 ,, 

Cuba precipitate CO . . 25 ,, 

Rough Chile regulus . . 9 to 10 3 to 11 „ 

Rough copper ores 12 . . 5 ,, 

Fine copper ores 22 . . 9 „ 

The minimum moisture abroad is : — 

Rough regulus 1J drachms, or | „ 

Rough ore 2 . . 1 ,, 

Fine ore 10 4 ,, 

The process hereafter described is an ordinary course of working poor Cornish 
sulphurets mixed with rich foreign carbonates ; the furnaces being about 14 ft. 
by 11 ft. inside dimensions. 

1. Process of Calcining Ores. 

The first course is to calcine the sulphurets, so as to get rid of some of 
the superfluous sulphur. There are many modes of effecting this. Where 
there is not a populous neighbourhood, the simplest mode, and one sufficiently 
effective, is to roast the ores in the open air in a pile with brushwood or small 
coal. This is done, for instance, in the Alten Works in Norway, belonging to 
the Alten and Qusenangen Company. 

In some works, the calcining furnace is much the same as the other furnaces. 
In others, it only varies by side-doors being provided for rabbling or spreading 
the charge over the hearth. 

Messrs. Vivian, in some of their great works, use what are called baboons, 
an old form of calciner, fixed over the furnace, into which they discharge the 
calcined ore hot. 

It is usual to make calciners with double beds, because, at a lower heat, if 
required, than for melting, the flame can, after being used on the lower bed of 
ore, be made to play on the upper floor or bed. A charge of ore is commonly 
laid on the top of the calciner in preparation for the upper bed. 

Various plans have been suggested and tried for applying the spare heat of 
the smelting furnaces for calcining ; but in England fuel is so cheap that it is 
preferred to burn coal rather than to resort to new and cumbrous arrangements. 
In many cases the wear and tear of the new furnaces would be more than the 
saving. 

Under a calciner are vaults, called cubs, into which the calcined ore is let 
down and left to cool. 

A calciner is sometimes very much larger in the floor than the other furnaces. 
Each charge put in a large calciner will be about four tons of ore fine dressed. 
It is first put on the top, and then passed in due course on to the upper floor, 
where the calciners are double. It is well spread over the floor, and about 
every four hours is turned over with a large rake, called a stirring rabble, in- 
troduced from the side-doors. In six hours it is passed to the lower hearth 
through holes in the floor. In the first six hours' treatment little more is done 
than to warm the ore preparatory to the further calcining, as little or no 
chemical change takes place. 

In the lower tier or hearth the charge is commonly left six hours, and is 
stirred every two hours, but as it is not stirred previous to discharge, it is onlv 
stirred twice. A charge is therefore passed through every six hours, but the 
time will vary according to circumstances. When the calcined ore is discharged 
into the cub, it is often cooled by water being thrown on it, and it is wheeled 
away to a heap for mixing, but in some cases is passed on direct to the furnace. 

In smaller calciners than those here referred to, or in those of older construc- 



tion, the charge will not be more than three or three and a-half tons weight. 
A difference in weight of charge will be compensated by difference in the size of 
the grate and the quantity of fuel consumed, so that the dimensions of the 
calciners might properly be adjusted by the proportions of calcining to the total 
work done. 

For calcining the quantity of ore here mentioned with four charges a day, 
about one ton per day of coal would be burned, or about a quarter of a ton per 
charge of ore, or very nearly 1 cwt. per ton of ore; but as Sunday is a slack 
day, and the calciners are kept in heat, the rough consumption in a week may 
be taken at 7 tons, the number of charges at 24, and the weight of ore at from 
90 to 100 tons. The number of working weeks in a year is about 48, but may 
be increased to 50. 

If the ore calcined be a sulphuret of 10 per cent., though it is seldom so high, 
its constitution will be about, say : — 

Copper. 10 

Sulphur 15 to 20 

Silicious matter 45 to 55 

Iron 20 to 25 

About half the sulphur is expelled in the calciner or in the cubs, and a portion 
of oxygen is taken in and unites with the iron, and some chloride of sodium 
is obtained from the salt water thrown into the cubs. 
Another class of ore may be thus composed : — 

Copper 8 

Sulphur 23 

Silica 45 

Iron 24 

Mr. John Cameron, F.C.S., tabulates the results as follow : — 



Original Form. 
Sulphuret of ) 8 Copper. 

copper J 2 Sulphur. 

Sesqui-sulphu- ) 21 Sulphur. 

ret of iron . . jj 24 Iron. 



Silica 45 



Converted into 
8 Copper. ... \ Sub -sulphu - 
2 Sulphur. . . ) ret of copper. 
Lost or re- 
placed by 
Sesqui - oxide 
of iron. 



10 Sulphur. . | 

-J 



5 - 40 Oxygen 
12 Iron 

11 Sulphur. . ) Sesqui - sul 

12 Iron ) phuret of iron 

45 Silica. 



In working a calciner, three men are employed for the day and three for the 
night, each gang under the foremen of calciners. The men are paid by the 
watch, and not by the charge, the operation being one of unskilled labour, and 
not requiring to be stimulated by piece-work. The wages are from 14s. to 16s. 
per week. There is, in fact, no definite rule as to the state of the calcined ore,, 
as it is not required to be exhausted of the sulphur, nor is any assay made to 
ascertain its condition. 

II. Process. — Ore Furnace. 

The second process is to put the calcined ore into an ore furnace. 

The general form of a reverberatory furnace is about the same, and has 
remained so, from the earliest period of the establishment of copper smelting 
in this country by Sir C. Clerke. Some old drawings of Cornish furnaces are 
much the same in principle and general details as those of South Wales or 
Liverpool now. Further confirmation of this will be found in an interesting 
article on the early copper patents of Sir C. Clerke, in the Mining Journal 
of November, 27. 

A furnace consists of a flat egg of the strongest fire-brick, supported by 
brickwork of ordinary bricks. Into this egg a large grate discharges the flame 
of a powerful fire, which passes along the upper inner surface of the egg, and is 
carried up a narrow throat or flue. At the bottom of the egg is laid the ore or 
metal to be operated upon. Such is the general structure of a furnace, but its 
details must be more closely examined. 

1 1 will be seen that its chief constituent parts are the grate, the furnace or 
hearth, and the flue. 

The grate is a smaller structure added to the furnace at its back, open to the 
furnace on one side, and having on the three other sides walls, roofed in at the 
top and open to the ashpit at the bottom. The size of the grate is chiefly 
dependent on that of the furnace ; but it is varied by different engineers. Ac- 
cording to an able practical authority, Mr. Alfred Trueman, C.E., the area ot 
the hearth of the furnace being about 154 sq. ft., the area of the grate will be 
from 17 to 19 ft. The depth is not of so much importance as is the area of 
incandescent coal which supplies the flame. On one side of the grate is an iron 
feeding-hole, called a teasiug-pot, by which coal is thrown in. The grate is 
open to the furnace, but the communication is throttled by a thick wall called 
a bridge, which likewise forms the dividing wall between the grate and the 
furnace, and rises above the level of the hearth of the latter. 

The ashpit under the grate allows the furnacemen to get down not only to 
remove the ash, but to rake the fire from beneath. 

The furnace is of an oval or egg shape, but flat, and its capacity is diminished 
by sandbeds or bottoms. It consists, as already said, of a casing, which is 
formed of fire- bricks or silicious bricks, called "the inside casing. The outer 
form of the furnace is, however, nearer to a square, and it is composed of less 
refractory bricks. This is called the outer casing, and the intervals between the 
inner and outer casings are filled in with old bricks. 

On the hearth or floor of fire-bricks of the furnace, as already said, a bottom 
is raised for its protection. When a new furnace is started it has to be annealed. 
This is done by keeping up a fire in the grate for about a fortnight, with the 
doors of the furnace off. No bottom has yet been put in. The doors are put 
up, and the furnace tested with a few hours good heat, to see whether there are 
any flaws or air-holes. If found all right, and while the furnace is hot, a little 
slag, say sharp slag, is melted on the top of the bricks of the floor, say two inches 
in depth. Some sand is then thrown in gradually with the slag, the furnace 
being still in heat. 

The first bottom is then put in, being fire-sand to the depth of about 18 in. 



The Artizau, "] 
February 1,1859. J 



On Copper Smelting. 



39 



It is calcined for two hours, whereby the sand is consolidated, and the specific 
gravity increased. The men then level it with a rabble. The bottom is then 
smoothed down with a beater, giving it a little fall to the tap-hole. The doors 
are then put up, and a strong heat is kept up for twelve hours. A little 
metal or ore is next thrown in, which is melted in, say, a quarter of an hour. 

The sand is then thrown in for a second bottom, to a depth of, say, 4 to 5 in., 
and this is calcined for four hours. It is then levelled with the rabble and 
smoothed down with the beater as before ; the doors are put up, and the bottom 
is melted for ten hours, and next the doors are taken down, and some metal is 
put on and melted for, say, half an hour. The doors are taken down and the 
furnace cooled black, that is, to a dull red heat, for three or four hours, when a 
full charge is put in and melted, and the furnace is cooled down again, and next 
three charges are melted in succession. The furnace is cooled down again, and 
thenceforth thoroughly started. 

The bottoms constitute one of the most essential details in the working ot a, 
furnace. In South Wales blown sand (or sand driven on the shore by the wind) 
is used, because it is nearest at hand and readily obtained. As much as seventy 
waggon loads a day are used by some works. This sand is inferior, because it 
is mixed with shells consisting of lime, which flux ; but it is supposed that m the 
blown sand the shells, being lighter, are winnowed, and that the proportion of 
silex is larger. 

Abroad shore-sand cannot be used, and fire-sand is imported from England. 
Fire-sand is likewise employed in some of the Welsh works. Such sands are 
found in several parts of South Wales, near Swansea and Neath. 

This fire-sand is nearly silicious ; but shore-sand, blown, is thus composed, 
according to one analysis : — 

Quartz and silica 86 

Lime 5'7 

Magnesia '8 

Alumina 1'6 

Oxide of iron 1'2 

Carbonic acid, traces of water, fee 4-5 

The following are notes on some fine sands, obtained inland, and used for 
bottoms :— No I.— Cwji Joy, near Swansea. 

Silica 92 | Iron and lime 11 

This proved very bad, and, while used, came up almost every week. 
No. II.— Sand from near Briton Ferry and Neath. 

Silica 92 [ Iron and lime 8 

This did well. 
No. III.— Pembke. 

Silica 93 | Iron and lime 7 

This worked very well. 
Iron is considered more objectionable in bottom sands than lime. 
The consumption of the best fire-bricks yearly, in a furnace of the size re- 
corded, including grates, will be between 7,000 and 7,500. 
A single furnace, of the size already given, and a stack 45 ft. high, used up- 
Best Welsh fire-brick 2,288 - 

„ Scotch ., 5,816 

Common Welsh fire-brick 13,271 



21,375 
The bottoms in an ore furnace will often last twelve months, but in a like 
furnace seven bottoms have been put in in the same time. The only cause 
assigned for this latter case was, that a stream of air came iu through a hole in 
a door, and regularly cut the bottom, which parted and came up. In a roaster, 
however, the bottoms are always giving trouble. It is always desirable to keep 
the lower bottom as long as possible, and only to replace it when the furnace is 
out, or repairs are on hand. The lower bottoms may be worked for years. 
The upper bottoms may, however, require renewal in three days or in three 
months. The breaking of a bottom suspends the furnace for some time, as it 
has to be cut to pieces with flowing bars, and got up. Letting out a furnace 
only for a day causes such injury to the bottoms that they sometimes have to be 
removed or renewed. This will happen at stock-taking, when the furnaces are 
let down. This is one inducement to keep a furnace always under fire. 

These bottoms absorb a considerable quantity of copper, which is thereby 
kept locked up in the furnace, and this prevents the double disadvantage of 
dead capital and of uncertain quantity. 

The furnace requires a bin or hopper at the top, to put in the charge of ore, 
and has a tap-hole formed at one side, which is only opened for letting out the 
molten regulus. The front door, for stirring and rabbling, will be described 
with the flue. 

The outside casings of the grate and furnace are not dependent solely on the 
cohesion of the bricks, of which the fire-bricks are cemented with fire-clay and 
fire-sand, but they are fastened by cast-iron studs or upright posts of iron, a 
foot or two apart, and bound together at top by bars of iron, called cramps, or 
clamps. Thus, a furnace is bound together in an iron cage, but it does not, 
nevertheless, withstand the violent action of the fire. 

The flue springs from the narrow front of the furnace by what is called the 
uptake, up which the flame proceeds, and the flame and smoke are thence 
carried to a short stack or down into the central culvert. The front door of 
the furnace is under this flue in the front wall, and when the furnace is at 
work, it is secured by a. door or slab of fire-pottery, which can be removed to 
enable the smelter to work the charge. 

The grate is. as stated, a square, hollow chamber. It has at the bottom two 
strong iron bars or sleepers. Regular furnace bars are not used, but loose bars 
of old iron are laid on the sleepers. The place of furnace bars is really supplied 
by a clinker bed. The coals commonly used for smelting in South Wales, 
erroneously described in most works as anthracite steam coal, include a con- 
siderable proportion of clinker, and advantage is taken of this to build up a 
porous red-hot substratum of clinker, by leaving always a considerable portion 



of clinker in the grate. On the top of this the coal is burnt, and the height of 
the clinker grate is kept down by getting out portions from below the ashpit, 
and more particularly when a large clinker has been formed. It is for this 
reason that loose bars are used. 

This clinker grate is porous, and has channels through it, up which the 
atmospheric air passes, and is heated before reaching the burning coal in passing 
thence to the furnace. When needful for this purpose the clinker grate is 
opened up with a pricking bar from below. This method has one disadvantage, 
that small coal will run through a large channel without being consumed, but 
are wasted in the ashpit. This may be remedied by greater care. 

One advantage of this method is that almost any kind of coal or slack may 
be used for smelting. Generally the coal is the refuse of the collieries, if any 
vend can be got for the larger "coal, and slack has been exported for foreign 
collieries. Any free burning coal will do, if cheap enough, hut if used alone it 
is rapidly burnt up. It will be seen that the coal has to perform a double 
function,— to pour flame into the furnace, and to keep up the clinker grate; and 
therefore, where it can be done, it is found most useful to mix a free burning 
and a binding coal, so that the latter may clinker and bind together, besides 
giving its share towards the combustion. A coal altogether binding can be 
worked, but is not found good. Anthracite does not work well. A good 
mixture is one of binding and two of free burning. 

The best coals— binding and free burning— are, perhaps, those of South Wales. 
Newcastle has good free burning and some binding; the Lancashire coals are in- 
ferior. Artificial fuel has been used, but there is a prejudice against it, as the 
men do not like to handle large blocks or large coals, but like to have them 
ready broken. 

In our works the supply is mostly obtained from collieries leased by the 
copper companies ; and as the best qualities are sold for shipment, the smaller 
coal comes cheap, and but comparatively little attention is paid to its quality 
or consumption. There is most frequently no choice as to quality, and it is so 
cheap that its consumption is not closely supervised. It is, however, very 
doubtful whether slack is really economical, for good coal forms smaller 
clinkers, having less refuse in it, and is more economical of coal ; whereas small 
coal and slack form very great clinkers, and interfere with the healthy work- 
ing of the furnace. With good coal the fire is pricked about twice in each 
watch, but with bad coal oftener. 

With regard to the square form of grate, my opinion is that there is a space 
not fully occupied by the fire, which is lost, besides the grate being there liable 
to injury; and in 1855 I suggested that the back should be rounded, and this 
has been tried. 

In working the ore furnace, the charge will vary according to the class of 
ores and the furnaces, and the weight, according to the size of the furnace, 
from 3 to 3£ tons, or in large furnaces rather above, but dependent on the 
fusible proportions of the ore. Calcined ores are more favourable, but the 
practice is at this stage to introduce raw carbonates, so that the following will 
give a good specimen of a charge: — 

Calcined ore 36 cwts. Raw ore 26 cwts. 

Sharp slag 8 ,, 



Add 



Total. 



44 

26 

70 

The proportions of sharp slag may be made much higher, and, of course, 
that of calcined ore. 

Of this total weight it is to be observed the slag is seldom weighed, but is 
computed ; the ore is counted to the men as 22 cwt. to the ton : 2 cwt. in some 
works, and 1 cwt. in others is carried at once. 

The mixture of the charges is one of the chief points in good smelting, and 
taxes the skill of the managers, for many classes of foreign ores are brought 
into our smelting works, and in some countries abroad a great variety of ores 
is found and smelted. In other countries, the quality of the ores is tolerably 
uniform, and the course of working is very regular. Where new ores are 
received, several trials may have to be made before the working is good, and 
sometimes the charge is worse at the end of the time than in the beginning. 

In the early stages of copper smelting, the object of the manager is less 
directed to any operation on the copper— to the manufacture of copper, in fact — 
than to the manufacture of slag ; for the removal of silex depends on a good 
silicate of iron being formed, which will freely flow out separate from the 
regulus. This is an essential point to bear in mind, for the slag may be pasty, 
and so carry off a portion of the metal ; or it may be full of shots of copper, and 
so wasteful, while the object is to get rid of the silex with as small a quantity 
of the valuable article copper as may be. A good clean slag is, therefore, the 
satisfactory test of working, and the slags are anxiously examined by manager 
and men. 

The charge of ore is put in through the bin or hopper at the top of the fur- 
nace, and is spread over the hearth, or rather bottom, with the rabble. The 
slag is thrown into the furnace through a side-door, in large lumps. All the 
doors are then luted on tight with fire-clay, and the charge is melted for about 
| five hours, when the furnaceman starts his fire afresh. 

About this time he begins the moulding of his metal beds, and his slag beds, 
which are formed of sand,— the metal beds near the tap-hole, and the slag beds 
before the fore-door. Any kind of common sand, dry, will do for these beds, 
as the moulding is rough. 

Commonly about the end of five hours the furnaceman takes off the fore- 
door, which is burning hot, with an iron rod. He stirs the charge through the 
fore-door with a long rabble down to the bottom. If the charge is all right 
and thoroughly melted, he puts up the door and gives ten minutes for the 
metal to settle down to the bottom. The door is then taken down, and the 
slag is skimmed off with the skimming rabble through the fore-door into the 



40 



On Copper Smelting. 



r The Abtizax, 
(.February 1, 1809. 



slag-beds. The slag is run over the lower bar of the door, which is above the 
level of the bottom. The man can see the bright level surface of the metal, 
and observe by the eye whether it is clear of slag. It is his object to get the 
molten metal "free from slag, and the slag free from copper; and more par- 
ticularly as all slags found to contain more than an allowed portion of copper 
have to be smelted by him free of charge. These are the checks for good 
working. 

The metal is tapped into the regulus into pigs, but not until there is enough 
regulus from several charges. 

In this process it is sometimes necessary to add fluxes to the charge, as fluor 
spar, lime, shells, shelly sand, cinders, anthracite coal. Fluor spar is obtained 
from Cornwall, and M. Le Play estimated the consumption in South Wales at 
7,800 tons yearly. At present some works use no spar, and others not more 
than 100 tons yearly. Shells are not used in this country, nor are carbonaceous 
fluxes esteemed. 

Five charges can be put through a furnace in a day when the ore is good, 
and sometimes six. The work goes on night and day except on Sundays. The 
men are paid by the ton of ore in the charges, the ton being reckoned at 22 
cwt. ; the rate is now about Is. 6d. per 22 cwt., or 2s. 9d. per 33 cwt., and a 
man's earnings are about 28s. per week. The men are one for the day and one 
for the night. The men of neighbouring furnaces help each other. The con- 
sumption of coal, working from four to five charges, will be from 25 to 30 tons 
per week. 
The stuff put into the furnace will be, say — 

Copper 10i 

Silica 55 to Go 

Iron 34 to 39 

Sulphur 7| to 10^ 

The produce is — 

Coarse Metal. 

Copper 10J to H 

Iron 10} to 15 

Sulphur 104 to 7 

Slag. 

Silica 55 to 05 

Iron 24 to 20 

with a trace of antimony and tin. 

The slag is a protosilicate of iron (34-G2 protoxide of iron, and 65'38 of silica) 
with nodules of silex imbedded. 

III. Calcining Powdered Regulus or Coarse Metal. 
One of the old processes was to run the regulus or coarse metal not into beds,_ 
but into a basin of water or cistern, in which it was granulated. A part of 
Napier's improvements consisted in dispensing with this by a chemical mixture, 
but Mr. Alfred Trueman further improved by stamping the regulus to powder. 
The powdered regulus is put into a calciner, which is the same as an ore 
calciner, and the general mode of treatment is the same. 

The charge put in is from 3 tons to 3J tons, weighed out 2 cwt. at a time. 
The charge is put on to the roof, and so passed on to the floors. It is spread 
in the same way, and stirred every second hour. One charge is passed through 
in 24 hours, the calcining taking double the time of ore. At the end of the time, 
the regulus powder is cast into the cubs. Some sulphur is discharged in the 
cubs in vapour, which is passed through the cub dampers into the culvert. 

The weekly consumption of coals is about 7 tons. Inferior coals may be used 
for calcining ore or metal. Bituminous coal will do for this. 

Two men are employed for the day watch, 12 hours, and two for the night. 
Their pay is about 18s. to 20s. per week. 

About six charges are passed through in a week ; the powder calcined, being 
a regulus of, say — 

33 copper, 
33 iron, 
33 sulphur, 
lias lost the greater part of its sulphur, and acquired oxygen, forming oxide of 
copper and oxide of iron. 

IV. Melting Calcined Coarse Metal. 
The furnace is the same as an ore furnace. 

The charge is made up to a total weight of about 52 cwt. There is here an 
opportunity of introducing raw ore again as rich carbonates, and the following 
will represent a charge : — 

Calcined powder 24 cwt. 

Foreign raw ore 24 ,, 

Refining, or roaster slag 4 ,, 

Total 52 „ 

Another example is : — 

Calcined powder 23 ., 

Foreign raw ore 24 ,f 

Refining, or roaster slag 5 „ 

Total 52 ',, 

Another example is : — 

Calcined powder 20 „ 

Raw carbonates 20 „ 

Refining, or roaster slag 8 „ 

Total 48 „ 

Of these the charge may be made up with calcined powder and slag, and this is 
the case abroad ; but English melters have to work up a great quantity of 
foreign ore, which they are thus able conveniently to introduce. 

The ores in the charge are well mixed together in the ore-yard before being 
supplied to the men. 

A charge is in about six hours, and is treated much in the same ir.anner as in 



the ore furnace. The slag is skimmed in the same way, but the regulus, being 
more abundant, may be tapped every second charge. 

The coal consumed is about 4 or 5 tons a day, or about 30 tons a week. 

There is one man for the day watch, and one for the night watch. One 
furnace will pass through about 2,200 tons of ore, holding about 700 tons of 
copper. 

The result is blue or fine metal and sharp slag. 

The metal consists of, 

Copper 70 to 83 

Sulphur 30 to 17 

The sharp slag consists of : — 

Protosilicate of iron, with some copper and antimony. 

The slag is so called because it is bright, breaking into sharp-edged frag- 
ments. They contain no shots inside, but small shots sometimes on the outside. 
V. Process. — Roasting Fine Metal. 

A roasting furnace or roaster is the same as an ore furnace, but has no bin, 
as it is charged by the side-door. There is an air-hole in each back corner, 
called a port-hole, which leads on to the iurnace floor. 

The charge put in is from 3 to 3j tons of metal, rough weight, or enough to- 
produce 2^ to 3 tons of copper. The charge is in about 24 hours. Each pig of 
metal is put in with a paddle. The port-holes are partially opened, and fire, 
is gradually raised for the first eight hours, and the metal kept red-hot. The fire 
is then raised a little for another eight hours, so that the metal will sweat 
down. The port-holes are closed and the doors luted tight, when the fires are 
raised and driven on until the charge is thoroughly melted on the bottom. 
About the nineteenth or twentieth hour the front door is taken down , and the. 
metal is stirred with a rabble. If all appears clean, the small quantity of rich 
slag produced is skimmed, and if the metal is clear it is tapped — if for export, 
as in foreign works, into iron moulds as pimpled bar copper, but if to be carried 
to refined, it is tapped into beds as pigs for the next roasting. 

The quantity of coal consumed is from 22 to 25 tons per week. 

The men's wages are about 3s. to 3s. 6d. per watch. 

VI. Process. — Second Roasting. 

When fuel is abundant and working careful, the metal is subjected to further 
treatment, and sometimes to a further roasting of twelve hours. 
VII. or VIII. Process.— Refining. 

The refinery furnace is the same in form as the ore furnace, but is smaller, 
and has no bin or tapping-hole, being charged from the side-door, and ladled 
out from the fore-door. 

The charge in a refinery furnace will vary from five to six tons of pimpled 
copper in pigs. One charge is put in eacli day. The metal is melted fiercely 
for several hours and skimmed for the slight slag. Air is let in from the side- 
door till the copper begins to " work " or coil up, and when the refinery man, 
with a little rabble, moves or flaps the surface a little. The "working" is 
continued for two hours, when the copper is seen to "blister" or rise in 
black scales, having become blistered copper. The man keeps the side-door 
down, and lets the copper solidify according to circumstances, 2, 3, 5, 6, or 7 
hours. The doors are then luted, and the metal melted afresh for three or 
four hours. 

The head refiner now takes charge of the operations, and proceeds to take a 
small test in a ladle, which is worked into an ingot and tried on the anvil. If 
found fit, lead is put into the surface, about 1G lbs. to 6 tons of copper, and 
some charcoal is spread over the surface of the copper, and, further, the copper 
is stirred with a stout pole. He continues to test the copper, and as he finds- 
the " pitch " or grain, so he backens or forwards the operation, and gives air or 
poles more. 

The refined copper is cast into ingots, tiles, or wire bars, according to the 
demand. It is sometimes refined a second time, if " best select " is to be pro- 
duced. 

In making bar copper for sale on a large scale, it is a practice in some coun- 
tries to mark the bar with the maker's name in the casting, and likewise the- 
number of the charge, so that a quantity may be dealt with as of one make. 
Sometimes the number is punched. 

Bar copper is sampled for sale according to a plan practised by Mr. Hussey 
Vivian, by drilling a hole, of from l-8th to -J-inch diameter, hallway through 
the bar from the top, and another halfway through from the bottom, but not 
so as to meet, as they make two half-sections, and thus afford a better average 
section. The drill is worked in a frame. The filings so obtained from each 
bar drilled are divided into four parts, a, b, c, and d ; a and d going to the 
buyer, and b and c, as samples, to the seller, and from the total samples is 
taken, alternately, a cheek sample, under the seals of the buyer and seller. 

The^drilling is rapidly done. The quantity taken is about one drachm for 
each cwt., where the bars are of one charge or smelting, so that the total shall 
not be less than 240 drachms, or 1 lb. weight ; ail the drillings are well mixed 
together. The drilling from 4 cwt. would be 240 drachms, and from 10 tons of 
the same charge about 320 drachms. 

The following is an analysis of select copper : — 

Copper 99-80 to 99-85 

Iron 0-10 to 0-15 

^ ea * ••••■ ] nil. nil. 

Antimony ) 

Oxygen 1 of no consequence. 

Select copper, as follows, will not sell : — 

Copper 09-85 

Iron 0-10 

Antimony 0-01 

or, even a trace of antimony. 

The following is an analysis of the very best cake copper : — 

Copper 99-60 to 99-70 

Iron 0-10 to 0-15- 



The Artizan, 
February 1, 1859 



] 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



41 



Lead 0-10 to 0-15 

Antimony 0-04 to 0-06 

Silver objectionable. 

The average consumption of coals to a ton of copper is about 10 to 15 tons 
per ton of pure copper, depending on the percentage of the ores and the 
goodness of the coal. 

Mr. E. J. Cole, Secretary of the Alten Copper Company at Norway, and 
the Copiapo Company at Chile, who has been long connected with the smelting 
interest, has been kind enough to give me, for this Paper, some particulars of 
the working of copper in Norway. 

" The following will give you some idea of the business at the Alten Copper 
Works : — 

"The quantity of ore reduced in 1857 was 1,899^0 tons, producing 123 
tons of fine copper, the average quality being G^, 7 r 

" l ' % l\ !° ns ' con ° re : i i 1 Were reduced in the ore furnaces, 

402 tons, 600 metal slags, V and consumed l 404 tms of coal .' 

19 tons, 000 sweepings, ; ' 

418 tons regulus, ") 

25,786 tons ore, ( Were reduced in the metal furnace, 

57,820 tons refinery and roaster slag, t and consumed 224^ tons of coal. 

73,800 tons furnace bottoms, J 

212,500 tons white metal were roasted, and consumed 185 tons of coal. 

128,000 tons black copper were refined, and consumed 34 tons of coal. 

'■' You will thus see the process of reducing the ore to fine copper, and the 
consumption of coal in each reduction. 

" The cost of coal, as you are aware, delivered at Alten, is about 12s. per 
ton. Some time ago we were able to secure freights very low, and we then 
had the coal delivered as low as 8s. to 9s. per ton. The great expense of 
reducing ore is in the first process, where the largest quantity of coal is 
consumed, and when the ore is reduced to regulus. The after-processes are 
comparatively easy. 

" The cost'of reduction in 1857 was, per ton of ore, 28s. ; per ton of copper, 
£21 12s. 

" At Alten we fortunately have various descriptions of mineral, and are able 
to make good fusible mixtures ; henee we obtain, as we consider, very satis- 
factory results, and our copper ranks equal to the best selected, and a good 
market is always obtained." 

Furnaces. 

A double-bedded single calciner, 30 ft. long over casings, exclusive of grate, 
and 14 ft. wide, will require, besides the bricks of the stack or culvert, about 
50,000 bricks, fire and inferior qualities, but in which old bricks can be worked 
up ; 2 tons of best fire-clay, and 8 tons of common fire-clay ; 80 bushels of lime ; 
120 bushels of sand ; a small quantity of fire-sand ; about 40 tons of stone for 
foundations (but this depends on circumstances) ; of sundry clay pottery, 200 
or 300 soaps, and as many splits ; 20 slabs and 20 bearers. The wages will be, 
mason 156 days, boy 156 days, labourer 48 days, besides head masons, and smith 
for the smith's work. The time in building will be about 20 days, exclusive of 
odd jobs in finishing off and setting the calciner going. 

The ironwork for such a calciner, consisting of cramps, studs, door-frames, 
plates, bearing plates, sleepers, teasing-hole, sliding'-frames, and slides, will 
vary, according to the mode of construction adopted in the several works. 
The smiths' time in fitting would be seven days, and a labourer seven days. 

A single double-bedded calciner will take about 24,000 fire-bricks anil 1,200 
red bricks, 2 tons of best fire-clay, 8 tons of common clay, and other materials 
as before. The labour will be less, both of masons and smiths, in proportion to 
the difference of materials. 

The grate will be about the same as the grate of a furnace of like 
dimensions. 

The stack will be the same as for other furnaces, and its cost will be accord- 
ing to the system of stacks adopted. 

Furnaces are worked with stacks according to various plans, depending- on 
the circumstances of the works, or on the fancy of the owner, manager, or 
mason. Some work the furnaces with a stack for each pair of furnaces, and 
some have all the flues brought by an underground culvert to one central 
stack. In the Cwm Avon Copper Works of the Copper Miners' Company of 
England, there is not one stack on the premises, but all the furnaces communi- 
cate with one common culvert, which is carried for a distance of about a mile 
and a quarter up the side of a, mountain, whence the smoke is carried up a 
stack 40 ft. high on the top, forming a conspicuous sight for miles around, 
and with a draft strong enough to carry a man up into the air. This volcano 
can be seen for a considerable distance on a clear night, and on a fine day from 
as far as Tenby. A man took a contract for clearing out this culvert on condition 
of having the culvert stuff for his remuneration, presuming that it contained 
the usual average of copper throughout, as a considerable quantity of copper 
goes up the stack. The contractor, however, made an unfortunate bargain, 
and abandoned his contract, as the chief stuff was sulphur and arsenic. 

In some works a central stack and single stacks may likewise be found, but 
the balance of experience is not in favour of either system so as to secure its 
decided adoption. The objection to a central stack and long culvert is, that 
the draft of individual furnaces is sometimes interfered with, and therefore 
stacks for each furnace are by some preferred. The advantages claimed for the 
central stack and culvert are, that an inferior draft is obtained, and that the 
copper passing out of the furnace in fume is saved ; it is certainly true, that in 
a single stack but little stuff is saved, whereas in a culvert there is always 
stuff containing copper which can be smelted. 

An objection taken to a central stack is, that it may interfere with the 
working in case of repairs; but if there be one line of culvert running between 
the furnaces, and at each end of the culvert a high stack, then, by means of a 
brick partition set up in the culvert, the number of furnaces to each stack may 
from time to time be variously apportioned, particularly during the repair of 



end furnaces, then all the remaining furnaces may be put on one stack. The 
draft of a central stack will be affected by the greater or less number of fur- 
naces working on it, and this is felt to be an inconvenience by the smelters. 

One circumstance that will affect the height of stacks is the situation of the 
works. A number of high stacks belching forth sulphur and arsenic night and day 
destroy the vegetation of the neighbouring fields wherever the pestilent breath 
touches, the field being stripped of herbage, as if by locusts, and brought to 
the appearance of a bed of shingle. Copper works are, however, mostly situ- 
ated in waste districts. 

Much attention has been given to this evil, and the great waste of sulphur 
and other substances carried off in smoke, and many plans have been proposed 
for their recovery, but as yet no particular result has been obtained. There is 
no question that the loss is very considerable, forming part of that great waste 
of residuary matter which meets with too little attention in England. 

A stack 50 ft. high, and with an inside lining of 50 ft., and outside lining of 
30 ft,., will, exclusive of foundations, require 3,100 fire-bricks for the inside 
lining, and 2,500 common red bricks for the outside ; 2^ tons of common fire- 
clay, to be used inside up to a height of 30 ft. ; 20 bushels of lime, 40 bushels of 
sand, anda little fire-sand for mixing with the clay. The wages will be, mason 
24 days, boy 24 days, and labourer 21 days, besides superintendence ; the time 
in building will be 9 days. All this is exclusive of foundations, which vary 
according to situation. 

Such a stack is rodded, or cramped with iron rods, for better security against 
the action of the furnace flames passing through, and there will be used 530 ft. 
— J x | square, for rods, 400 ft. lj x J- flat for cramps, and 200 ft. 3 in. by J 
flat for cramps, besides J cwt. for wedges. The smith and his labourer's time 
will be 9 day3. 

The cost of a furnace will vary, according to its purpose, its situation, and 
its dimensions. The following is for a large reverberatory furnace : — Outside 
dimensions Over casings, 22 ft. 6 in. length ; 15 ft. width ; add for grate 6 ft. 
2 in length by 8 ft. 8 in width ; height of casings, from the floor at the grate 
end, 5 ft. 11 in. ; at the fore part, 4 ft. 6 in. ; inside dimensions of furnace, 
14 ft. length by 11 ft. width; thickness of inner and outer casings at the side, 
2 ft. ; of jambs and sides of grate, 2 ft. 1 in. ; of back of grate, 9 in. 

Such a furnace would require about 8,500 fire-bricks and 3,500 common 
red bricks, and about 3,000 old bricks might be used up ; of fire-clay, best, 
4 tons, and common 7 tons; of lime, 80 bushels; of sand, 120 bushels, and a 
small quantity of fire-sand ; of pottery, 200 soaps or closers ; 200 splits, 8 slabs 
of various dimensions, and 12 bearers, whole or in halves. The wages will be — 
mason 60 days, boy 60 days, labourer 60 days, exclusive of superintendence. 
Such a furnace can be built in ten days, exclusive of odd jobs and finishing off. 

The ironwork for securing the furnace will be as follows : — Wrought iron, 
260 ft. lxl square bar, 100 ft. Jx| square bar, 100 ft. f x f square bar, 
26 ft. li x f flat, 100 ft. lix| flat, 80 ft. 3 in. x Jin. flat; 8 ft. H * li 
square bar; 4 studs 9 ft. long x 3 x 3 in. ; 2 studs 5 ft. 6x3 in. x 3 in. 5 
piece of wrought iron 5 ft. 3 in. x 3 in. ; teasing-pot ; stuff for wedges. Cast 
iron, 14 studs 6| ft. x 3 in. x 3 in. ; 7 studs 6 ft. 3 in. x 3 in. x 3 in.; 12 
studs 5£ ft. x 3 in. x 3 in. ; 1 bearing plate 6 ft. x 9 in. x 2 in. ; 3 sleepers 
6 ft. 4 in. x 4J in. x 2J in. ; 1 bearing plate 7 ft. x 9 in. x by 2 in. ; 1 concave 
or convex plate 7J ft. x by 30 x 3£ and 1£ in.; 2 fore-plates, 5 ft. x 20 in. 
x 3 and 1^ in. ; 2 skimming plates, 3 ft. x 7 in. x 3 in., made in three plates 
each. The wages will be— smith, for fitting, 14 days, and his labourer 14 days. 
The particulars and dimensions of this ironwork will vary, according to the 
fancy of each manager. 

In some of the latter works the furnaces are still found cased in a jacket of 
thick iron slabs, secured by the studs; but it is not a good plan, as defects in" 
the brickwork cannot be so well seen, and air-holes may thereby escape notice ;, 
nor is the furnace stronger, cheaper, or more durable. 

A furnace exposed to the intense iieat of copper smelting is always in process 
of consumption, and its repairs are continual. The outside casings will last 
five years, which is about the longest life, but the inner portions are perpetually 
burnt up. A grate will last at the least eight weeks, at the longest thirteen 
weeks, so that there will be six grates in a year. The inside of an ore furnace, 
with repairs, will last from eighteen months to two years, but of a metal fur- 
nace only from nine to twelve months. 

In a subject so extensive as this omissions are more likely to be noticed than 
what is described, but the commercial portion of the transactions is both, 
important and considerable, and would require a Paper by itself; and it is the 
more deserving of notice because the profits of the copper business depend 
more on good trading than on manufacturing cleverness. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

December 14th, 1858. 
Joseph Locke, Esq., M.P., President, in the Chair. 
ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 
The Report of the Council for the past Session, which was read, commenced 
by regretting that there had not been a general resumption of works of public 
utility and of private enterprise in the United Kingdom ; a large proportion of 
the professional engagements being still in foreign countries, or in the British 
Colonies. In India the suspended works upon the different railways had been 
resumed, and it was fair to conclude would now be pushed forward with 
vigour. On the Continent but little progress had been made, except in the 
construction of branch lines. The opening of the Caen and Cherbourg Rail- 
way, constructed by Mr. Brassey (Assoc. Inst. C. E.) was mentioned, as on 
that occasion, Mr. Locke, M.P., the President of the Institution, who was the 
Engineer-in-chief of the line, had been raised to the grade of Officer of the 
Legion of Honour. The line traversed a rich and fertile district, inhabited by 



42 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



[ 



The Artizan. 
February 1 



1*59. 



an enterprising and industrious race. The total length was 225 miles, and the 
works comprised about 4,500 yards of tunnelling, 70 bridges across rivers, 
and 310 road bridges. 

The various Spanish railways in operation, or in progress of construction, 
were then noticed; and it was stated that, in Austria, the Lombardo-Venetian 
Company, under the able direction of M. Paulin Talabot, had united the 
majority of the principal lines, with a view to the ultimate formation of one 
comprehensive system, which would be one of the most considerable in Europe, 
as it would consist of nearly 1,900 miles of railway, connecting Austria, Hun- 
gary, and Southez'n Germany with Trieste and Italy, and extending in an 
unbroken line from Vienna to Milan, and from the Bavarian frontier to 
Florence. 

In Piedmont, where railways were so early introduced, but little had been 
done for some time past, beyond completing to the foot of the mountains, on 
either side, the Victor Emmanuel line, and commencing the herculean task of 
tunnelling through the Alps. Meanwhile, it was proposed to construct a line 
of railway along the Cornice Road, bordering the Mediterranean, from Nice, to 
join the railway at Voltri and thence to Genoa, for the accommodation of the 
traffic between France and Piedmont until the Alpine tunnel should be 
completed. In Portugal, arrangements had been made, under the direction 
of Mr. Fowler (M. Inst. C. E.), by Sir Morton Peto, Bart. (Assoc. Inst. C. E.), 
for the immediate construction of a main line from Lisbon, through Coimbra to 
Oporto. In Russia, the Engineers of the Credit Mobilier of France were 
pushing forward the vast network of lines comprehended within their scheme ; 
and. on the Riga and Dunaberg line, under Mr. Hawkshaw (V. P. Inst. C. E.), 
rapid progress was making by Mr. T. Jackson, the contractor. In the East, 
the Ottoman Railway between Smyrna and Aidin, under the direction of 
Mr. Edwin Clark (M. Inst. C. E.) and Mr. Meredith (M. Inst. C. E.),the 
consulting- and the resident engineers, was being vigorously proceeded with ; 
whilst the line from Cairo to Suez had just been completed by M. Mouchelet. 

In the Southern Hemisphere, the Colony of Victoria might be referred to as 
making great advances in engineering works. Undertakings of considerable 
magnitude had been designed, some were in progress, and a few were com- 
pleted. The most prominent of these were macadamised roads, railways, 
water-works, shipping wharfs, piers, and slips for heaving ships out of the 
water. The railway from Yarra Yarra Bridge to Sandhurst, with a deep 
water pier in Hobson's Bay, for ships of 500 tons burthen, was completed, and 
in full activity ; although as costly, mile for mile, as the London and Green- 
wich Railway, it yielded a profit on the capital of 10 per cent, per annum. 
From this line a branch had been opened to St. Kilda, which was found to be 
of great convenience to the suburban and residential traffic, and a prolongation 
was about to be made to the Sandhurst Railway. The Geelong Railway had 
been opened to Williamstown, and had only been delayed from reaching 
Melbourne by the non-completion of the Government line to Williamstown. 
The Government lines required to maintain the intercourse with the distant 
jiarts of the colony were in progress, large contracts having already been let. 
The Yan Yean waterworks, for supplying the town of Melbourne, were finished ; 
the water was collected in artificial reservoirs, and was conveyed through a 
system of pipes, 40 miles in length, to the town. As the town was not sub- 
drained, the disposal of the waste water was even now a serious question, there 
being only 4 ft. tide in the Yarra Yarra River, which drained into Hobson's 
Bay, an almost tideless lake. At some future, and probably not very distant 
period, this' would render the question of dealing with the sewage as difficult as 
that of London. The deep water piers and slips at Williamstown were in an 
advanced state of completion, and would be useful auxiliaries to the commercial 
marine resorting to Hobson's Bay. The system of macadamised roads, leading 
from Melbourne to Maryborough, Sandhurst, Castlemaine, Ballarat, and 
other important places, had been completed, in many cases under very difficult 
circumstances, but were now so efficient that travelling was almost" as rapid 
and as convenient as on the English roads before the introduction of railways. 

In reference to telegraph matters, it was stated that the attempt to lay the 
cable between Candia and Alexandria had, for the present, proved abortive, 
in consequence of a severe gale, which rendered it necessary to cut the cable, 
and to buoy it, when 228 miles had been payed out, in a depth of 1,400 fathoms. 
This proceeding- was so successful, that the cable was fished up on the subsiding 
of the gale ; but the insulation being apparently injured, it was not considered 
advisable to continue the operations during the present advanced season. 
Candia, Syra, Chio, and Cape Hellas, were, however, successfully connected 
by submarine cables, under the superintendence of Mr. Liddell. Another 
attempt had been made to establish submarine communication between this 
country and the United States. The English and American steam-ships, with 
their respective portions of the cable, commenced paying out about mid- 
channel, and, after some casualties, the shore-ends were landed ; but, unfor- 
tunately, the insulation proved so defective that no intelligible messages could 
now be transmitted, and, on account of the advanced state of the season, all 
further attempts to remedy any defects were adjourned. The cable lost in 
1855, and a portion of that lost in 1856, off Cape Spartiventi, Sardinia, had 
been recovered by Mr. Liddell and Mr. F. C. Webb (Assoc. Inst. C.E.). The 
Channel Islands were now put into telegraphic communication witli the English 
coast by means of cables laid by Messrs. Newall and Co., from Portland to 
Alderney, and thence to Guernsey and to Jersey. A cable with four wires 
was laid down by Messrs.,Glass, Elliot, and Co., fromDunwichto Zandvort, but 
the communication through it had been delayed by an accident, which occurred 
whilst endeavouring to repair one of the wires; and a cable with two wires 
had been successfully laid from the English coast to Emden likewise by Messrs. 
Glass, Elliot, and Co. 

At home an important feature in the railway extensions in the vicinity of 
the metropolis was the Victoria station, Grosvenor Basin, Pimlico, under Mr. 
Fowler (M. Inst. C.E.) This site was peculiarly fitted for a railway, as from 
the previous formation of the roads and bridges the levels of the rails could 
be so arranged as to avoid interference, by inclined approaches, with the 



adjoining streets or properties, whilst affording extensive frontage upon wide 
streets, at present not encumbered with traffic. The works, including a bridge 
across the Thames, consisting of four arched spans of wrought iron nf 175 ft. 
each, were now in progress. 

One of the important hydraulic innovations of the past year had been the 
new mode of lifting ships, introduced by Mr. Edwin Clark (M. Inst. C.E.), 
and which had been successfully applied at the Victoria (London) Docks. 
The apparatus consisted of thirty-two hydraulic presses, with cross heads and 
suspension links, similar to those used in lifting the tubular girders of the Bri- 
tannia bridge. These presses were arranged in two parallel rows, leaving 
between them a space to receive a gridiron, 320 ft. long and 60 ft. wide, in a 
depth of water of 27 ft. By an ingenious arrangement, the presses were 
enabled to act in three separate groups, so as either to act simultaneously upon 
the gridiron, or to lift one or more points; in order, if necessary, to give a 
certain extent of inclination to the body which was lifted. It was stated that 
the original cost of a system of docks of this description would only be about 
one-fifth of that of ordinary graving docks; the operations of lifting and lower- 
ing were very rapid, a vessel of 1,000 tons burthen only occupying the docks 
for about thirty-five minutes ; and the facility for making the repairs was very 
great. 

In supplying towns with water, the only important work of the past year 
was the South Staffordshire Waterworks. The object of this undertaking-was 
to supply the towns and districts of Lichfield, Walsall, Wednesbury, West- 
bromwich, Tipton, and Dudley, where, hitherto, there had been a serious dearth 
of good water. The spot selected by Mr. J. R. Mc Clean (V. P. Inst. C.E.) 
for establishing the pumping engines, was at Lichfield, where, in addition to a 
large surface supply, taken above the contamination of any sewage, by sinking- 
down to the sandstone rock, and driving a tunnel, upwards of a mile in length, 
an unlimited quantity of pure soft water was obtained. This -was raised by a 
pair of James Watt aud Co.'s powerful pumping engines, and forced through a 
2 ft. main of cast-iron pipes to a single stand pipe, at Brownhills, whence the 
water proceeded by gravitation through the remainder of the main, 22 in. 
diameter, which was laid for a distance of nearly 14 miles, chiefly alongside the 
rails of the South Staffordshire railway, to the reservoirs at Walsall, Wednes- 
bury, and Westbromwich, situated at the respective heights of 180 ft., 240 ft., 
and 260 ft. above the main at the engines. The total contents of the storage 
reservoirs was ninety million gallons. The ultimate length of the main-pipe 
would be upwards of 25 miles, and it was given as a remarkable instance of 
care, on the part of the Messrs. Cochrane and Co., the iron founders, and Mr. 
Aird, the contractor for laying them, that out of 7,000 pipes, only two should 
have exhibited any defect when laid, and these defects were each remedied 
within an hour. 

The principal papers read during the session were then noticed ; and it was 
remarked, that, as usual, the discussions occupied a longer time than the read- 
ing of the papers, and would be found to add greatly to the interest of the 
Minutes of Proceedings. 

The members were strongly urged to continue to present copies of scientific 
and professional works for the library, without which its utility for reference 
and consultation could not be maintained. 

Special attention was directed to a very interesting series of photographs of 
some important structures in the City of Washington, U. S. America, now in 
progress, or recently completed, under the direction of Captain Montgomery 
Meigs, U. S. Engineers, by whom the views were presented to the Institution. 

The Washington aqueduct, the most important, though not the most costly 
of these works, was intended to supply the City of Washington with water 
from the great falls of the Potomac. The source was 150 ft. above the tide. 
The aqueduct was a circular conduit, generally built of rubble masonry, laid in 
hydraulic cement. The diameter was 9 ft. in the clear; the masonry being 
14 in. in thickness. Its fall was 9 in. in 5,000 ft., and its discharge, at 8 ft. 
depth of water, was 67,596,000 American standard gallons in twenty-four hours. 
The lowest discharge of the river in summer droughts was 63,000 cubic ft. per 
minute ; at its highest it was a flood like Niagara. There were eleven tunnels 
upon the line, of which two only were incomplete. Of the 12 miles of con- 
duit, about half a mile remained to be executed. There were several bridges 
of masonry, including one elliptical arch of 75 ft. span, and one single g-ranite 
arch, segmental in form, of 224 ft. span, crossing a ravine 100 ft. deep, with 
rock abutments. A bridge of 200 ft. span, of iron, crossed the creeks, between 
Washington and Georgetown ; the iron pipes, 48 in. in diameter, doing duty 
as arched ribs to support the bridge, and also as mains to convey the water 
under pressure. They were lined with staves of wood, as a protection against 
frost. The reservoirs had a collective area of about 90 acres of water, and 
stored up many days' supply. The work was completed, except the dam. the 
second reservoir, the larger bridges, and two tunnels, one of which would be 
finished during this winter, and the other in July next. The bridges would 
probably be all completed by the 1st of August, 1859. The estimated original 
cost of the 7-ft. conduit was 1,921,000 dollars; of the 9-ft. conduit, 2,300,000 
dollars; and the probable cost, when finished, was estimated at 2,550,000 
dollars. The masonry aqueduct was 12 miles long. The pipes to be laid, by 
the Government, to the public buildings, navy yards, &c, would cost about 
400,000 dollars. 

The Capitol of the United States was a building 750 ft. in length, and 70 ft. 
in height. The centre was looked upon in America as an old building, having 
been built about thirty years. It was of sandstone. The wings, upon which 
Captain Meigs was now engaged, were faced with blocks of white marble, 
slightly veined with blue, but not sufficiently coloured to affect the appear- 
ance, at a short distance. In this building were the Halls of Congress. The 
Hall of Representatives, in the south wing, was 139 ft. long, 93 ft. wide, and 
36 ft. high. In it the voice of any ordinary speaker was said to be audible, 
without effort, in every part of the room, and this without regard to the place 
from which the orator addressed the audience. Its ventilation was satisfactory, 
and throughout the variable winter there were no complaints of too much cold. 



The Artizan, "1 
February 1, 1359. J 



Proceedings of the Literary and Philosophical Society. 



43 



The north wing would be occupied this winter. The porticoes yet remained to 
be erected. The centre building was crowned by a dome, partly of brick and 
partly of wood, modelled after that of the Pantheon at Rome. The portico of this 
bnild'inn- was also a copy from the Pantheon, but raised upon a basement, with a 
noble flTght of steps in front. The old dome had been removed, and some progress 
had been made in erecting the new one, which was of iron, 300 tt. in height ; 
the diameter of the peristyle being 124 ft. G in. The cost of the old building 
of the Capitol was about three million dollars; the new wings would cost 
between five and six million dollars, and the dome nearly one million dollars. _ 

The Post-office building was of white marble. The columns were monolithic, 
from Carrara. The rest of the marble was similar to that in use at the Capitol. 

The Washington Aqueduct was entirely under the direction of Captain Meigs, 
but in the architecture of the Capitol and the Post-office buildings he had the 
aid of Mr. Thomas U. Walter, who had been associated with him since he took 
charge of these two buildings. In the heating and ventilating of this building 
he had the assistance of Mr. Joseph Nason. These works involved a total 
expenditure of nearly ten millions of dollars. They were now drawing towards 
completion. The buildings were occupied ; the porticoes and the dome remain- 
ing unfinished, and some interior decorations were still in progress. 

The deceases of the members during the year were announced to have been— 
Rear- Admiral Sir F. Beaufort, honorary member; Messrs. R. Garrett, A. 
Greve, R. Hopkins, A. S. Jee, H. F. Mackworth, and J. Seaward, members ; 
and Sir G. Cayley, Bart., and Messrs. T. W. B. Blakemore, M.P., and J. 
Hodgson, associates. The memoirs of these gentlemen were given m the 
Appendix to the Report. The resignations of four associates were announced, 
and it was stated that the effective increase during the year (after deducting 
the deceases and resignations) amounted to 22, whilst the total number on the 
books was 857 members of all classes. 

The statement of the receipts and expenditure showed an increase of receipts 
and a diminished expenditure, and that there was a balance of upwards of 
£1,000 in the hands of the treasurer. The financial position was in every 
respect so satisfactory that the Council intended to apply a portion of the 
surplus funds to the improvement and extension of the library. 

During the vear the second part of vol. vii., and the whole of vol. xvi., of the 
Minutes of Proceedings, had been published and issued. There now only re- 
mained, to complete the series of seventeen volumes, extending over twenty-one 
years, the second part of vol. viii., and vol. xvii., "for the past session, both of 
which were nearly ready for issue. 

The Report concluded by congratulating the members on the general satis- 
factory state of the Institution, which to some few, still among them, had 
been, from its humble beginning in 1818, an object of solicitude. Ample funds, 
volumes of proceedings printed rapidly, well attended meetings and crowded 
conversazioni, were the outward signs of prosperity, but they also indicated the 
greater necessity for increased exertions on the part of all who would insure 
the permanent prosperity of an Institution which had done so much good, and 
might still continue to "be so useful, if it was adequately supported by the 
members of a profession which took no mean part in the labours of the present 
eenturv. 



After the reading of the Report, Telford Medals were presented to Messrs. 
J. A. Longridge, G. Robertson, J. Henderson, R. J. Hood, Maj.-Gen. G. B. 
Tremenheere, and A. Giles ; Watt Medals to Messrs. G. L. Molesworth and 
T. S. Sawyer; Council Premiums of Books to Messrs. C. H. Brooks, 
F. C. Webb, S. A. Varley, R. C. Despard, A. Wright, and J. Brunlees ; and 
the Manby Premium, in Books, to Mr. G. L. Molesworth. 



The thanks of the Institution were unanimously voted to the President for 
his attention to the duties of his office; to the Vice-Presidents and other 
Members and Associates of Council, for then' co-operation with the President, 
and constant attendance at the meetings ; to Mr. C. Manby, Secretary, and to 
Mr. Forrest, Assistant Secretary, for the manner in which they had performed 
the duties of their offices ; as also to the Auditors of the Accounts and the 
Scrutineers of the Ballot, for their services. 



LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY— MANCHESTER. 
January 11th, 1859. 

"W. Faimjairst, F.R.3., &c, President, in the chair. 

The President exhibited various specimens of the iron of certain locomo- 
tive boilers which had been found to have suffered local corrosion of a dangerous 
kind, after only a few years' work. The first specimen was from the boiler of 
the goods locomotive engine, Goliath, built by Messrs. Hick and Son in 1839. 
It was a part of the fire-box, through which one of the longitudinal stays had 
passed. The iron (Low Moor) had been cut away by the corrosive action in 
grooves radiating from the stay as a centre. The second specimen, taken from 
the same engine, and likewise of Low Moor iron, was from a part which had 
been rent asunder in the explosion of the boiler in 1847, before the engine was 
nine years old. A third specimen was from the boiler of the Bat goods loco- 
motive, built by Mr. Woods. It consisted of a part of the angle-iron ring at 
the smoke-box end. A deep groove had been formed by the corrosive action, 
and water escaped through the angle iron after the engine had worked less 
than six years. A fourth specimen was taken from the passenger locomotive, 
Ostrich, built by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway Company. The 
bottom plate of this boiler, made of Low Moor iron, had been corroded in 
less than four years to such an extent that water escaped through it. The 
President observed that these remarkable effects belonged exclusively to loco- 
motive boilers, and had not been noticed in those of stationary engines. He 



recommended the subject to the attention of the Society as one of scientific 
interest, as well as great practical importance, indicating, as it did, a source of 
hitherto unsuspected danger. 

A lengthened conversation ensued, some members being of opinion that the 
phenomena were owing to the vibratory motion of the engine, predisposing 
certain parts to chemical action. Others thought that currents might exist in 
uniform directions, by which the part might be kept in that condition, as to 
cleanliness, most favourable to oxidation. Several members thought that the 
action was owing to galvanic currents arising from portions of the iron taking 
the electro-negative condition, which that metal is so apt to assume. 

Professor Roscoe called attention to the pernicious consequences attending 
the use of unglazed arsenical green paperhangings. His own experience cor- 
roborated the observation of Dr. Taylor, that dust collected in rooms so hung 
contained a large quantity of arsenic. He had analyzed the dust from the 
shelves, &c, of a room occupied by himself, and had found a considerable 
quantity of this poisonous substance. 



Mr. Dyer read a Paper On Imponderable Matter, considered 
as an Element. 

He stated, that about two years ago, his first Paper " On the Nature of 
Heat " was read before the 'Society, and he therein maintained that the 
" Matter of Heat" was not a misnomer, but, in fact, a material element, that 
pervaded all space and all bodies in the universe, and in its neutral state was 
identical with the electrical and magnetic fluids, as also with light, or the 
luminous principle. - . 

Since then he had read three other Papers, to illustrate and explain his 
views of elemental heat, and its agency in phenomena, exhibited by its muta- 
tions from the elemental state, into and out of the conditions commonly 
expressed by the terms, sensible, radiating, and latent heat, the present Paper 
being intended to give a summary of the views advanced in the former. For 
the sake of brevity, his own is treated as a "heat-force theory," to denote its 
being opposed to the "force-heat theory ;" and, considering that this latter 
theory has been advocated by many eminent philosophers among the ancients, 
as well as the moderns, it would be a great temerity in him to oppose that 
theory, unless he had some strong grounds of objection to offer to it, as well as 
those in support of his own views. In explanation of these, he said, the 
common terms applied to heat in its sensible, radiating, and latent states, do 
not apply to or convey the meaning he attaches to the term " neutral and 
elemental heat," which condition he defines to be "an imponderable elastic 
element " that permeates and is equally diffused through matter and space, 
except when its elastic force is exceeded by other disturbing forces. Many 
instances of such disturbing forces were set forth and explained, and in refer- 
ence to these he observed, " that great confusion had arisen from the vague 
and discordant senses in which the term ' physical force ' is often employed by 
very eminent physicists." In treating of the "nature." and "conservation'^ 
of force, the term is said to mean "that which produces or resists motion, 
thus implying that force is of itself a substantial existence, whereas it merely 
indicates action among bodies. These exert force upon one another, and upon 
their own component parts, so that force means exerted action of matter upon 
matter, and to give it substantial attributes is absurd. 

In support of the identity of heat and electricity, many cases were cited.— 
(1.) That heat ascends latent in aqueous vapour, which, being condensed, the 
latent heat becomes neutral or elemental in the upper regions, and this because 
no substance is present, other than " the thin cold air" with which it can 
unite, and become sensible heat. This neutral element is the electric fluid, 
and is made known to us in all the forms of electrical phenomena.— (2.) Again, 
when water descends through the crevices of the earth down to the incandescent 
mass, it is converted into steam of great force, causing volcanic eruptions and 
earthquakes, according to the intensities of the forces so generated, by the 
union of water with heat. This heat latent in the vapour ascends and is libe- 
rated in the upper air, and flashes forth as lightning, always attending those 
convulsions and proving the identity of the calorific element with the electrical 
phenomena so exhibited. It was stated that his (Mr. Dyer's) heat-force theory 
was in strict accordance with Dr. Black's latent heat doctrine, and that it 
went to support it, and to explain some anomalous cases that had been adduced 
against the beautiful system of latent heat so long an established basis of wide 
ranges of phenomena, alike in nature and in art. Considering that the " force- 
heat theory" is inconsistent with Dr. Black's, and as this latter is embodied in 
most of the standard works on physics, it should not be abandoned to make way 
for another theory that fails to account for such phenomena. Apart from the 
mutations of heat from chemical changes, the mechanical action of the earth's 
movements was described as exhibiting magnetic and luminous phenomena, by 
the movements of elemental heat, proving these also to be identical with it, and 
with electricity. He then proceeded to siiow the sameness of light and heat, as 
proved by the many incontrovertible instances advanced of their inseparable 
connection, and mutual convertibility into each other ; and thus finally ar- 
rived at the sole inference fairly to be drawn therefrom, namely, that heat and 
light, as also heat, electricity, and magnetism, are only so many different con- 
ditions in which the one calorific element exists in nature, and manifests itself 
by its mutations in phenomena. 

Dr. Joule described the experiments he had made many years ago on the 
thermal effects of the dilation of elastic fluids, which he considered fatal to the 
doctrine of the materiality of heat. He called attention to the experiments 
which Mr. Dyer had made twenty years ago, indicating the possibility of gene- 
rating heat by the agitation of water. These experiments, he believed, would 
prove to be of great interest to the history of science, and trusted that the 
author would be able to place them before the society. 



44 



Correspondence. — Notices to Correspondents. 



[The Abtizax, 
February 1, 1859. 



CORRESPONDENCE.- 

[ Wc do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our Correspondents.] — Ed. 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 
Sir, — As you allowed Mr. Terry's letter to appear in your December Num- 
ber, in which he states there were misrepresentations in my answer to the 
review in No. 189, I trust you will admit the following - , in order to prove on 
whom such a statement ought most truly to rest. Mr. Terry in his letter 
states — 1st, " My invention is entirely different from any breech-loading prin- 
ciple patented, at home or abroad, previous to the date of my own." My 
patent is dated February 21st, 1855 : Mr. Terry's, April 7, 1856. By referring 
to my specification you will find the following passage : — " The second part of my 
invention is a modification of the above, the barrel being a fixture, and the plug 
moveable. The plug forms the fore-part of a piston, which slides in the breech 
end of the barrel, which is elongated for that purpose. The piston is provided 
with a strong pin, or pins, passing through it, and working in bayonet slots 
in the breech end of the barrel. The pin forms a lever, or has a lever attached 
to it, and the slots are slightly inclined, as in the before-described arrangement, 
so that (having introduced the cartridge at the breech), upon pushing the 
piston forward, and giving it a slight turn, the plug will be wedged home 
firmly, and thus close the breech "end of the barrel." Tiiis will answer 
Mr. Terry's first statement, as a more exact description could not he given of 
what is called " Terry's rifle." To his second observation, I can inform him, 
the barrels of my rifles, or guns, are proved twice — once before stocking, and a 
second time all complete, stock, lock, and barrel. 

Mr Terry in his letter states— 3rdly, " Mr. Prince must frequently use 
explosive paper, which, of course, is highly objectionable, because it is danger- | 
ous." The best reply I can give to the above is, that during the last 600 shots 
I have fired before officials I have only used common paper, and have only had 
one miss-fire, and no stoppage. I will also give an extract from a letter which 
I recently forwarded to General Peel : — " Sir, — A theoretical objection having 
been made to my breech-loading carbine, on the ground of the barrel moving, 
I beg respectfully to request your permission for one of the same to be put to 
the following practical test — viz., 20,000 or 30,000 rounds to be fired at the 
rate of 1,000 or 2,000 per day out of one carbine, without cleaning, and without 
' lubricating with saliva,' &c. At the end of each day's shooting the carbine 
to be locked in a case and sealed up, and only to be again opened when the 
next day's shooting takes place, and then only on the ground, and in the 
presence" of the officer or officers appointed to witness the trial. Should no 
rain occur during the same, a watering-pot on one or more days to be used, to 
iest the capability of the arm resisting the effect of heavy rain, and remaining 
uncleaned afterwards ; or the carbine might be thrown into a pond, and mud 
and gravel be shovelled over it, still it would continue in action. The 
cartridge also to be practical and cheap, and made in the arsenal, and 
to consist of two folds of common cartridge paper, and to be such as 
men could readily make in the field on an emergency : miss-fires would not 
average 3 in 1,000, with regulation caps." I must again join issue with Mr. 
Terry, as he states : " All these points herein mentioned are established offi- 
cially, and open to public investigation." As far as the specifications are con- 
cerned they are so, but if the report of the Small Arm Committee is open to 
Mr. Terry, I doubt much if it is so to the public, while I myself am unacquainted 
With its contents. My assertion as to superiority in strength of shooting or 
penetration, as far as shot is concerned, I presume, is verified by the trial, in 
f' Bell's Life," of January 23rd, and all 1 have not yet proved is the 400 yards 
extra range, and the capability of one of my rifles shutting up six of his, — 
common paper cartridges, unassisted with a felt wadding, being- used with both 
arms. The trial alluded to above I extract verbatim : speaking of Terry's gun, 
the editor says : " At 30 yards its accuracy of shooting was fully equal to two 
muzzle loaders tried at same time with precisely the same charge, yet at 
greater distances, 40, 50, and 60 yards, its performances were so wanting in 
power that we could not judge of its capabilities of straight shooting. At 40 
yards, shots from an old single-barrel ' Westley Richards,' of the same calibre, 
which had been in our possession many years, went completely through a thick 
pamphlet, peppering the page in every direction, while from Terry's gun, no 
shots in the many trials we made went completely through, and the majority 
did not penetrate more than two pages. At 50 yards the difference was still 
greater,— not more than seven or eight shots from Terry's gun striking the 
paper, while the old gun again sent a goodly number deep into the target — if 
such it could be called. A double-barrel by Prince, above alluded to, of twelve 
bore, with the same charge (2^ drs. of powder, and 1J oz. No. 7 shot), at this 
distance, however, completely riddled a similar target, and at 65 yards, with 
the same charge, also did better execution than either of the others at 50. At 
65 yards we did not succeed in making our mark with Terry's breech-loader." 
Mr. Terry concludes his letter by an extraordinary statement. I extract it, 
and give my reply : " Mr. Prince, for reasons I suppose best known to himself, 
never allowed any body but himself to shoot his gun at all official trials at 
Hythe, Enfield, and Woolwich." Had Mr. Terry been present at Hythe when 
his carbine broke down at the third shot, he would have seen several hundred 
shots fired by private soldiers from my three carbines, one of which was used 
from day to day without cleaning. At the following trial, Mr. Terry, how- 
ever, was himself present, and saw some 300 rounds fired from my carbines, by 
private soldiers only, until I urged on General Hay my wish to be allowed to 
show what my carbines would really do. The result was, a target of twenty 
shots at 300 yards averaging less than 9 in., and at 200 yards 6^ in.,— the 300 
yard shooting being better than any from Terry's carbine at 200 yards. 

I have now gone through Mr. Terry's assertions. What grounds he had for 
making the same I leave your readers to judge, as also on whose shoulders 
the imputation of "barefaced misrepresentations " should rest. In conclusion, 
if Mr. Terry really is desirous of trying his arm against mine, on all or any of 
the points stated in my letter in your November Number, by addressing a note 
to me, at 138, New Bond Street, the trial can be arranged. After the public 



trial, in " The Field," last April, Mr. Terry stated his anxiety to retrieve the 
character of his rifle, his being the worst on the list at 200 yards, though shot 
by his son, his average being 30J in. His letter in "The Field," asking for 
a further trial of his rifle, concludes with the following paragraph: — " Hoping 
you will be able to offer sucli opportunity as speedily as possible, to prove my 
assertions by the evidence of facts." The Editor replies : ■' We shall be happy 
to see Mr. Terry shoot his rifle at any time." Nine months have elapsed with- 
out Mr. Terry having put in an appearance. The fair presumption is. that Mr. 
Terry has never yet been able to produce a rifle to make as low an average as 
mine then did, viz., 1£ in. at 100 yards, and 4J in. at 200 yards. I am always 
prepared to shoot against the above score, and could, I think, generally beat it 
in favourable weather. Apologising for trespassing thus on your columns, 
I am, Sir, yours repectfully, Fred. Prince. 



To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — Your correspondent, " G. J. Y.," in the November Number, has con- 
siderably mystified a very simple practical result, by getting entangled in 
uncertain theories. 

In the paragraph, beginning " the falling stone," he appears to have taken 
it for granted that the falling weight was from everlasting time suspended 
somewhere over "Mercury, the dense water of the Dead Sea, the earth's 
atmosphere, or even the tennons tail of a comet." Now, in all cases of falling 
weights applied to machinery, we must consider that the weight has first been 
raised through the same medium in which it is to fall whilst moving the 
machine. 

A clock will illustrate my meaning : does " G. J. Y. " doubt but that the 
weight in falling will exercise the same power on the clock as was expended 
in raising it, and that quite irrespective of time ? The reason is obvious, for the 
weight was raised through air, contrary to the attraction of the earth ; and it 
falls through air in obedience to the same influence. No " cube theory " 
should be dragged into such a case as this. 

Ely. Yours obediently, H. T. D. 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 
R. G. (Toulon). — With reference to the Royal George, the following is the only information 
we can at present give you upon the subject. This calculation was made by the late Mr. 
Peake (master shipwright, K.N.) for the late Captain George Harris, E.N., when com- 
manding the Hussar frigate, and it was handed to us by the latter gentleman, together 
with a number of notes on naval construction. 

" Calculations on the Royal George at the instant she sank, before the hull had imbibed 
any water : — Tons. cwt. lbs. 

Ironballast 180 

Guns 217 2 

Shot 72 3 2 

Anchors 19 1G 3 



In air 489 3 

Iron to water) 7'45 )490'00( GG G6 

atSpithead ) 4470 

In water, say. ... 414 



4300 



Shingle ballast, 223 tons by the lightermen's") 
weight, but it is a quarter too much by the im- 
mersion of the ship 

Coals 30 



i's-| 



107 



Ballast to water, 1*5 ; allow 
to be 2' when filled the in 
terstices 



"! 



In air 197 



In water, say. 



98 



Then— Iron , 



Tons. cwt. 

414 

Shingle and coals 98 

512 
The provisions, such as beef, pork, flour, and raisins, 

being somewhat heavier than water, call it 

Cables, and cordage in the store-rooms 10 



4 tons 



14 tons. 
As to all the other provisions, and store in rooms, they would float, perhaps, more than 
the above 14 tons; therefore, after the yards and topmasts, &c, were taken away, the 
aforesaid weight of 512 tons was the utmost the ship could weigh; but, as the hull of 
itself would sustain at least 150 tons — 192 tons by the density of the different parts of 
the hull— it would reduce the weight to 3G2 tons, and this, again, would be reduced 
by the powder barrels and casks in hold (empty), sustaining many tons, so that, pro- 
bably, at a week's end, the ship might weigh — say, in round numbers, 400 tons. In 
fact,I really believe the ship could not have been more than 320 tons at the instant she 
sank ; and I must be vastly out indeed if those that have made her three and even four 
times as much are right in their calculations. She displaced about 3,600 tons when 
afloat." 

R. C. D. ; P. Roberts; and Beyfuse. — Declined, with thanks. 

J. (Leeds). — We shall be glad to receive the papers. 

Young Engineer (Leeds). — 1st, No; 2nd, The arrangement of engine described has 
advantages over the two-cylinder combination, although from the trunk being at the 
high-pressure end, the loss of heat by its exposure at each stroke is a set-off against the 
advantages it possesses. There is, however, nothing new in the idea ; it has been 
patented by about eight different persons, and by mere chance a paper was read at the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Birmingham, about three months ago. If you send 
your exact address, we will inform vou respecting your first inquiry. 

R. R. (Glasgow) ; J. C. ; T. ; J. B.; and others.— By post. 

D. (Calcutta); E. Richardson, jnn. ; J. Barlow; and other correspondents whose addi-esses 
are not appended to their letters, will please to furnish them, whereupon their requests 
shall be attended to. 

Various Reviews and Notices of New Books are unavoidably omitted this month for 
want of space. 

The continuation of " Who Invented the Screw Propeller ? "' and other papers, &c, must 
stand over until next month. 



The Artizav, 1 
February 1, 1859.J 



Notes and Novelties. 



45 



RECENT LEGAL DECISIONS 

AFFECTING THE ARTS, MANUFACTURES, INVENTIONS, &c 
Dxder this heading we propose giving a succinct summary of such deci- 
sions and other proceedings of the Courts of Law, during the preceding month, 
as may have a distinct and practical bearing on the various departments treated 
of in our Journal : selecting those cases only which offer some point either of 
novelty, or of useful application to the manufacturer, the inventor, or the 
usually — in the intelligence of law matters, at least — less experienced artizan. 
With this ohjeet in view, we shall endeavour, as much as possible, to divest our 
remarks of all legal technicalities, and to present the substance of those decisions 
to our readers in a plain, familiar, and intelligible shape. — Ed. 



Puddled Steel.— Patent Law.— Question of Affixing The Great Seal. 
In the Court of Chancery (12th January ult.), Mr. James Spence, of Liverpool, petitioned 
that the Greiit Seal might be attached to a patent for making tinned plates from puddled 
steel, notwithstanding that an opposition had been entered by Messrs. Clay (Mersey Steel 
and Iron Works, Liverpool), and by Mr. Benzon (Naylor, Vickers, and Company, Shef- 
field), on the ground that Mr. Spence cannot claim a patent for usinspuddled steel for tinned 
plates, as tinned plates have been previously made from steel manufactured in the ordinary 
way; that, therefore, there is no noveity in steel tinned plates; and that, if there were, 
Mr. Clay suggested the idea to Mr. Spence. The Lord Chancellor said this was a case in 
which the question in dispute between the parties ought to be tried at Law. By refusing 
to seal the patent, this Court would prevent such right from being exercised ; and, there- 
fore, he thought that the proper course would be to order the patent to be sealed. — Ordered 
accordingly. 

Danger by Sparks from a Railway Engine. — In the North, the Right 
Honourable Jane Douglas, Lady Montague, "raised an action,'' recently, against (lie 
North British Railway Company, in the Sheriff's Small Debt Court, at Dunse, for £5, as 
damages caused to a small plantation (called Brackholes) on her estate of Buneley, near 
the line of railway, by a spark from the tender of one of the. engines having (on the 30th 
March last) set fire to the plantation. A preliminary objection was raised, on the part of 
the Company, to the effect that, as there was no averment of " culpa" (fault), there was no 
ground for damages, the Company being engaged in a lawful act at the time. This line of 
argument appears to have prevailed with the Sheriff, who " allowed the case to be with- 
drawn, on payment of a small sum of expenses by the Company." 

The Tyldesley Colliery Explosion. — At the adjourned inquest recently 
held on the twenty-five persons killed by the explosion on the 11th December ult., the 
jury returned a verdict of " accidental death," expressing, as their unanimous opinion, 
that due precautions had not been taken to insure the lives of the workmen employed in 
the mine; finding that the ventilation of the mine had been generally imperfect, more 
especially from the area of the outlet always being much too small. Also, great want of 
practical knowledge of the working of the mine on the part of the underlooker ; and also 
that the firemen had neglected their duties. 

The Factory Act.— At the Acerington Court House, Messrs. Watson Brothers, of 
Church, were recently fined £2, with costs, in each of twenty cases, for allowing young 
persons to work after 6 o'clock in the evening. The number of cases was much smaller 
than might have been taken, as the mill was found to be in full operation at 'a quarter 
past 6. 

The Fatal Accident (Suffocation) at the Torpoint Sulphuric Acid 
Works. — At the inquest held (17th January ult.) at Torpoint, near Plymouth, the medical 
evidence showed that the cause of death was " the inhaling of nitrous acid gas." That the 
fumes of nitrous acid, taken into the body, produce great stimulation of action in the 
mucous surfaces, the bronchia, and stomach, ultimately bringing on asphixia and death. 
The commercial strength of the acid was 175 degrees; the liquid, on ihis occasion, was 
about llu degrees. Ozone, it was believed, was present in the chamber. The jury returned a 
verdict that the deceased (two men) came to their death accidentally from inhaling the 
fumes arising from a quantity of sulphuric acid, and there appeared to be no want of care 
on the part of the manager of the works. 

Railway Liabilities— Diversion of a Stream. — In a recent case— Morton 
v. the South Western Railway Company — cause was shown (Queen's Bench, 12th January 
ult.) against a rule for a nonsuit. The action was on a judgment signed on a verdict given 
by a jury on an inquisition before the Sheriff to assess the amount of compensation to what 
plaintiff was entitled for injuries done to his property by the works of the defendants in 
constructing their line of railway. Plaintiff was the owner of a tanyard, into which two 
streams flowed. Defendants carried the principal stream, by a syphon, under their rail- 
way into plaintiff's premises, and diverted the smaller stream from plaintiff's land, and 
carried it in a channel along the side of their railway. The sheriff's jury having awarded 
plaintiff £400 as compensation, their finding was entered on record as a judgment, upon 
which the present action had been brought, and in which plaintiff had succeeded. A rule 
was then granted for a nonsuit, on the ground that as plaintiff's property was not injuriously 
affected, the sheriff's jury had exceeded their jurisdiction in giving compensation for 
matters beyond their powers. Lord Campbell discharged the rule, being of opinion that 
there was jurisdiction. The plaintiff was entitled to the water of the stream, which he had 
used for upwards of forty years. Supposing that the jury had exceeded their jurisdiction, 
that would have been ground for a certiorari to remove inquisition and set it aside ; but 
that question had already been determined by this Court on an application for a certiorari. 
The other judges concurring in this opinion, the rule for a nonsuit was discharged. 

Steam Threshing-Machines had been declared (by a Bench of West-Riding Ma- 
gistrates, at Otley, in Yorkshire) not to be exempt from toll after they have passed 2 miles 
upon the turnpike-road ; but they, at the same time, granted a case for the opinion of the 
Court of Queen's Bench upon the point. It being subsequently found, from a defect in 
the proceedings, necessary to raise the question before the magistrates, itwas contended, for 
the complainants (Messrs. Humphery and Co., of Leeds, steam threshing-machine manu- 
facturers, against the collectors of tolls on the Otley and Skipton turnpike-road), that, 
according to the proper construction of the Turnpike Act, threshing-machines, and all 
other implements of husbandry, were exempt from toll, whatever distance they travelled 
on the road, and that the limitation of the Act to 2 miles applied to an entirely distinct 
matter. (The machine in question was passing along the turnpike-road on its way to a 
farm to thresh corn ; the toll (3s.) had been taken, on the ground that the machine had 
travelled 2 miles on the road). The magistrates came to the conclusion that the former 
decision must be reversed, and that the threshing-machine was exempt from toll, whatever 
distance it went upon the road. — Collectors fined in nominal penalty of Is. each and costs. 

Damage to Boilers of the "Urgent" Steam Troopship. — Liability 
of Engineers.— At a court-martial held (7th January ult.) on board Her Majesty's 
flagship Victory, at Portsmouth, the assistant engineer (2nd class) belonging to Her 
Majesty's troopship Urgent, was tried for damage done to certain boilers during the time 
of his being in charge of her (on or about the 21st December, 1858), and to inquire into 
his conduct on that occasion. The Court (president, Rear-Admiral the Hon. G> Grev, 



superintendent of Her Majesty's dockyards), having heard the evidence of the several 
witnesses, found that the charges were proved, and reprimanded the said assistant engineer, 
admonishing him to be more careful for the future. 

Colliery Drums— Liability of Joiners.— At the inquest (Cth January ult.) on 
the seven persons (three men and four boys) killed by the accident at the Agecroft colliery, 
Pendlebury, near Manchester (owners, Messrs. Knowles and Sons), it appeared that the 
"cage" coming above the usual place, dashed against the pulley, and the rods of the cage 
snapping, it dropped down the pit. A bell signal ought to have indicated when the cage 
was 60 yards from the mouth of the shaft, but on this occasion it had not sounded, 
although it had done so in three or four cases of men coming up immediately preceding. 
The strap which worked the bell-weight had broken, the end was drawn out of the slit 
where it had been fastened into the axle by a wooden wedge. One wedge was placed in 
three years and a half since, and never taken out till just previously to the accident. The 
cage was one of Owen's safety cages. The joiner, in his evidence, said, he had altered the 
drums on the preceding Monday, to make the cage come up faster; the next morning the 
engineer bade him alter the strap which worked the bell-weight. He fastened it as it had 
been before, driving a new wedge in with it, and stayed to see. it work. It was a new and 
seasoned wedge, and fitted tight. The coroner, in summing up, said if any person was 
blameable it appeared to be the joiner, as the wedge seemed not to have been put in securely, 
which was the cause of all the mischief. The jury having returned a verdict of "Acci- 
dental death," the coroner censured the joiner for not being more careful, and Mr. Dick- 
enson (the inspector of mines for the district) said, so many accidents had occurred at 
Messrs. Knowles' collieries, that they ought to get some very competent superintendent. 

The Great Eastern Steam-ship. — The action for rent for the yard in which 
this great vessel was built (the commencement of which, before Mr. Justice Willes and a 
jury, in the second Court of Common Pleas, we noticed in our last number's " Notes and 
Novelties") has been since settled while in course of healing. The judge suggested a 
private settlement, and it was left to his lordship, who then said, there ought, in his opinion, 
to be a verdict for £2,500 for the four months from October 10th till the 1st of March. 
Verdict for the Plaintiffs, £2,500. 

Unprotected Machinery. — In the case of the trial of an action (Sehofieldt). Schunk) 
against millowners for not securely fencing a part of the machinery of their mill, whereby 
injury was occasioned to one of the persons employed therein, the judge left the question 
to thejury " whether the machinery was fenced in the ordinary manner used andapproved 
as sufficient at the best regulated mills in the district." It was held that this was not 
enough, for that the proper question was whether the mill was securely fenced according 
to the best method of fencing known at the time. 

The Havant Station Railway Disputes. — The Tice-Chancellor, Sir W. P. 
Wood, refused (19th January ult.) an injunction moved for by the London, Brighton, and 
South Coast Railway Company against the London and South Western and the Portsmouth 
Railway Companies, to restrain the latter two companies from using the joint station at 
Landport, Porlsea, for the booking or transport of passengers or goods destined for or 
coming from the Portsmouth railway, excepting for traffic on the public service, naval or 
military, with the Crown establishments at Portsea or Portsmouth. The question turned 
entirely upon the construction of the Act of 1847, Sec. 13, by which the South Western 
and the Brighton and South Coast Companies were authorised to purchase, and a third 
company was authorised to sell, a portion of line for the purpose of being jointly used by 
the two companies as a joint line, and which Act, as the A'iee-Chancellor held, was in no 
way modified by the Portsmouth Railway Amendment Act of 1858. There must, there- 
fore, as between the contending companies, be a user of the joint station. Injunction 
refused. Costs to be costs in the cause. 

Parish Rating of Telegraph Wires. — A novel question of law is likely to 
arise. The Board of Governors and Directors of the united parishes of St. Andrew, 
Holborn, and St. George the Martyr, having recently resolved to assess the wires of the 
Electric Telegraph Company, laid along Holborn — from Holborn Bars to Feuwick Court — 
at the sum of £100, the wires not having hitherto been assessed. 

The "Telegraph Slander Case" again. — Lord Campbell (Court of Queen's 
Bench, 21st January ult.,) has granted anew trial in this case— an action for slander — 
Whitfield and others, bankers, v. the South Eastern Railway Company, in sending by tele- 
graph, and publishing at different stations on the South Eastern Railway, a message to 
the effect that the Lewes Bank had stopped payment, and in which the plaintiffs obtained 
a verdict — damages £2,000. Lord Campbell thought there ought to be a new trial, both 
parties being at liberty to amend ; he at the same lime advised the parties, on such new 
trial, to submit their disputes in the form of a special case. The application for a new 
trial was on the ground that the verdict was against the evidence. 

Fencing Reservoirs. — In a recent ease, argued 21st January ult., (Hardcastle, admi- 
nistratrix, v. The South Yorkshire and River Dunn Railway Company), the Court of 
Exchequer decided that the company in question, successors to the proprietorship of the 
navigation of the " River Dunn," were not legally answerable for an accident (by drown- 
ing) arising from neglect in not fencing a reservoir and bye-wash forming part of such 
navigation. The plaintiff was the widow and administratrix of a person who was drowned 
on the 22nd May, 1858, in a leservoir belonging to the defendants. His widow had brought 
an action under Lord Campbell's Act. Defendants' predecessors had twenty-four years 
ago made a new cut, consisting of a large reservoir, out of which there were two branches, 
one fur the passage of boats, and the other as a bye-wash for surplus water. The deceased, 
having crossed the bridge leading over the wash, turned to the right (the ancient footpath 
from Rotherham to Sheffield leading along this bye-wash), and fell over the buttress of the 
bridge into the water. At the trial it had been contended that a private injury arising out 
of a public way, rendered the party liable to an action. The Lord Chief Baron in his judg- 
ment said that if a person trespassed upon land adjoining a public footpath, and so came to 
mischief, he, and not the owner of the land, was liable. If fences were to be put up, it 
would be more reasonable that they should be put up by persons using the path, and those 
who were under obligations to repair it, than by those who dedicated it to the public. 
There was no such obligation to fence the path as alleged; and, on the state of facts, as 
disclosed at the trial, no liability was incurred.— Judgment accordingly for the defendants. 



NOTES AND NOVELTIES. 



OUR " NOTES AND NOVELTIES " DEPARTMENT.— A SUGGESTION TO OUR 
READERS. 

We have received many letters from Correspondents, both at home and abroad, thanking 
us for that portion of this Journal in which, under the title of " Notes and Novelties," we 
present our readers with an epitome of such of the " events of the month preceding" as 
may in some way affect their interests, so far as their interests are connected with any of 
the subjects upon which this Journal treats. This epitome, in its preparation, necessitates 
the expenditure of much time and labour ; and as we desire to make it as perfect as 
possible, more especially with a view of benefiting those of our engineering brethren who 
reside abroad, we venture to make a suggestion to our subscribers, from which, if acted 



46 



Notes and Novelties. 



r The Artizan, 
L February 1, 1859. 



upon, we shall derive considerable assistance. It is to the effect that we shall he happy 
to receive local news of interest from all who have the leisure to collect and forward it to 
us. Those who cannot afford the time to do this would greatly assist our efforts by 
sending us local newspapers containing articles on, or notices of, any facts connected 
with Railways, Telegraphs, Harbours, Docks, Canals, Bridges, Military Engineering, 
Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, Boilers, Furnaces, Smoke Prevention, Chemistry as 
applied to the Industrial Arts, Gas and Water Works, Mining, Metallurgy, &c. To save 
time, all communications for this department should he addressed, " 18, Salisbury-street, 
Adelphi, London, W.C.," and be forwarded, as early in the month as possible, to the 
Editor. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

A New Smoke-consuming Grate (patented) has been recently introduced. The 
coals are introduced at the bottom of the fire, under the ignited embers, so that the whole 
of the gases given off' are burned. (?) The apparatus by which the coals are introduced 
into the fire consists of an iron tray, fixed to the lower portion of the front of the stove. 
Along this, right and left handed Archimedean screws, (joined together about the middle 
of the grate) are placed. When the fire is to be fed, fresh coals are placed in the tray, on 
the top of the screw, which is then turned by a ratchet-work, moved by the poker. By 
the revolution of the screw, the burning embers are raised up, and the fresh coals deposited 
in the cavity underneath. The mechanical arrangement is stated to be equally applicable 
to furnaces; for if the screw be moved at a slow rate by a lathe-band from steam-machinery, 
it would deliver the coals into the fire at a regular and uniform speed, without slacking 
the draught by opening the furnace door. 

A Smoke-preventing "Flue Pedestal," having for its main object the preven- 
tion of smoke, by washing the latter by means of jets of water, has been provisionally re- 
gistered by Mr. C. J. Richardson. It is stated to be applicable to every flue in a house, and 
the soot from the whole of them is to be carried down to the drain. The " flue pedestal" 
has still another (alleged) recommendation : placed in one of the upper rooms of a house it 
becomes a hot-water pedestal, supplying warm water to the room, and moderately warm- 
ing it by means of the fires in the lower parts or floors of the building. 

Three Lifeboats for the Portuguese Government, ordered by Admiral 
Sir George Sartorius, are now constructing by Messrs. Forrestt, of Limehouse. 

The Total Population op the Australian Group (omittins Western Aus- 
tralia, estimated at about 14,000, but. of the statistics of which colony there are no re- 
liable records) was at the close of 1857, 1,037,500 souls; viz., Victoria, 489,000; New 
South Wales, 300,000; South Australia, 110,001); Tasmania, 82,500; New Zealand (ap- 
proximate), 50,000. 

A Substitute for Red-lead has been patented for Messrs. Bouchard and Gravel, 
of Paris. The inventors, forthis purpose, claim the application of ochreous earths in general ; 
and, more particularly, of a species of red-ochre, very rich in silica and alumina, found in 
the departments of Yonne, France, and called Burgundy red, the composition of which 
is— Silica, 50-00 parts; oxide of iron, 14'50 parts; alumina, 26'60 parts; carbonate of lime, 
7 - 00 parts; sulphate and phosphate of lime, magnesia, loss ! - 30 parts = 100"00. Cement pre- 
pared from this earth is alleged to be an advantageous substitute for red-lead in making 
joints of boilers, water and gas pipes, &c, by mixing with grease, oil, lime, and with frag- 
ments of unburnt earthenware, Roman cement, and chalk in about the following propor- 
tions : — Burgundy red, 66 parts ; grease or oil, 15 parts; lime, 11 parts; unburnt earthen- 
ware, chalk, or Boman cement, 8 = 100. Diluted with volatile oil, this Burgundy red, or 
other analogous earth, serves as a coating for preserving metal to prevent oxidation. 

Premiums for Inventions and Discoveries. — Amongst the premiums (money 
or gold medals) offered this year by the Society of Arts are — the gold medal, for the dis- 
covery of a substitute for cotton ; ditto for the production of an incombustible paper, so as 
to render the ledgers of commercial men, bankers, &c, indestructible by fire — and an 
efficient means of carrying out the system of Oceanic electric telegraphs between distant 
countries, including, in plan, perfect insulation, minimum of resistance to the current sent, 
rapidity of communication, use of minimum power, freedom from accident by air or 
water, and power of resisting mechanical strains. For an economic system of railway 
transit, applicable to common roads, so as to connect thinly-populated districts with each 
other, and with the main lines of railway. The introduction of a system of railways upon 
common roads, and in the streets of towns, cheap and effective for goods and passengers. 

The (French) Artificial Pearls are made by the following process: — The scales 
of the fish called bleak, for which the streams of the department of the Meurthe are par- 
ticularly noted, are, by an ingenious process, reduced to a kind of lustrous paste called 
" Essence d'Orient ; " and the French artificial pearls are simply small hollow glass balls, 
coated insidewith this paste, and filled with white wax. 

American Post Offices, Routes, &c. — The Postmaster General's recent report 
states, that the whole number of post-offices in June last was 27,977 ; length of routes, 
260,603 miles; cost, 7,795,418 dollars. Total expenditure for the year (for this depart- 
ment), nearly 13,0o0,0"0 dollars. 

Shipwrecks and the Shore.— An (alleged) improvement on Manby's apparatus 
has just been introduced in France, under the patronage of Admiral Hamelin, the French 
Minister of Marine. The new apparatus for establishing communication between ship- 
wrecked vessels and the shore, and vice versa, is the invention of M. Bertinelli, of Turin, 
and consists of a wooden shot, to which a line is attached, and which, impelled by a feeble 
charge from a gun on board a ship, or on shore, will reach to the distance of 800 yards ; 
whilst that of Manby and others, it is stated, have never attained a practical range of more 
than 200 yards. Admiral Hamelin, in his published notice of this invention says, that the 
French Government have aided M. Bertinelli in his experiments, to the success of which he 
can testify. 

The Board of Trade Returns for the month of November, 1858, just issued, 
show the following results :— Total declared value of exports for the month, £9,976,436 ; 
against corresponding month of 1857, £8,285,815. 

Shipping Trade. — In November last, there were 2,966 vessels employed in the 
foreign trade; tonnage, 669,634, entered inwards; against, in corresponding month of 
18.57, vessels, 3,020, with a tonnage of 754,023. Cleared outwards, during the same periods 
respectively, 3.046 ships; tonnage, 716,790; against (in November, 1857), 3,261 ships— 
788,467 tonnage. 

Shipwrecks in the Royal Navy. — Between the years 1793 and 1857 no less than 
424 ships of the Royal Navy were lost by casualties at sea. 

COASTING TRADE, for same period, 11,010 vessels, 1,265,213 tonnage, entered inwards ; 
and 12,382 ships, 1,312,129 tonnage, cleared outwards; against (in November, 1857)— 
ships, 12,206 ; tonnage, 1,293,267 ; and ships, 12,403 ; tonnage, 1,310,531. 

The Tunnel UNDER Mount Cenis is still progressing. It is found that, on the 
Savoy side, at Modene, the filtration of water opposes considerable difficulty in prosecuting 
the works, yet not so as to completely interrupt the boring process. 

The Glass Trade, more especially in the North of England, is at present in a very 
unsettled state. A general "lock-nut" of the operative glass-makers is daily expected. 
To resist the alleged unreasonable demands of the Workmen's Union, the employers have 
formed a counter-association ; and the first blow at the operatives' combination has been a 
resolution of the employers to close all works against society-members. The numerous 
glass-works in the district around Dudley and Stourbridge are already shut; and it is 
apprehended that the " lock-out " may soon extend from Birmingham to Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. 



A Large Iron Engine-house for Chili has been manufactured by Messrs. 
Bellhouse and Co., of Manchester, for shipment to Santiago. It will cover a space of 
24,000 sq. ft., forming a regular polygon of forty-eight sides; diameter, 171 ft. ; height at 
the eaves (which project 2 it.), 17 ft. 9 in., including an ornamental iron grating, running 
round the entire building. The roof consists of sixteen bays, supported by as many 
ornamental columns, disposed in a circle 61 ft. in diameter. Length of the principals 
supported by these pillars, 80£ ft., rising from the eaves, and continuing to the spring of 
the cupola. ' Roof surmounted in the centre (where it is 40 ft. high) bya ventilating cupola, 
17 ft. in breadth, and rising to a total height of 62 ft. Eleven large entrances or archways 
for engines, and five smaller ones. External limits of the building supported by forty-eight 
moulded pilasters. 

The British Navy" [in 1859]. — An official return of the ships now composing the 
British Navy, shows that, exclusive of gun-boats, we now possess 523 vessels, of which 
170 are actually in commission. The channel squadron appears to consist of but one screw 
decker and four screw two-deckers, but will probably be strengthened in the ensuing spring 
and autumn. 

A New Smoke-consuming Apparatus has been invented by Mr. David Partridge, 
assistant chief-engineer of the Steam Factory Department at Woolwich. It is ordered 
to be applied to steam-vessels in the Royal Navy. 

Wood-Carving by Machinery'. — In a recent number of our Journal we adverted 
to the, then, apparently unpromising prospects of this invention — at least, as a commercial 
speculation. It now appears that these really beautiful machines, formerly worked under 
the Jordan patent, in the Belvidere-road, Lambeth, and to which the Houses of Parliament 
and other important buildings are indebted for their carved woodwork, have not shared 
the fate of the Company that fruitlessly attempted their commercial development, but are 
now in active, and, as it is asserted, profitable operation in other hands, on premises exactly 
opposite their former locale. The operations of the machine in question will, for the 
future, be confined to the rough definitions of the form and pattern desired, hand-labour 
being called in aid to finish and perfect the design and details. 

RAILWAYS, &c. 

Cape Town. — The Railway and Dock Company having completed an amended con- 
tract with the Local Colonial Government satisfactory to all parties, Mr. Brounger and a 
portion of the engineering staff have sailed for the colony. By the terms of the new 
contract, the Government may, after twenty years, purchase the land, subject, however, to 
a clause insuring, under nnv circumstances, the repayment to the shareholders of the 
actual cost of the line. Works to cost £400,000, exclusive of rolling stock; to be com- 
pleted within two and a half years from 5th October last, or six months within the time 
required by the contract with the colonial authorities. 

Neapolitan Railways.— Salerno and Taranto Line. — In the exercise of 
what is generally considered, even by the Italian lawyers themselves, as an illegal and 
tyrannical stretch of power, the Neapolitan Government have confiscated the caution- 
money, which M. D'Agiout had deposited, as concessionaire (in 1856), of this line of rail- 
way. M. D'Agiout, it is understood, is taking steps to contest the question, as one of 
general right and international law. 

Railway - Squabbles.— The London and Brighton and South Western Railway Com- 
panies have been recently engaged in actual hostilities. The former endeavoured, by the 
removal of rails, the tongues of junction-points, &c, to prevent the South Western trains 
running over the line from the Havant Junction to Portsmouth. An amicable adjust- 
ment of their mutual differences lias since been made by the two companies.— See Legal 
Decisions, "Havant Station." 

The Northern [of Spain] Railway Company has just made the adjudication 
of a contract for the supply of Si'0,000 sleepers, of pine, from the Landes, prepared by the 
process of M. Boucherie, to be delivered in the course of the yenr 1859. 

A New Railway- Terminus is to be built at Enniskillen for the Dundalk and 
Enniskillen Company. Total length, 184 ft. Platiorm 21-9 wide at centre of building, and 
I5"0 throughout. 

The Rail in Streets. — At Genoa a railway traverses the whole length of the city, 
through one of its busiest streets. The portion of the street devoted to the railway is 
divided off by an iron railing. At the crossings a chain is hooked on as the train approaches,, 
and allowed to fall again when it has passed. 

Collision on the South Western Line.— Basingstoke Station.— A. serious 
accident occurred (22nd December ult.) at this station, in consequence of the Southampton 
11 •80 train running into the Salisbury train, due at the same place a few minutes 
previously. 1 he latter had arrived at" its proper time, and was shunting into a siding, 
when the Southampton train approached, and although the danger signals were all properly 
exhibited, the driver was unable to bring up his engine in sufficient time to avoid a 
collision. The two last carriages of the Salisbury train were knocked off the rails, one of 
them falling completely over on to the down line, and seriously hurting several of its 
occupants. 

Fatal Accident on the Stockton and Darlington Railway'.— On the 
22nd December ult., between the Eston junction and Cargo Fleet station, a parly of 
pedestrians, instead of walking on the footpath, which runs parallel to the railway on the 
top of a bank, descended into the cutting to obtain shelter from the wind, which was 
blowing very strongly in their faces, when suddenly, where the line makes a curve, a train, 
consisting of engine, tender, and some empty carriages, dashed up from behind them, at the 
rate of 14 miles an hour, scattering them in all directions. One of the party was killed, 
and another frightfully injured. The coroner's jury returned a verdict of "Accidental 
death." 

Grupon and Arlon [Luxembourg Railway]. A land-slip of 30,000 cubic 
metres has completely buried the line at this point. It will take a month's labour to clear 
the road. 

Railway Curves— Resistance.— With reference to the influence of curves upon 
resistance, it. has been found that, at a speed of 45 miles per hour, the traction-resistance 
was greater by 20 per cent, on a line having curves under 1 mile radius at the curve in 
2£ miles, than on a practically straight line. 

Gradients.— The steepest gradients in this country, over which a large traffic is con- 
veyed, are considered to be on the line between Manchester and Oldham, a distance of 
7 miles. For l£ miles there is an inclination of 1 in 48 or 1 in 50, the line is then 
tolerably level until, on approaching Oldham, gradients of 1 in 31 and 1 in 39 are encoun- 
tered, and for about 1 J miles 1 in 27. 

Fatal Accident in a Railway Tunnel.— On the Edinburgh and Glasgow 
railway, about midnight, 18th December ult., a man had, unobserved, as it appears, by the 
watchman on duty at the Queen-street station, entered the tunnel between Cowlars and 
Queen-street, when he was knocked down by a goods' train, and so injured that he died in 
about 24 hours afterwards, in the infirmary. The breaksman, it appears, had seen the 
man in advance of the train, and every effort was made to arrest its progress, but before 
it was finally stopped one of the trucks had overtaken and knocked down the deceased ; 
and a lever, brought from the station, had to be employed in raising the truck beiore he 
could be removed from under it. 

The Seville and Cadiz Railway is stated to be progressing favourably. The 
works are approaching completion, and the line will probably be opened for traffic 
between April and June next. On the 20th December ult., the shares were admitted to 
the privilege of quotation on the Paris Bourse. 

Jamaica.— From Spanish Town to Old Harbour.— In the Jamaica House 
of Legislative Assembly (27th December ult.), a bill to extend the railway from the 



The Artizan, "J 
February ], 18o9,J 



Notes and Novelties. 



47 



former point to the latter had been read a second time. Other bills to promote railway 
extension had been read a second time, and awaited committal to the whole House. 

The A'ictoria Station and North- Western and Great Western 
Junction. — The examiners on standing orders declared (19th January ult.), this projected 
line to be one in which the standing orders had not been complied with. Consequently, 
the announced application to Parliament for this undertaking is lost— at least, for the forth- 
coming session. 

The Great Indian Peninsular Railway is slowly extending itself; a line of 
64 miles having been opened on the Sholapore Branch (Poonah to Diksal) on the 15th 
January ult. 

Cuttings. — Two Accidents [One Fatal] by Earth-slips have occurred on 
the East Kent Railway Works. At Faversham, about 3 miles from the station, a cutting, 
•25 ft. deep, is now in progress ; the earthwork gave way and fell with a tremendous crash, 
burying two men, and dashing them against the waggons at the bottom of the cutting : 
one died. At Chilham cutting a man was engaged pushing the waggons along for coup- 
ling, when the earth suddenly gave way, burying him up to his shoulders. He was extricated 
after much exertion, but died about six hours afterwards, in the Kent and Canterbury 
Hospital, of the injuries and exhaustion. — Verdict, " Accidental death." 

Level Crossings. — A Fatal Railway Accident occurred (evening of 20th 
January ult.) at the New Street Station, Birmingham, to an elderly female, who, in the 
act of passing over the level crossing opposite one of the gate-entrances to the station in 
Great Queen Street, was knocked down and killed by what is termed an " empty " engine 
then slowly coming up. 

London and Brighton. Railway'. — Gross receipts for the past half-year, £447,423 ; 
showing an increase of £ 1 6,062 over corresponding halt-year of 1857 ; and making revenue 
of 1858 amount to £791,993, or £11,406 in excess of the previous year. Expenditure, 
£199,909, or 44^ per cent, of the receipts, being at the rate of 3s. 2jd. per train per mile. 
Number of passengers conveyed in 1858, £7,424,688- Receipts for ditto, £546,601. Total 
working expenses for same year, £231,844. Extension of Company's Epsom Line to 
Leutherhead will shortly be ready for opening : a further extension of the line to Dorking 
is decided on. Company's Victoria and Pimlico Bridge over the Thames will probably be 
completed before the time fixed by contractor — viz., June 1, 1860. 

Halifax to Quebec (New Brunswick).— The largest and most influential public 
meeting ever assembled was held at St. John (on the 7th December), to adopt measures for 
constructing " an Inter-Colonial Railway " between these points. 

Vienna to Linz. — On the 15th December ult., the first train left Vienna for the latter 
place. Omnibuses, built on the true London model, conveyed the passengers to the ter- 
minus, and great, says the "Times" correspondent, was the admiration of the Viennese 
(especially the hackney-coachmen) at the new-fashioned vehicles and harness; but the 
local Jehu's declared their conviction that not one Viennese in a hundred will ever peril 
his shins and neck by being an outside passenger. 

Egyptian (through) Line, from Alexandria to Suez. — The passengers by 
the Niagara (Royal Mail Company's chartered steamer, arrived 20th December ult.) 
were the first persons who travelled all the way by rail between Suez and Alexandria, the 
Egyptian railroad having been finished just before they arrived at Suez. On some parts of 
the railway they travelled at the rate of forty miles an hour : thus, the short route to 
India, China, Japan, and Australia, can now be traversed by railway and steam-paekets 
throughout. 

The Pacific Railroad is pointed out by the American President, in his late 
message, as worthy the attention of Congress. He would not, for political (anti-jobbing) 
reasons, have the work undertaken by the State; but Congress, he adds, might assist incor- 
porated companies by grants of land or money, or both, under reasonable terms, as to 
conveyance of United States troops and mails. 

The Isthmus Routes (Central America), Nicaraguan Accessory' Tran- 
sit Company. — The President recommends to Congress the passage of an Act authorising 
the employment of the land and naval forces of the United States, to prevent this transit 
from being obstructed or interrupted by the Nicaraguan Government ; the transit to be 
thrown open to general competition, on payment of a reasonable rate to the Nicaraguan 
Government on passengers and freights. 

The Panama and Tehuantepec— An Act of Congress for the protection of 
these transit routes is likewise recommended by the American President. 

The Victoria (Australian) Railway's.— The Goverment of Victoria, through 
the agency of a Committee appointed by the six Associated Australian Banks, are negotia- 
ting in thiscountry for a loan of not exceeding one million sterling, portion of the £8,000,000 
sterling authorised to be raised by the Railway Loan Act of the Legislature of Victoria 
of the 24th November, 1857, for the construction of railways in the Colony. The operation 
is by public tender, in 6 per cent, debentures secured on the Colonial revenues. 

A Fatal Accident occurred (5th January ult., 7 a.m.) on the Lancashire and 
Yorkshire Railway, near Failsworth, in the Maston cutting. One of the plate-layers, about 
to commence work, went on the up-line to look for his spade. Warned of the approach of 
a train from Manchester to Oldham, he failed (the morning being dark and foggy) to get 
out of the way before it was upon him. He was literally cut to pieces. 

The Charleville and Sedan Railway (Section of the " Ardennes "), 
has been inspected by the Committee of Engineers appointed by the Minister of Public 
Works. Its principal structures are two bridges over the Meuse. The line was announced 
to be opened for traffic on the 14lh January" 1859, as far as Douchery, a small town on 
the Meuse, about two miles from Sedan. 

The Railway from Lucca to Pisa having been sold by auction, owing to the 
bankruptcy of the Company, has been purchased by the Grand Duke of Tuscany. 

The Receipts of the French Railway Companies during the present year 
(1859) will probably exceed 350 millions of francs. The companies have to pay at this 
moment about 115 millions of francs for interest on their bonds; working and other 
expenses estimated at 50 per cent, on their receipts (or loOmillions)— thus there will remain 
85 millions to be divided among the shareholders. 

Head of Lake Superior to Red River.— A railway to effect this junction is 
on foot. The object of Sir Alan McNab's visit to this country is to promote this under- 
taking. 

An Attempt to Upset a Railway-Train was recently made by a lad who was 
(4th January ult.) charged at the Shire-hall, Gloucester, with placing apiece of iron, called 
a " chair," on the Great Western Railway, with intent, &c. The railway from Gloucester 
to Cheltenham is a " mixed gauge," and the " chair" is an iron frame, by which the 
metals on the narrow gauge lines are secured to the sleepers. One of these chairs was (on 
the 31st December ult.) found to have been placed on the top of the broad-gauge rail, and 
secured by means ofscre/vs, near the Sugar-loaf Bridge, at the Churchdown cutting. The 
mischief intended was, however, happily averted; for, on the arrival of the 11 a.m. train 
from Gloucester at this spot, its impetus, aided by the " lift" affixed in front of the engine, 
was sufficient to remove the obstruction ; and, except a shock, nothing injurious happened 
to the train. The accused, who, it appears, is of weak intellect, had been seen near the 
spot, and a footprint was traced along the embankment to one of the telegraph posts, where 
the " chair" had been thrown aside on a heap of old materials; thence to the spot where 
the chair was attached to the rail, and thence, along the line, to another bridge, where the 
track was lost. The footprint, it was stated, corresponded with the shoeworn by the accused, 
who was remanded for the police to procure, if possible, further evidence. Ultimately, the 
magistrate discharged the prisoner, remarking that there was no doubt as to his guilt, but 
he thought no jury would convict upon the evidence adduced. 



A Combined Railroad Track and Cast-iron Pavement has been patented 
in America, by Walter Bryent, of Boston, Massachusetts. He claims the combination of a 
cast-iron pavement and railway, cast and united together in suitable sections : also the 
combination of the tenons and mortises on the ends of the rails; and the alternate over 
and under lapping tongues on the edges of the pavement, for the purpose of interlocking the 
adjacent sections of the combined pavement aud railway. 

A Railway Accident [by Collision] occurred (13th January ult.) at the 
Craven Arms station of the Shrewsbury and Hereford line, resulting in the serious 
injury of several passengers. A luggage train from Shrewsbury passing on down the main 
line (which is a single one), without turning off into the siding provided at each station, 
for the reception of one train while another passes it, ran into a passenger-train coming in 
the opposite direction. An investigation is promised. 

Egyptian Lines now Completed.— Egypt possesses the following lines :— From 
Alexandria to Cairo, 131 miles; to Mariouth, 17; to Meks, 6; to Rassateen, 3; from Tanta 
to Samanud,21 ; from Cairo to Suez, 91; to Barragd, 15; to Beni Sueff, 76— in all 360 
miles. Besides these, there are smaller branches, — from Cairo to the Citadel and Kasr 
Nin; from Samanud to Mansoura and Damietta; from Damanhour to Arte, which last 
extends to Rosetta. Exact mileage of these not yet accurately known. When the Egyptian 
railway system is properly developed, there will, it is calculated, be a saving of £20,000 per 
annum in the expense of forwarding the Indian mail. 

A Fatal Accident occurred (7th January ult.) on the Great Northern railway, 
about 5 miles from Doncaster. A plate-layer was repairing the line, near the Rossington 
station, and seeing an up-train approaching, he stepped on one side (between the down 
metals) to allow of its passing : but not noticing the simultaneous approach of a down- 
train, and, consequently, making no effort to get out of the way, he was run over, and 
literally cut to pieces ; some portions of the body being found attached to the engine when 
it reached Doncaster. 

The State of New York Railroad Companies (now, 1859) possess a capital 
of 74,289,483 dols. 98c, divided among thirty-eight companies. Of this amount 
08,198,758 dols. 15e have been paid in. Their funded debts amount to 69,198,758 dols. 25c. ; 
their floating-debts are 4,548,806 dols. 69c, making an outlay in their construction of 
136,681.690 dols. 34c. Fourteen companies alone declare dividends. 

A " Railway" Catastrophe [America] has recently occurred on the Columbus 
and Macon railway. State of New York ; number of victims about 19 : the car*, fell 30 ft., 
and into a stream." 

Western India is being rapidly intersected by railways. About 150 miles are now 
constructed, and a large portion of the whole 1,128 miles laid down is now in progress. 
In the Bombay Presidency Railway Works there were in 1857-8 no less than 70,000 men 
employed. 

A Fatal Accident occurred (15th January ult.) on the South Western Railway, at 
the Farnborough station. One of the Company's servants, whilst assisting to shunt some 
carriages in the goods' train, fell under the waggons, and several vehicles passed over his 
neck, severing the head from the body. 

Railroad Accidents in America. — In 1858 there were in the United States 
eighty-two railway accidents, resulting in the death of 119 persons, and grievous injury of 
417. Diminution in number of accidents, as compared with 1857, about 40 per cent : still 
larger decrease in the number of persons killed and injured. 

Mezidon TO ARGENTAN, on the Western [of France] Railway.— This section will be 
opened to the public on the 1st of February, 1859. This will complete the section from 
Mons to Mezidon, and thus connect the two great lines of Normandy and Brittany. 

Rennes and Brest. — The Council of State has adopted the line along the coast for 
the railway t> be constructed between these points. 

TELEGRAPH ENGINEERING, &c. 

Indian and Australian Submarine Telegraph.— The first length of cable 
for this line — viz., that for the section between Suez and Aden — has been manufactured 
by Messrs. Newall and Co., at the Birkenhead Works, and is now ready for shipment. The 
screw steam-ships Impcrador, Impcratrix, and Bahiana, have been purchased by them 
for this peculiar service. The two former will receive about 1,000 miles each. In the 
fore-hold of each ship is a cylinder made of iron plates 81 ft. in diameter, and 14 ft. in. 
depth, which will receive one coil. In the after-hold is a cylinder 31 ft. broad by 10 ft. 
deep, which receives a second coil ; and between the main and lower decks is a 
cylinder 28 ft. in diameter by 4 ft. 6 in. deep. The deck has been cut through, to enable 
the cylinders to be placed in position. 

A New " Great Ocean Telegraph Company " has been established for con- 
necting Great Britain with America, by means of Allen's system of submarine wires. 
Direct communication between London and New York — by a line from the Land's End to 
Halifax — to be carried ultimately by Bermuda to Jamaica, and thence, by connecting 
line-, to the otlier West Indian Islands, the central States of America, and the Brazils. 
Weight per mile of the line, from Land's End to Halifax, 10 cwt. ; its specific gravity as 
low as 135, just sufficient to sink it very slowly, without any strain upon the rope while 
being paid out from the ship. Consists of one large solid copper wire, or conductor, 
wound round closely with fine iron wire. The whole enclosed in three thick coats of gutta 
percha, and bound round with strands of tarred string. 

A " Pantographic Telegraph " has (according to the " Journal of the Franklin 
Institute," of Pennsylvania,) been invented [?] and patented by Giovanni Caselli, of 
Florence, in Italy. The claim is for a mode of rapidly transmitting the fac-similes of 
writings, drawings, ciphers, and arbitrary signs, in coloured characters, upon ordinary 
white or chemically-prepared papers. Also the mode of transmitting different dispatches 
at the same time, and with a single wire. Aho the use of local piles, with circuit always 
closed, for the production of the characters in chemically-prepared paper. 

Permeability of Submarine Cables. — At a recent discussion of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers some interesting facts bearing on this question were brought to notice. 
From practical tests, made by Mr. John Macintosh, on portions of the Atlantic Cable 
(supplied with a potassium wire in lieu of copper) he discovered that by immersing it in 
water for a continuous period of twenty-three weeks, and subjecting it to a pressure of 
3 tons per square inch, it was perfectly insulated; but from this date the insulator 
appeared to deteriorate, and, at the twenty-fifth week, the moisture had reached the centre 
of the core, consequently decomposing the potassium. To obviate this difficulty, he 
immersed fresh pieces of cable in bisulphuret of carbon and the chloride of sulphur, 
which had the effect of closing up the pores and rendering the insulator thoroughly 
impervious to moisture — this, in fact, vulcanizing the insulating core to about 1-lGLh of its 
own thickness. In his new method of constructing telegraph cables, Mr. Macintosh relies, 
for imparting to them one material quality — viz., "perpetual isolation " — on the follow- 
ing process : — He applies to the insulating material [gutta percha or india rubber, incorpo- 
rated on its outer coating with fibre,] a pressure of from 6 to 8 lbs. per inch at the time it is 
encased round the copper conductor. This pressure is obtained by passing the conductor 
between a series of powerful double rollers, similar to the mode of manufacturing circular 
rods of iron— and it is to prevent abrasion that the fibres are used— producing a body of 
such consistency and power of resistance against any alteration of form, as with a pure 
insulating substance, as gutta percha or india rubber, alone is not attainable. The finished 
cable, on leaving the last rollers, passes through a body of cold vulcanizing liquid, which 
has the effect of hardening the surface, and thoroughly closes up the pores, besides render- 
ing the insulator proof against moisture and decomposition. 

It is stated, as a well-known fact, that the 50 miles of Atlantic Cable regained last 
autumn were found to be electrically unserviceable, although recovered from a depth of 
not more than 140 fathoms. 



48 



Notes and Novelties. 



r The Artizan, 
Llebru 



ruary 1, 1859. 



Melbourne and Hobart Town. — Up to the 27th December ult. the screw steam- 
ship Ormco, from London, with 240 miles of telegraph cable, intended to be laid between 
these points, continued to be lying in Plymouth Sound. 

Constantinople and Gallipoli are now united by a telegraphic cable. 

Cagliari [Island or Sardinia] and Malta. — A sudden stoppage of electrical 
communication between these places by the submarine wire (belonging to the Mediterranean 
Extension Telegraph Company) occurred during the afternoon of the 20th December ult., 
immediately after Cagliari had informed Malta that a violent hurricane was then blowing, 
and carrying everything before it ; supposed to be from some vessel dragging her anchor at 
Malta. This interruption involves a delay of telegraphic news from India of two or three 
days, the distance between Cagliari and Malta being 300 miles. A subsequent test of the 
line at Cagliari led to the opinion that the fracture is about midway. Search operations 
were commenced on the 10th January ult. by the Elba off Malta, when an entanglement 
was found at the mouth of the bay, supposed to have been caused by a ship's anchor. 
"Whether this has been the cause of the late interruption does not appear yet to have been 
ascertained, a gale of wind having for the moment prevented the further progress of 
operations. 

Isle of Syra [in the Greek Archipelago] and the Phalera Harbour, at the 
Pireus. The electric cable for this line has been successfully laid down. The point of 
departure is Ihe Tomb of Themistocles. Two English steamers did the work on the 10th 
December last. 

Consumption of Zinc and Acid for [American] Electro-Telegraphy. — 
It is estimated that to work 12,000 miles of telegraph (the American system is here in 
question) about 3, Oi'O zinc cups are used to hold the acid. These weigh about. 9,000 lbs., 
and are decomposed by galvanic action in about six months; so that 18,000 lbs. of zinc 
are consumed in a year. About 3,600 porcelain cups are used to contain nitric acid, 
requiring 450 lbs. of acid to charge them once ; and the charge is renewed every fortnight, 
making about 12.000 lbs. of nitric acid in a year. 

The Atlantic Cable. — It has been announced (1st January ult.) that on the 19th 
or 20th December last some very good currents through the Atlantic Cable had been re- 
ceived at Valentia, including the name " Henley." Simultaneously from Liverpool 
intelligence from Newfoundland reported the renewed receipt of distinct signals at the 
latter place. 

United States and Cuba. — Contracts are completed, and the works are to be 
immediately commenced at Savannah, Ga, for the construction of a telegraph line to 
Ferandina, Pla, thence by land to Cedar Keys, and from thence to Key West by a submarine 
cable. Prom the latter place a cable will also be laid to Cuba. The contractors were, 
according to the " Washington States," to leave New York (in December ult.) for the 
field of operations. The line to Key West would probably be completed by next summer, 
when it would be connected with Cuba as soon as the cable could be laid. The U.S. 
Government will thus have the means (considered as highly important) of prompt com- 
munication with their fleet now in the Gulf of Mexico, its head-quarters being at Key 
West. 

Australian Telegraph Extension.— The arrivals and departures (of vessels) 
at Sydney, Adelaide, and Melbourne, are now (advices to 15th November ult.) posted daily 
at the offices of the Electric Telegraph Departments in all three cities, for the convenience 
of the public; and thus each market is kept in constant communication with the other. 
In a few months Tasmania will also be brought within the circle. 

Sydney' to Melbourne and Adelaide.— The electric telegraph between these 
places was opened on the 2nd November ult., and the three lines (open to the free use of 
all classes) were reciprocally in full operation. The three Governors exchanged compli- 
mentary messages. 

A Heavy Thunderstorm, coming from the southward, so affected the telegraphic 
wires at Sydney as to stay for a time the transmission of messages between Sydney and 
Melbourne. 

Australia and New Zealand.— Late advices by the Australian Mail state that a 
survey for this junction has been made, that the report is favourable, and that by means of 
a submarine cable, length about 1,350 miles, cost estimated at £180,000, the two colonies 
will shortly be (electrically) united. 

Advices from Constantinople to the 5th January ult. state that the telegraph cable has 
heen successfully laid to Constantinople and the Dardanelles. The operations for its pro- 
longation to Candia and Egypt will be recommenced next spring. 

The Magnetic Telegraph Company's underground wires between Lsndon and 
Liverpool, which pass through Birmingham, Willenhall, and Wolverhampton, are being 
taken up, and will be replaced by new wires, to be carried along the turnpike-roads, but 
underground through the towns. 

Constantinople and Scutari.— Another submarine telegraph (it is also stated) 
will be laid between these points, the latter of which (Scutari) will be the head of the line 
to Bagdad. The Greek Chambers had voted 600,000 drachmas to connect Syra with the 
above telegraph communication. 

A Chess Match by Electric Telegraph has been played between the Liver- 
pool and Manchester Clubs. The moves commenced on the 12th January ult. The Man- 
chester players were located in a commodious room on the first floor of the Electric 
Telegraph Company, with an instrument close at hand, attended by a couple of clerks. 

Kagusa to Corfu, Zante, Candia, and Alexandria.— The question relative 
to this submarine telegraph line is now said to be definitely settled at Vienna between the 
British and Austrian Governments. It is supposed that the late accident to the Cagliari 
Cable induced the British Government to hasten the arrangements. 

MARINE STEAM ENGINEERING, SHIPBUILDING, &c. 
The Forty'-five Gunboats Housed in Ordinary' at Haslar, and the 
Slip-way". — That some of these once much-talked of boats are. in a rotten state appears, 
from all accounts, to be undeniable — the very natural results of using ill-seasoned material, 
combined with hurried and consequently imperfect workmanship in the construction, and 
to the ultimate locating of the boats, which are placed in a " high and dry position," 
exposed to a kind of baking process in sheds roofed with corrugated iron. But that the 
whole of them might, on an emergency, be speedily again brought into efficient condition 
and placed afloat for active service, is likewise a fact which, thanks to some alterations 
which are now nearly completed, is equally apparent. An improvement has been made on 
the first formation of the incline of slip-way, by which a very objectionable and unsafe 
"jump " will be dispensed with. A considerable depth of mud at the lake end of it has 
heen cleared away, forming a kind of basin, into or from which double the number of 
boats can be launched or hauled up in the same period of time as before, and with the 
same steam-appliances. An important addition has been made to the locomotive which 
draws the boats from the incline to the outside of their destined berths, or vice versa For- 
merly the engine travelled, with or without its load, at the rate of only 50 yards a minute, 
namely, it returned with the cradle at this slow pace, after having deposited the boat in the 
shed, or transferred her on to the launching line of rails. By the aaoption of a supple- 
mentary wheel, -which is easily thrown into gear when extra speed is required, this rate 
is now increased fourfold— that is, when the cradle is unladen,— the immense power and 
same speed being still available as heretofore when the cradle, has a boat on it : an 
important point, considering that the length of the traversing line of rails is exactly 
505 yards. In order, however, to render the gunboat slip-way at. Haslar perfectly avail- 
able should the sudden services of the gunboats be required, still further improvements are 
needed, such as the removal of the mud, not only from the portion at the end of the line, but 
the deepening of the entire channel of the lake, forming it in fact into a commodious basin, 



and the substitution for Haslar bridge of a swing one, so that the boats shall not " hang-up " 
there, nor have to wait as hitherto for "tides," but be enabled to proceed at once to their 
destination. 

Steamer Launches. — The Jeddo new iron screw-steamer, for the Peninsular and 
Oriental Company — builder, Laird, of Birkenhead — 23rd December ult.; burthen, 
2,500 tons; length 275 ft. ; two direct-acting engines of 450 H.P., by Napier, of Glasgow. 
"Will be fitted as the Pcra, Alma, and other vessels of same line. Destined for the 
Australian mail contract. 

The " Salto," Iron Steamer, for Monte Yideo, has recently been launched 
by Messrs. Thomson, of Glasgow. It has been built for the Company " Saltena," and is. 
intended to run between Monte Video and Salto, in the Uruguay river. Length between 
perpendiculars, 155 ft. ; breadth, 9 ft. ; with oscillating engines of 90 H.P. 

Portuguese YVar-Steamer Launch.— On the 8th January ult., a fine screw cor- 
vette, built for the Portuguese Government, was launched from the yard of Messrs. R. and 
H. Green, at Blackwall. She is a sister vessel of the ship that was built in the yard, and 
which conveyed the young Queen of Portugal, on her marriage, from Plymouth to Lisbon.. 
She is named Stephanie, after the Queen : wood-built, 1,600 tons burden, pierced for twenty 
guns ; witli large swivel howitzer on deck, and to be fitted with a screw, worked by engines 
of 400 H.P. 

A Steamer Collision, at Greenock, occurred 6 a.m. of the 8th January ult., in 
Cartsdyke Bay, eastward of Greenock, between the screw-steamer Emerald, 150 tons, and 
the screw-steamer Augustc- Louise, 115 tons, in which the latter vessel was so much 
injured that she settled down almost immediately. The Emerald (but .slightly damaged) 
tool; the crew of the Augustc- Louise on board, and proceeded to Ayr two hours after the 
collision. 

Steamboat Accidents in America. — Last year there were in the United States 
47 steamers sunk, 19 burnt, and 9 exploded ; 259 lives were lost, and property to the 
amount of 1,924,000 dollars was sacrificed, — and this on the western rivers alone. As 
compared, however, with the year 1857, there has been (in 1858) a decrease of about 11 pep 
cent, in the number of steamer accidents, and of 4J per cent, in the number of fatal 
casualties. 

Portland Harbour, [Maine, United States] the rumoured port selected 
for the Great Eastern, has been, from the first discovery of North America, known as the 
most commanding, safe, and accessible of the ports on the Atlantic coast. Por the accom- 
modation of ocean steamers, the city appropriated £12,000 to build suitable wharves, 
which are erected on the harbour-side of the Grand Trunk Railway. A channel is 
excavated, so that vessels drawing 30 fathoms of water can have access to them at any 
time of the tide. No port, charges, harbour dues, or lighthouse fees at this port. lis 
actual longitude being to the east of Boston and New York, gives considerable saving in 
sailing distance. From New York to Liverpool is 2,8e9 miles; from Boston, 2,720 ; and 
from Portland, only 2,640. 

The "Prince Albert" Steamer [Lever Line] made the run from land to 
land (from St. John's, Newfoundland, to Arran Island, Galway) in 5 days 16J hours, having 
sailed on the night of the 10th December ult. from St. John's, and arrived off Arran Island 
at night on the 16th December. 

The "Pera," with the heavy portion of the China and Calcutta, mails (due the 20th 
December ult.), recently lost her screw just after leaving Gibraltar. The Alhambra, Penin- 
sula steamer, took charge of her mails and passengers. The Bipon was sent to tow the 
Pcra home. 

The Screw Steamer, " Hood," Line-of-I?attle Ship, 90 guns. Great efforts 
are being made at Chatham dockyard to complete this vessel, which has been on the stocks 
several years. 

The American Steam Navy'.— The President, in his recent message to Congress, 
(delivered 6th December ult.), recommends an increase of steamers of light draught, in 
addition to the eight built last year. The cost of the " Navy Department," from the recent 
report, of the Secretary for the year ending June, 1858, was 13,870,684 dollars. 

The " London," 90 guns.it is understood, is to be converted into a screw-steamer, the 
Lords of the Admiralty having sent to the Devonport dockyard for a return of the cost of 
so converting her. 

The Steam Navy of Great Britain in 1859.— The official annual return (published 
1st January ult.) of the number of guns and tonnage of the whole of the vessels in the British 
Navy gives, at the beginning of 1859, 523 vessels, including screw-steamers of even- 
description, exclusive of which there are 167 gunboats. The Channel squadron is composed 
of the following screw-steamers: — the Boi/al Albert, 121 ; the Orion, 91 ; the Benown, 91 ; 
the Brunswick, 89 ; and the Bacoon, 22. The powerful steam reserve in harbour at 
Chatham and Sheerness consists of 36 line-of- battle screw-steamers, floating batteries, 
steam frigates, and other smaller vessels, all of which could be equipped for sea at the 
shortest possible notice. There are also 11 line-of-battle screw-steamers of from 80 to 131 
guns each, building at the several royal dockyards, together with 15 other screw- 
steamers, all in various stages of progress. The majority of steam gunboats, nearly the 
whole of which are described as ready for service, are of 60 H.P. 

Steam Communication with Jamaica [Extension]. — A Bill for this object is 
now before the Legislative Council of the Island. 

The Galway" Steamers to America. The Lord-Lieutenant has again been 
waited upon by a deputation (consisting of peers and members of Parliament, the Lord 
Mayor and Lord Mayor elect of Dublin, members of the Dublin council, bankets, mer- 
chants, tec.) on the subject of the Galway Packet line. To the solicitation for Government 
support to the Lever enterprise His Excellency returned, as before, a gracious but guarded 
reply, expressing his well-wishes towards the undertaking, but intimating that there were 
difficulties in the way, and other parties to be consulted " before a subsidy could be granted 
by Government for the purpose of bolstering up a commercial enterprise." 

The Liverpool (Inman's) and the " Canadian " Mail Steamers.— A 
correspondence between Mr. Inman, the proprietor of the City of Manchester, and other 
screw-steamers running from Liverpool to New York, and the Postmaster-General has- 
been placed recently in the Liverpool News Room, and excited a good deal of attention. 
Mr. Inman states that he is under contract with the Postmaster of the United States to 
carry the United States mails every fortnight from Liverpool. The Postmaster-General 
at London replies that he was aware such was the case, and that arrangements had been 
made to send the mails in the u-ual form by Mr. Inman's steamers, but that lately a 
communication had been received from the United States Postmaster, to the effect that 
a contract had been entered into with the proprietors of the Canadian steamers, and that 
the mails were to be sent by those steamers when they sailed from this country. 

The Russian Steamer Dnieper, formerly the Dutchman (Russian Navigation- 
Company, from London to Odessa), struck, 4th January ult., on a rock, 10 miles north east 
of Gallipoli, within the Dardanelles. Nearly a total loss. 

The Gunboat " Shamrock " steamed outside Plymouth Sound, on the 8th January 
ult., to try her engines. 

The New Screw Steam-Frigate "Forte" is being fitted in No. 2 Dry dock, 
Sheerness. 

The "Franklin," formerly reckoned as a 74, is now rebuilding into a screw of 5i 
guns, at Portsmouth. 

Of Steam Line-of-Battle Ships carrying from 60 to 131 guns, and propelled by 
force varying from 200 to 700 H.P., England has 52, Prance, 33 ; Holland, 1 ; Austria, 1. 

"War Steamers at present (1859) building for the British Navy.— 
From the official quarterly return just published by the Lords of the Admiralty, it appears 
that there are eleven line-of-battle ships, with an aggregate of 1,133 guns, now being built 



The Artizan, "I 
February 1, 1859. J 



Notes and Novelties. 



49 



iit the several royal dockyards — many of them in a forward state for launching — viz., 
at, Portsmouth, the Duncan, 100 ; the Royal Frederick, 116; the Prince of Wales, 131 ; 
the Victoria, 121 ;— tit Devonport, the Gibraltar, 101 ; — at Chatham, the Atlas, 91 ; the 
Hood, 90 ; and Irresistible, 80 ; — at Pembroke, the Hone, 121 ; the Defiance, 91 ; and the 
Revenge, 91. There are also fourteen first-class screw steam frigates and corvettes on the 
stocks, including the Aurora, 51 guns ; the ImmortaHle, .50 guns, at Pembroke ;— the War- 
<issus, 50 ; and the Jason, 21, at Plymouth ; — the Ariadne. 82, atDeptford; the Galatea, 
24; and the Darossa 22, at Woolwich ;— and the Churybdis, 22; and Orpheus, 21, at 
Chatham, 

The Steam-Liner Navy of France (War Ships of the First Class) 
consists now (1859) of six 84's, sixty long 30-pounders, and fifty -four 30-pounder 
Paixhan's, 

The "Emperor," 100, is the only Austrian Screw Liner now afloat, though 
two others are building— one at. Venice and one at Pola. 

The Chatham and Sheerness Steam-Reserve.— A return recently made of 
the line-of-battle steamers and other vessels comprising the steam-reserve at these places, 
shows that there are at present in reserve 8 line-of-battle screw-steamers, 4 floating bat- 
teries, 6 screw-corvettes, and 18 steam-frigates, and other vessels — viz. (attached to the 
steam-reserve): The Royal George, 102 ; Hero, 91; Cress;/, 80; Mars, 80; Colossus. 80; 
Meeanee, 80; Majestic, 80; Amphion, 36 ; Sc.ylla, 21 ; Cadnms, 21; Goliath. 80; Eme- 
rald, 51 ; Bacchante, 51 ; Challenger, 21 ; Clio, 21 ; Scott, 21 ; Cossach, 20 ; Malacca, 17 ; 
Fanrn, 17; Etna, 16; Thunderbolt, 16. Floating-batteries :— The Miranda, 15; Thunder, 
14; Trusty, 14; Eurotas, 12; Victor, 6; Phatnix, 6; Dragon, 6; Driver, 6; Alacrity, 
4; Foxhound, 4; Snake, 4; Reynard, 4 ; Wrangler, 3; Fearless, 3; Locust, 3; (Fyc, 3. 
Agnregate tonnage, 100,000 tons; number of guns, 1,113. 

French War Steamers now building.— During the last seven years the number 
of French steam-ships of war has been more than double (being 114 in January, 1852, and 
230 in January, 1859), and the number of steam line-of-battle ships raised from 2 to 32. 
At the present moment 8 ships of the line and 25 frigates and smaller vessels are building 
in the French dockyards. Thp line-of-battle ships are — the Intrepidc, Villc dc Bordeaux, 
Villcde Lyon, Gloire, Invincible, and Normnndic, of 900 H.P. each, and the Massena and 
Castiglione, 800 each. The Gloire, Invincible, and Normandie are to be sheathed with 
thick iron plates. Two other ships of the line, the Fricdland and the Bayard, are to be 
converted into screws. 

A Screw Steamer for the Baltic Trade is now building by Messrs. Earle, Hull, 
1,000 tons burthen, as also two small steam-tugs for the Liverpool and Leeds Steam 
Navigation Company. 

Some Large Steamers for the Atlantic Royal Mail Company are now 
building by Martin Samuelson and Co., iron shipbuilders, of Hull. They are of equal 
size, viz. :— length, 330 ft.; beam, 38 ft.; depth, 24 ft.; nominal H.P., 600; on paddle 
principle; guaranteed speed, 20 miles per hour in still water. 

Lifeboats. A gentleman from the Government of the Canton of Geneva (M. Antoine 
Mermilliod), has just come over tn this country, with introductions to the Royal Humane 
Society, in order to obtain a. lifeboat for the Lake of Geneva. He has, in accordance 
with the instructions of his Government, intrusted the superintendence of her construction 
to Frederic Youni, Esq., C.E., under whom she will be built and equipped by the Messrs. 
Forrestt, the well-known lifeboat builders, of Limehouse. 

The Mail-steamer " Queen," from Calais, in proceeding for Dover Harbour (20th 
January ult.), grounded on the rocks near the South Pier, but was afterwards got into the 
Harbour, when her stern compartment filled, and her stern remained submerged. 

The French Steamer "Madinia" has, according to accounts from Bona of the 
3rd January ult., been totally lost on the rocks oft' that place during the late disastrous 
gales in the Mediterranean. 

The " Trafalgar," 120, sailing line-of-battle ship, which is being altered into a 
91-gun screw-steamer, at Chatham dockyard, has a large number of shipwrights employed 
in getting her keel into place. Preparations are now being made for the reception of htr 
machinery (800 H.P.l by the beginning of March. 

The Largest Iron Vessel ever built at Liverpool. — The "Slieve 
Donard," 1,450 tons burthen, classed A 1 for 12 years, built for Sinclair and Son, of 
Belfast, for the India trade, was launched (20th January ult.) by Messrs. Vernon and Son, 
from the yard, Liverpool. 

MILITARY ENGINEERING, &c. 
The New Gun-carriage, recntly finished in the carriage department of the Wool- 
wich Arsenal, for mounting the curious ornamental piece of ancient ordnance (supposed to 
have been a wall-piece at the entrance of the Royal residence of the former Kajahs of 
Sarawak, and now destined for the Royal Armoury at Windsor Palace) has been pro- 
nounced one of the most perfect specimens of the (carriage-building) art hitherto turned 
out of the Arsenal. The limber, carriage, wheels, &c, are made of solid Spanish ma- 
hogany, and are elaborately decorated with ornamental and filigree work in bronze-leaf. 
The wheels edged and capped with bronze, dolphin-pattern. Woodwork highly polished 
and varnished, and cemented together with such precision that it is difficult to discern the 
spots where the timbers are brought together. Designed and manufactured by Mr. Morris, 
the master-wheelwrisht in the carriage department of the Arsenal. 

French Gunboats [Novel Construction].— Orders, it is asserted, have reached 
Toulon from Paris, to build eight new gunboats immediately. These boats will be so 
made as to take to pieces, like a dissected map, and be readily put together again. 

Armstrong's Long-range Guns v. Floating Batteries. — On the 5th 
January ult., the Trusty floating-battery underwent at Shoeburyness flat the test of Arm- 
strong's 32-pounder long-range gun, fired from the May Flower steam gunboat, at 
ranges varying from 200 to 400 yards. The gun, which loads at the breech, was charged 
with a 61b. cartridge, and one of Armstrong's newly-invented shot, about 10i in 
long and about 4 in. in diameter, covered with lead, the outer-end much resembling the 
circular end of Hall's rockets, others of tl;e shot form a square of about an inch and a 
half. Barrel of the gun, rifle-fluted down to the chamber. Target marked chequered, 
taking in three parts of the broadside. Some common shot were fired, none of which 
exceeded 400 yards,— and started the plate-bolts, woodwork inside the plates, beam-knees, 
decks, &c. Several rounds from one of the newly-invented shot, steel pointed, were then 
fired. A subsequent careful examination of her hull has shown that only two or three of 
the Armstrong-shots appear to have done any very serious amount of damage. In one 
instance, the thick iron plate at the side was split, and the ball penetrated through the 
woodwork; and two other shots penetrated the iron sides of the battery, the majority, 
however, having made but trifling impression on the ship's side. Another' trial, of a lar-er 
description of shot, is to be made, on a floating battery, which will be put to a much severer 
test. 

The 12-pounder at Shoeburyness passed, at 800 yards distance, one of the 
newly-invented [Armstrong's] shot through a solid body of oak-timber 9 ft. thick. 

Manufacture of Gunpowder.— A fatal explosion occurred recentlv at the Gun- 
powder Mills of Messrs. Curtis and Co., at Hounslow. A workman was engaged mixing 
and making powder at a table with what is called a " paddle," that is, an instrument made 
of copper, with a long handle attached, which is used to rub down the composition 
W hile he was employed, one of the other men (who narrowly escaped with his life) saw, as 
be states a spark come from the " paddle," and, immediately, the explosion took place 
J; our mills were destroyed, the whole being shattered to pieces. One man was killed, and 
two others injured. The operation which occasioned the accident can, it is stated be as 
well performed by the composition being in a wet as in a dry stated; it is therefore sug- 
gested that the " paddle " shall be so formed as to act as a syringe by means of a sprin" 



placed at the top of the handle, so that the "paddle" can be kept constantly diichai-Mn? 
water, the quantity being left to the discretion of the operator, wfio would have control ove? 
it by the spring or tap. 

Terry's Breech-loading Rifle having passed the tests of the Small-Arm Com- 
mittee, is, by order of the Secretary of State for War, to be supplied immediately to several 
cavalry regiments. The carbine, it is stated, may be loaded with facility at the time of a 
horse being at full gallop, because neither biting the cartridge nor a ramrod is required, 
and there is no risk of blowing off the hand while loading. 

French Artillery Operations at Sebastopol.— General Niel, of the French 
Engineers, in his lately published "Journal of the Operations of the Siege of Sebastopol " 
states, that during the siege, which lasted 334 days, the French artillery threw into the 
town 510,000 round-shot, 236,000 shells from howitzers, 350,000 shells from mortars, and 
8,000 rockets : during the war tne French infantry fired 25,000,000 of cartridges. 

The Paris Military School [Ecole Militaire] is, by an Imperial Decree 
about to be considerably enlarged. The works of the new buildings, which will stand on 
the Place Fontenoy and the Avenue de Saxe, are to be begun immediately. 

The Castle at Milan, which is in the midst of the city, has been declared a 
fortress, and the owners of the adjacent houses have received notice that their tenements 
are liable to be demolished at the requisition of the military engineers. 

Scuttling a Burning Vessel by Artillery.— The Isaac Wright, emigrant 
vessel, took fire in the Mersey, 23rd December ult. All the passengers bavin" been safelv 
brought off by the tugs, and the engines brought to play on the vessel appearing to have no 
effect on the fire, which seemed every moment to increase instead of bein" subdued the 
burning ship was brought as close to the shore as the state of the tide would permit ; and an 
application was made to Captain Mends, of H.M.S. Hastings, for the purpose of having 
the ship fired into, as the more speedy and effectual means of scuttling her. This was done 
and the vessel was soon sunk, but in such a position that at low water she was left hi»h and 
dry. The " Liverpool Post " subsequently (1st Jan.) adds .— " Strange to say, now that she 
lies dry, it is apparent that not a single shot (the guns were fired into her at a short ran^e) 
penetrated her hull;" and suggests the question, "Of what use are such guns in naval 
warfare, and more particularly when war-ships are built of stouter timber than the 
merchant service ? " 

The Fortifications of Dover Harbour, lately visited for the purpose by Sir J 
Burgoyne, are to be considerably strengthened and improved. His plan for a more com- 
plete and comprehensive fortification of the harbour and its surrounding coast, will be 
shortly carried out. 

Prussian War Ports, &c, in the Baltic— A fortified harbour is to be con- 
structed in the capacious Eastern Bight (Bodden) of the Isle of Riigen, and a communica- 
tion is to be opened with the Baltic, by cutting through the Northern Sandbank into 
the exterior bay, or Tromper Wick. Prussia, ever since the campaign in Holstein 
feeling the necessity of creating a fleet in the Baltic, is now making the aitempt in 
earnest. ' 

Battery Practice.— Long-range Floating Target.— The Trusty, 14, floating 
battery, has been (January ult.) towed from Chatham to Shoeburyness bv the African and 
Adder steam-vessels, to be moored several miles out at sea, to serve as a floating target for 
the guns from the long-range practising battery at Shoeburyness. 

..;, R ? Y ' S New Breech -loading Gun (noticed in a recent number of our Journal) 
still continues to be experimented upon at Chatham, and has lately attracted mucli atten- 
tion. I he gun is made to fire ten rounds per minute; and on one occasion fifty rounds 
were fired in seven seconds less than five minutes, the shot at each discharge striking an 
object placed at 100 yards distance. An opening at the breech admits a current of air to 
pass through the gun, thus effectually preventing the heating of cannon caused (on the 
old system} by incessant firing. A model, of larger dimensions than the first, is in pre- 
paration at the establishment at Brompton. It is to be of brass, with wrouuht-iron casings 
(the former one was wholly of brass), 18 in. in length, the interior of the bore being rifled 
on the Enfield-nfle principle; the bail to be the conical-shaped rifle bullet, covered with a 
composition coating of a peculiar character. The balls (according, at least, to the inven- 
tor s confident belief) are to be thrown (ten per minute) fully 2 miles, doing effective 
execution at 1,000 yards. Entire weight of the gun, 10 lbs.; the muzzle capable of being 
pointed in any direction without moving the carriage. 

The New " Elongated Rifle-shot," the invention of Captain Norton, is slated, 
to possess several important advantages over the conical rifle-balls now in use, there being 
no ' plug ' in the base, and the ball being coated with paper, whereby the great amount 
ot friction which prevails in the propulsion of the bullet from the barrel is considerably 
lessened. , 

iJ''^, Vendee.— A fort is immediately to be constructed on the Hill of Pierre Levee, in 
the Isle Dieu, m La Vendee. The works will costs 900,000 francs. 

A Aew Battery, it has been decided by the War Office, is to be erected on the 
Lighthouse Island at the Mumbles, in Swansea Bay. It is to be a powerful one, armed 
with heavy guns, and destined to protect the numerous shipping which run into the road- 
stead for shelter. Colonel Vicars, in 1854, surveyed this site, which during the last war 
with the French was used by the Admiralty as a rendezvous for the merchantmen of 
the whole British Channel, whence the vessels were escorted to various parts by men- 
of-war. J 

New Batteries at Tilbury Fort and Gravesend are, by order of the War 
Department, to be erected forthwith. Notice has been issued for tenders for constructing 
the requisite gun-sheds, &c. 

HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING, &c. 
B\ the New "Hydraulic Lift" a speedy and efficacious means of docking and 
undocking a ship for the purpose of examination, during all phases of the tide, in about 
two hours, is aft'jrded. The plan consists in sinking a hollow buoy, or pontoon, under the 
ship to be docked, and afterwards raising the buoy, ship and all, bodilvout of the water by 
hydraulic power. The pontoon having become clear of water, the valves are closed— one 
watertight— and the apparatus towed away to some suitable position, with the ship on it- 
high and dry. The Victoria Dock Company have lately adopted it. Their graving-dock 
works, recently completed for this purpose, occupy about 10 acres of water Dry"docks 
on the old system could only be entered or left at high water; and the consequent delay 
was frequently productive of great loss and inconvenience. 

Ihe Hydraulic Ram, now in general use for operations requiring extra motive 
power, is considered to be the most ready, simple, and effective mode of concentrating the 
action of mechanical forces. 

WATER SUPPLY— (METROPOLITAN AND PROVINCIAL). 

City of London Public Drinking Fountains.— At a Special Court of Common 
Council, held 20th December ult., it was (on the motion of Mr. Anderton) referred to the 
City Lands Committee to examine and report upon the desirabilit) of erecting, for the 
benefit of the working and labouring classes, drinking fountains within the Citv of London 
with power to confer with the Commissioners of Sewers thereon, and, if necessary the 
Metropolitan Board of Works; likewise as to the best sites, the cost, annual expens'e of 
maintenance, &c. The advantages which had accrued to the people of Liverpool Derby 
and other large towns, from similar erections, were alluded to. 

In Marylebone, Public Drinking Fountains are, by resolution of the Local 
.Representative Council (1st January ult.), to be erected, in compliance with the beneficent 
proposition of Mr. Gurney, noticed in our last, to erect four of such fountains at his own 
expense, the vestry naming suitable sites. These sites, as finally selected, are— Re«ent- 
circus, Oxford-street, Edgware-road (near Chapel-street), Marylebone-road (opposite 
Trinity Church), and Clarence-gate (Regent's-park). The water to be provided and the 



50 



Notes and Novelties. 



[" The Artizav, 
[.February 1, 1859. 



fountains maintained in perpetuity at the expense of Mr. Gurney ; the lighting to be paid 
for by the vestry. The water is to be passed and filtered through a bed of charcoal, so as 
to be thoroughly pure (?) 

The Tirst Metropolitan Drinking Fountain will, therefore, be erected at 
the Regent-circus, opposite the Rest, on the St. James's side. 

The Sinking of an Artesian Well was, at the Parochial Representative 
Council, above alluded to, suggested (by Mr. W. Williams, M.P.) as the only way to obtain 
pure water for these drinking fountains, " as no pure water could, at present, be obtained 
from any of the public companies;" the only plan was to dig down below the blue 
clay into the chalk formation of London. 

At Bristol, Mr. Robert Lang has offered to give .£1 00 towards the erection of a drink- 
ing fountain to be erected opposite the Fine Arts Academy, near the Victoria Rooms, 
Queen's-road. 

London and Paris [compared]. — London is at present supplied with water by 
ten independent companies. Chief sources of supply — the River Thames and River Lea. 
The first supplies five of the companies daily with 35,372,782 gallons; the latter supplies 
two of the companies daily with 41,000,000 gallons. The remaining three companies take 
their supply (4,653,000 gallons) from the River Ravensbourne, and the ponds and chalk 
wells of Hampstead, Plumstead, and Woolwich. Steam-power (applied to pumping) em- 
ployed for its distribution, nominal H.P., 7,254. Length of mains and branches, 
2,086 miles. Area of subsidy reservoirs, 141 acres ; of filter-beds, 40 acres. Number of 
houses supplied, 328,561. Gross quantity supplied per day, 81,025,842 gallons. Entire 
cost of the several works, in 1S56, was .£7,102,823; showing, for every pound expended, 
a daily supply of 11-4 gallons. 

PARIS. — Sources of supply (expense of works and distribution defrayed by the Muni- 
cipality) : — 1. The Canal d'Ourcque, by gravitation, it being 52 metres above the level of 
the sea, and about 20 metres above the lowest point of Paris. 2. From the River Seine, 
whence it is pumped by steam-engines, and raised to the varied height of 75-30, 72, and 
66 - 24 metres above the level of the sea ; and to 43-30, 40, and 34-24 metres above the lowest 
levels of Paris. 3. From the artesian well of Grenelle, the basin of which is 90 metres above 
the level of the sea. 4. From the aqueduct of Arcueil, the reservoir of which is 5739 metres 
above the level of the sea. And 5. From the sources to the north, at a much greater eleva- 
tion, and which furnish but little water. Total length of the principal conduits, 218,213 
metres ; of the smaller pipeage, 190,048 metres, or to a total of 408,254 lineal metres, or 
about 253-6 English miles. Length of conduits of the water d'Ourcque, 281 ,525 metres ; 
of all the others, 126,729 metres. Whole length of the streets of Paris, about 400,000 
metres, which is less than the extent of pipeage ; but their are many streets without water, 
while there are several others with a double pipeage. During the hot weather of last year the 
water-consumption rose to about 120,000 metres cube— viz., froml'Ourcque, aboutl00,000 
metres cube ; and from other sources, 20,000 metres cube. Daily supply, about 24 gallons 
to each individual inhabitant, or 26,350,000 gallons, the quantity of water daily sent into 
Paris. 

Thames Water— Periodical Test.— At a recent meeiing of the Metropolitan 
Board of Works, the Main-Drainage Committee reported {inter alia) that they, the Com- 
mittee, had entered upon the consideration of the reference of the Board, instructing them 
to report as to the best means for ascertaining the flow of water over Teddington Lock, 
and, approximately, the quantity of fresh water from the tributaries of the Thames 
between Teddington and Barking, more particularly in dry weather ; and as to the most 
effectual means for ascertaining, from time to time, the chemical condition of the water, 
and depth of mud in the Thames, at various points of the river. 

Fresh Water for Ships at Sea. — By direction of the Board of Admiralty, 
some highly-interesting experiments have recently been made at Portsmouth to test the 
relative merits of the apparatus invented by Sir R. Grant, and that of Dr. Normandy, of 
London. The first experiment was made (15th January ult.) on board the Sphynx, in the 
steam basin. The quantity of water produced by Dr. Normandy's apparatus was 92 
gallons, with a specified quantity of coals. With same quantity of fuel, under same 
••onditions, and with same boiler, Sir R. Grant's apparatus (under the superintendence of 
Mr. Miller, of the condensing department), on board the Erebus (20th January ult.), pro- 
duced only 32 gallons of water. The difference in the quality of the water produced is 
this, that Sir R. Grant's is purely distilled water, whereas the other becomes aerated in 
the process of distillation, and is perfectly cold and fit for use when it leaves the apparatus. 
At present, we believe, all the large war-steamers are fitted with Sir R. Grant's apparatus. 

BOILER EXPLOSIONS. 
A Fatal Locomotive Boiler Explosion, attended with the loss of two lives 
(the engineer and his son, a boy 9 or 10 years of age), and severe injury (scalding, &c.,) to 
three others, occurred 20th December ult , on the Hetton railway, county of Durham. The 
locomotive was an old engine— the oldest on the line, or in the employment of the Company, 
The railway plates were torn up for some distance, and broken to pieces. The deaths of 
the engineer and his son were instantaneous, their bodies being blown nearly 100 yards 
from the spot. 

A Boiler Alarum, says the " Scientific American," has been contrived by Alexander 
Miller, of Cleveland, U. S. A ball floats on the surface of the water inside of steam-boilers, 
and rises or falls as the level of the water varies. A whistle is blown hy the escaping steam 
whenever the water falls below the tubes, so as to endanger an explosion when cold water 
is suddenly introduced. 

Demerara. — A fearful accident occurred (16th December ult.) on Plantation Lu- 
signan, East coast, by the boiler of the draining-engine exploding, in consequence of the 
engineer incautiously introducing cold water into the boiler when it was heated and nearly 
empty. Engine-house destroyed, and four men (including the engineer) killed on the spot, 
besides a number of others severely injured. 

GAS ENGINEERING— (HOME AND FOREIGN). 

A Remarkable Gas Explosion occurred Sunday morning, about half-past 6, 
in West Percy Street, North Shields, whereby the residence of Mr. Walter Mitchell, ship- 
owner, was nearly reduced to a wreck. The chandelier in the back parlour had been 
pulled beyond the water joint, and had leaked all the preceding night, the gas not having 
been turned off at the meter. In the morning the servant-girl had gone into the parlour 
with a lighted candle; the consequent explosion knocked the girl down, smashed through 
a partition wall, and burst the windows of both the back and front parlours into the street, 
smashing every article of furniture in its progress. In a bedroom it tore away the curtains 
from a bed, set fire to the paper on the wall, and, bursting out of the bedroom window 
pitched a looking-glass and other articles to the opposite side of the street; but the 
inmates escaped comparatively unhurt, though the panels were forced out of the doors and 
the roof injured. 

London Gaslights.— At a recent court (11th January ult.) of the City Commis- 
sioners of Sewers the unsatisfactory state of the gas supply and lamps throughout the City 
formed one of the subjects of complaint, several members stating that the gas supplied to 
private houses, as well as to the public lamps, had lately been deficient in quantity and 
inferior in quality, notwithstanding that the last year or two the Commission had paid 
a much larger amount than formerly for lighting purposes ; that the amount of light in the 
public lamps had not exceeded that of the old oil-lamp in many instances ; and that the 
lanterns were in such a filthy state that the little light they contained was nearly obscured, 
&c, &c. The clerk was ordered to call the attention of the contracting company to the 
matter by letter. 

The Lighting of. the Corona of the Dome of St Paul's Cathedral 
with jets of gas has, for the special evening services, beeu (officially) stated to cost £1 
per hour. 



An Experimental Monster Gas Arrangement, for improving the lighting- 
up of Covent Garden Market, has been erected by order of the Duke of Bedford, and (21st 
January ult.) lighted for the first time. The new light consists of a number of gas-jets 
around a central pillar. It is apparently too concentrated and, in proportion to the 
space lighted, will probably be found too expensive. 

A New [Borough of Marylebone] Gas Consumers' Company has been 
started, designed to supply the district in question with gas of superior quality at 4s. per 
1,000 ft. The works will be at Greenford, about 3 miles from Harrow. 
AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY. 

A Guideway - Steam- Agriculture Company [Hackett's Patent] is being formed. 
The system, by which the whole series of agricultural operations has been performed, 
requires the farm to be worked upon to be completely, regularly, and systematically laid 
with railway lines, on which carriages are drawn by steam-power, to which carriages the 
ploughs or other machines intended to be used are fixed ; in other words, it consists " in 
laying down, at intervals of 50 ft. or more, permanent guideways or rails, by which 
means a locomotive cultivator, carrying the motive power, is supported and guided ; and to 
the under-side of which are attached the various implements to be used. On the headlands 
are other rails at right angles to the former, upon which a shunting or traversing carriage 
moves, by which means the cultivator is transferred from one set of rails to another, or is 
brought to the homestead, where the engines can be used for tin-ashing, or other barn opera- 
tions. The estimated cost (stated to be based on work which has already been repeatedly 
performed) is as follows: Annual rent of the rails put down at £1 4s. per acre per annum for 
a farm of 700 to 1,000 acres, or£l 10s. for market-ground near London ; cost of the engines 
and implements set off against the same for horses, not one quarter of the same by horse- 
power; cost of the guideway or rails, in creosoted timber, £10 per acre; in hard brick 
and angle-iron, £20 per acre. 

Movable Iron-huts for Rook Boys have been recently exhibited at Dover. 
The material is corrugated iron ; the form circular, with a diameter of 2 ft. 8 in ; and 
about 5 ft. high, running on two wheels, with barrow-handles, and so light that a child 
may wheel it from one part of the farm to another. 

BRIDGES, VIADUCTS, &c. 

The Suspension Bridge over the Seine, at Evky, which had been just 
completed, fell recently with a tremendous crash. This bridge was intended to unite the 
villages of Loisy-sous-Etoiles and Evry, in the arrondissement of Corbeil. Workmen 
were employed in placing on the bridge a great amount of weight, necessary to test its 
strength, and eight of them were still on it when a loud crash was heard: an iron rod gave 
way, and the whole structure fell into the river, carrying with it the eight men, who, 
however, by timely aid were all got out of the water, one having a leg fractured, and the 
others being severely contused. 

The large Railway Bridge near Creutznach fell on the night of the 28th 
December ult., in consequence of the inundations of the Nahe river. 

The Deepdale Viaduct, thrown over a precipitous valley intersecting the South 
Durham and Lancashire Union Railway, has just been completed. Designed by T. Bouch, 
Esq., C.E., of Edinburgh, the engineer to the line. Structure (with exception of founda- 
tion), wholly of iron. Foundation stone laid in 1857. First column erected 12th August, 
1858. Last girder fixed 2nd December. Viaduct 220 yards long, and 155 ft. high. Contains 
from 500 to 600 tons of cast-iron: of wrought-iron 300 tons; the whole of which was 
erected without scaffolding of any kind, in less than fourmonths: not the slightest accident 
occurring, a fact almost unprecedented in similar works. Contractors for the iron-work, 
Messrs. Gilkes, Wihon, and Co., of Middleborough-on-Tees. For the masonry, Mr. 
Appleby, of Barnard Castle. 

The Beelah Viaduct will not be commenced until the middle of the present year. 

The Lune Valley Railway' Viaduct, of whhh the first stone has just been 
laid, is situated at Low Gill, and is to be called the Dillicar Viaduct. Engineer, J. E. 
Errington. To consist of 11 arches of 45 ft. span, more than 100 ft. in height, and con- 
taining upwards of 4011,000 cubic ft. of masonry. Contractor, Mr. Buxton. 

The " Victoria and Pimlico Railway- Bridge" across the Thames is in 
rapid progress. The cofferdams for the abutments and piers are being erected ; and nearly 
40,000 cubic ft. of timber have already been driven tor that purpose, by two steam pile- 
engines and eight smaller ones. The sites of all the piers have been dredged down to the 
clay by steam-dredgers. Nearly 10,000 cubic ft. of stone are now upon the ground. The 
foundations have been put in for the abutment on the north side of the embankment lead- 
ing to Chelsea suspension bridge, and in a short time they will be brought up to the 
surface of the ground. 

The Railway - Bridge of Kasr Zay'AT across the Nile must be finished by 
June, 1860. It is a splendid work, and bids fair to be one of the wonders of the modern 
world. 

A Light Hunter's Bridge, of timber, and for the accommodation of the hunters, 
about a mile below the town of Berkeley, has lately been erected by Sir Maurice Berkeley. 
About 108ft. long, on poles; width (at centre), 26 ft.; draws back on one of the ap- 
proaches like a telescope, to allow of shipping passing to and fro ; and is only put across 
on hunting days. It takes one man three minutes to work it over. 

The Saltash Railway Bridge, near Plymouth, is in a forward state. The land 
piers are now completed on the east side of the river, and preparations are being made to 
hoist the roadway girders on them, thus completing the outline of the bridge from east to 

HARBOURS, DOCKS, CANALS, &c. 

The "Madras Irrigation and Canal Company" " have obtained the Govern- 
ment guarantee of a minimum interest of 5 per cent., and an Act of Incorporation. 

New Docks at Greenwich, in connexion with the South-Eastern Railway, are 
announced. Proposed site, between Greenwich and Woolwich, adjoining the Angerstein 
Branch of the South Eastern Railway, and having entrances from the Thames at Green- 
wich on the west, and Charlton on the east. The entrances to consist of locks, 90 feet 
and 50 feet in width. The three docks first to be constructed will comprise an area of 
about 48 acres of deep water, in addition to which land will be taken for quays, graving- 
docks, warehouses, timber-ponds, &c. Total length of frontage for dock-quays, about 
9,200 feet. Cost estimated at £500,000, or £10,418 per acre of water. A steam-ferry, in 
connexion with these docks, is to afford convenient access, by means of the Blackwall Rail- 
way, from the eastern district of London. 

Dock Accidents to Shipping, and Compensation.— The Mersey Dock Board 
have recently awarded payment of two sums (£306 and £3 15s.) as compensation claimed 
by two firms for damage sustained by vessel owned by the latter. On the 7th October, the 
vessels were lying in the Canada Dock, when, in consequence of a defective mooring-ring, 
they got adrift, and the wind being high, they came in violent contact with the masonry. 

Two Lofty Travelling Cranes, to cost £500, for loading-carts, &c, have been 
ordered for the same docks. It is believed that from the unusual height of these new 
machines, and from the ground being less encumbered than with ordinary cranes, the traffic 
of i he docks will be greatly facilitated. 

Liverpool Docks (Extension).— On the 15th January ult., the new Dock Board 
resolved, at a special meeting, to apply to Parliament for power to borrow £300,000, for 
the purpose of improving and extending the Liverpool Docks. 

Milford (New) Docks. -To improve this place as a port of arrival and departure, 
docks are to be constructed on an extensive scale. Hubber»tone Pill, in the first instance, 
is to be inclosed at an expense of £100,000. A Company has been formed for the purpose. 
Steam communication is to be established between Milt'ord, Neyland, the dockyard angle, 
and Dale, with steam-tugs for the harbour. 



The Artizax, 
February 1, 1859.. 



Notes and Novelties. 



51 



Hakin. — The present dry-dock at this place is also being enlarged. 

The " Napoleon Docks " (a speculation hitherto remarkable alike for its boldness 
and the misfortunes of its early career) have again some chance of resuscitation, M. Emile 
de Girardin having accepted, without salai-y, the post of manager. He proposes to buy up 
the old shares of 125 fr., which have lately been fetchingonly 40 fr. in the market, at 65 fr. 
for money, or to give shares in the newly-organised Company at the rate of 85 fr. 

THE Erie Canal. — The Governor of the State of New York (advices to 5th January 
ult.) proposes in his recent annual message to deepen the whole of the channel of the Erie 
canal to the depth of 7 feet, and leave the portion not yet completed at a width of 45 feet, 
likewise to secure 6 feet of water on the Erie, Oswego, and Cayuga and Seneca canals, and 
proceed witli the permanent work through Cayuga marsh during the coming winter. He 
regards the Erie canal as incompatible with any other means of transportation through the 
State, especially when steam shall be successfully applied in its navigation. 

New Smr Canal through the Isthmus of Kraw (Siam).— A watercut of 
twelve miles across a portion of the Malayan Peninsula, whereby a saving of 1,175 miles 
will be effected in the distance between Calcutta and China, is in contemplation by the 
British Government, in conjunction with the authorities of Siam. From a recent communi- 
cation on the subject from Sir John Bowring to Lloyd's, it appears that this important project 
of uniting, by a ship canal, the two bays of Bengal and Siam, is in a fair way of realisation. 
The Chamber of Commerce at Bombay have decided in its favor ; and the initiative 
operations are only delayed by the illness of Sir Robert Schomberg, the British Consul at 
Siam. 

Our Government Dockyards.— The anomalous system of Government manage- 
ment in our dockyards is becoming a topic of severe comment, more especially amongst 
our great shipbuilding firms. At a recent discussion "On Naval Architecture," at the 
Society of Arts, Mr. Scott Russell stated that, by order of the late Board of Admiralty, a 
report had been drawn up by a committee, as to the principles on which the future fleets 
ot England were to be constructed. The existence of this report naturally produced great 
anxiety in himself and others like him engaged in naval architecture to procure a copy. 
He tried every means to obtain one, and failed. But at last he succeeded, and did get one 
from the Continent. Another remark made on the occasion was, that foreigners (Russian 
officers in particular) have authority to pass freely over our dockyards, while Englishmen 
have to go about under the surveillance of a policeman. 

JARROW.— The docks constructed by the North Eastern Railway Company at Jarrow 
Slake are so far completed that the water has just been let in through the sluices at the 
north end of the works. The directors celebrated the event by the firing of cannon, &e. The 
dock and tidal basin will contain about 50 acres of water, sufficient for the accommodation 
of between 400 and 500 vessels. The tidal dock 100 ft. in width, and upwards of 250 ft. 
in length, with entrance-gates 60 ft. wide. Tidal-entrance 80 ft. in breadth, and will 
admit ships of large size. Depth on the dock-sills at high tide 24 ft. 6 in. ; ditto on the 
inner area 24 ft. The docks are to be used as a place of shipment for coals by the North 
Eastern Railway Company. At the landward end are four jetties, stretching far inward, 
each having five shipping places at each side. Ballast jetty fitted with four of Armstrong's 
powerful hydraulic cranes. Consumption of timber, for jetties alone, from 300,000 ft. to 
400,000 ft. Quantity of ashlar work in freestone, upwards of 600,000 cubic ft. ; of granite, 
from 15,000 to 20,000 cubic ft. Rubble masonry, 80,000 cubic yards. The cellular iron 
gates of the 60-ft. tidal dock and 80-ft. tidal entrance, manufactured by Messrs. Robert 
Stephenson and Co., Newcastle, weigh from 500 to 600 tons, worked with hydraulic power. 
Earth removed in the construction of the docks, 2,000,000 yards, principally silt. 

Kingston Harbour, Jamaica.— A Bill for the erection of a patent slip dock in 
this harbour has been read a second time (advices to 27th December ult.) in the Legislative 
Assembly. 

Apprenticeship in Chatham Dockyards. — The half-yearly examination of 
candidates has just been completed at this establishment. About, thirty youths underwent 
the competitive examination for entries; the names of the successful candidates being 
forwarded to the Admiralty for approval. 

The Kedrillis Canal for the Navigation of the Danube.— The report of 
the [Paris] International Technical Commission, which was to pronounce on the different 
plans proposed by the local (European) engineers, to render the mouths of the Danube 
navigable, has arrived at last in Constantinople. It is dated the 25th of August last, thus 
having for three months kept the European Commission in suspense. Meanwhile, the 
temporary works at the Sulina Mouth have been carried on with activity, the North Pier 
being extended 1,740 ft., and about £20,000 expended. These works, the Report condemns 
as a useless expenditure, the (Paris) Commission having adopted Captain Fowke's plan, 
viz., to open a canal, to be supplied with water from the sea, and closed by locks towards 
the river, thus shutting out the river-water and its deposits as mnch as possible. The 
canal to be opened to the north of the village of Kedrillis, in due easterly direction, so that 
its mouth towards the sea will be beyond the reach of the alluvial deposit of the St. 
George's Branch, or about 1,000 yards to the north of the present mouth of the river : its 
width sufficient for two vessels under sail to pass each other ; that is, from 40 to 50 metres, 
with 5 metres depth under low-water mark; two sea-walls, or piers of pierres perdues to 
protect the mouth of the canal; the North Pier to be 150 metres longer than the South 
Pier, and to be carried out to a depth of 7 metres. Space between these two piers to be 
from 800 to 400 metres, in order to form an avant port, or harbour of refuge. At extremity 
of piers, lighthouses are to be constructed, and, if necessary, large lamps distributed along 
the canal, to facilitate the navigation at night. Estimated expense of works, 12,000,000 fr. ; 
to meet which a tax of 3 fr. per ton is to be imposed on vessels navigating the canal. The 
temporary works at the Sulina to be discontinued. 

In Boulogne Harbour a new quay or low-water landing-place [quai de marie], 
long wanted, is at last to be constructed. The commission appointed on the subject have 
unanimously approved of the plan submitted by the Government ; and the engineer to whom 
the work is intrusted, hopes to commence operations next month. 

Mersey Docks and Harbour. — The nomination of members for the new Board 
took place on the 1st January ult. 

The Canadian Canals.— The Canadian Government has, up to this time, com- 
pleted five canals, with a uniform depth of 10 ft., and locks 200 ft. by 45 ft. By their 
means, a vessel drawing 10 ft. can be taken from Fond du Lac, on Lake Superior, to the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, a distance of nearly 2,200 miles. The aggregate tonnage entered, 
inwards and outwards, by the canals, and representing the trade on the inland waters in 
1856, was:— American— steam, 1,434,779; sail, 464,822; British— steam, 397,587; sail, 
174,619. Total— steam, 1,832,366 ; sail, 639,441; figures clearly indicating the importance 
of the canal interests. 

The North Branch Canal affords complete water communication between 
Philadelphia and Canada. 

The Welland Canal, connecting Lake Erie and Ontario, is reckoned one of the 
finest hydraulic works ever undertaken. Opened in Canada to compete with the Erie 
Canal (connecting Lake Erie with the Hudson River, and by which the Americans had 
contrived (1825) to divert the entire trade of the West to New York), its traflic has 
continued to increase year by year, until it has far outstripped that of its rival, the 
Erie Canal. 

The Rideau Canal, which has its mouth at Kingston, unites Ontario, and, con- 
sequently, the St. Lawrence to Ottawa. In going down, the largest steamboats boldly 
shoot the rapids. 

Altogether, the Canadian Canals overcome a total difference of height, 
from Lake Erie to the sea, of 564 ft. They have placed the inexhaustible resources of the 



West within the reach of the Montreal traders, being nearer to the Lakes, and carrying 
between them and tide-water cheaper and quicker than any other city in America. 

MINES, METALLURGY, &c. 

Gold Fields, Australia (from Melbourne). — Up to the 15th November ult., 
the total shipments of gold for the year 1858 have been 2, 198,739 oz,, which quantity brought 
into tons troy, gives 91 tons 12 cwt. 1 qr. 2 lbs. 6 oz., the i value of which, at £4 per oz., 
amounts to .£8,794,923, Up to same period of last year, the quantity shipped was 2,360,074 
oz., or 98 tons 6 cwt. 9 qrs. 22 lbs. 20 oz. 

A Piece of Gold, weighing 120 lbs., and worth £5,000, has been discovered within 
50 miles of Bathurst. 

A Fatal Colliery' Accident, caused on this occasion, not by fire-damp, but by 
negligence with the machinery, has occurred at Pendlebury, near Manchester. Seven 
persons killed — -viz., three men and four boys. [For details on inquest, see "Legal 
Decisions " — " Colliery Drums." 

The Fort Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company held (12th January 
ult.) a long and stormy meeting, in the course of which a proposal to wind up was put and 
negatived. A dividend was declared of Is. a share. 

A Rich (Auriferous) Quartz Vein has (advices from California to the 10th De- 
cember ult., received 16th January ult.) been discovered in the suburbs of San Francisco. 

An Explosion of Fire-damp occurred, 19th January ult, at Low Hall Coal Pit 
(proprietors, the Moss Hall Company), nearWigan. Two men went down to repair at 
pump. A rush of air up the shaft knocked the " brow-man's" cap off: he called out 
" fire-damp." Some men descended, and found that the " fire-damp" had exploded, and 
killed the two men, one of whom was found near the pump; the other, a short distance 
off. The pit had not been worked for some time past, and it is supposed the foul air had 
accumulated, and had ignited at the naked light carried down by one of the unfortunate 
men. 

Singular [Colliery] Escape. — On the night of the 14th December ult. a man 
employed at the Underwood colliery, in placing the trams on the top of the shaft, inadver- 
tently put the tram on the wrong side, and was precipitated, in consequence, down the pit, 
a depth of 200 yards. Luckily, however, catching hold of the rope at the commencement 
of the descent, he slid down to the bottom without sustaining any harm, and coolly returned 
to his employment on the surface as though nothing particular had happened. 

Open Colliery-Shafts. — Fatal Accident.— On the same day, during the dense 
fog, an aged watchman, employed at the colliery of Mr. Hartland, Hill Top, in South Staf- 
fordshire, was going his rounds, and was near to the mouth of one of his master's pits, 
when he failed to notice the open shaft, and fell into the pit, the shaft of which is of 
great depth. He was killed by the fall. 

Of the " Coona" OR Fitzroy River Goldfields (Northern Australia), some- 
what conflicting accounts continue to be received. On the one hand, the fancied new 
Eldorado (a spot on the Fitzroy river, about 70 miles inland from the sea, and bearing the 
aboriginal name of Coona) is represented as being a mere dream, or mischievous delusion ; 
whilst from other sources the yield, although inferior to the South Australian ore, is re- 
presented as promising. 

Gold-dust [Australia] Sydney. — The quantity of gold-dust delivered by the 
escorts from the several (Australian) goldfields during the month of October, has been 
22,037 ounces ; against corresponding month of 1857, 15,189 ounces. Increase in receipts of 
the month, 6,848 ounces, or about 45 per cent. For the ten months of the year 1857, the 
receipts amounted to 117,493 ounces ; during same period of 1851 the quantity received was 
204,113 ounces; which is an increase of 86,620 ounces, or over 72 per cent, in favour of the 
present year. 

Melbourne. — 15th November ult. The escorts (of gokldust) delivered into the gold- 
office of the Treasury this week, 48,361 ounces— a total above the weekly averages of the 
year, as also above that of the year 1857, which amounted to 47,670 ounces. 

A Powerful " Beam Cornish " Pumping-Engine, the first of the kind ever 
erected in the State of Virginia (built by Messrs. Merrick and Sons, Southwark Foundry, 
Philadelphia, U. SO, has recently been erected for the Coal Mining Company, at then- 
Mid- Lothian mines, in Chesterfield County, Virginia, 13 miles from Richmond, and half a 
mile from the Richmond and Danville Railroad. Cylinder, 60 in. in diameter, with 10 ft. 
siroke of piston. Piston packed with a single cast-iron ring, bored eccentrically, and slit 
and tongued on the thinnest side, being kept central and in contact by four springs. Beam 
28£ ft. from centre to centre of end pins, having wrought-iron catch-pieces. Total weight 
of beam and centre shaft, 19 tons. Cylinder steam-jacketed and cased. Air-pump, 26 in. 
in diameter, 5 ft. stroke ; vacuum attained, 28 in. Steam furnished by three single flue 
boilers, 6 ft. diameter and 26 ft. long, set below ground level. Boiler shells, or plates and 
flues, of § in. best Pennsylvania plates ; the heads or ends of ^-in. plates. Chimney, 4 ft. 
square in the flue, and 70 ft. high. Engine erected on a vertical shaft, 770 ft. deep. Pit- 
work consists of three plungers and one drawing lift. Mainrod of Pennsylvania pine; 
the first 240 ft. from nose of the boh, 16 in. by 14 in. ; the next 240 ft. is 14 in. square; 
remaining 240 ft. 12 in. square, making these rods 720 ft. long. It has four sets of catches, 
three of them on the down-stroke, and one on the up-stroke, which prevents the whole 
machinery travelling beyond a given length of stroke, in case of accident. This engine 
was started to work in May last, and in a few months drained the mines previously flooded 
by water coming in at the rate of 220,000 gallons in the 24 hours. 

The Exports of Coal from Great Britain were, in 1857, 6,830,495 tons, 
being an increase on the preceding year of 942,898 tons. France, which in 1856 had 
received only 1,320,698 tons, received in 1857 trom England 1,320,098 tons, exclusive of 
the contracts entered into by the French Government in London for the supply of fuel to 
the steam-vessels of the latter power at various points of the globe, especially in China.* 
Next to France, the chief consumers of English coal are the Hanseatie Towns, Denmark, 
Prussia, Spain, and Russia. As regards Turkey and the United States of America, the 
amount of exports to these hitherto considerable consumers of English coal, has, owing to 
political and commercial causes, greatly fallen off. 

A Fatal Explosion (of Fire-Damp) occurred recently at the Tunne Colliery 
pit, at Standish, near Wigan, by which two boys were killed. Caused by an escape of gas 
coming in contact with a naked light stuck against the wall by one of the pitmen. 

A New Rope for Mines (patented) has been manufactured by Messrs. J. and E. 
Wright, of London and Birmingham. It is said to have been successfully tried by 
Mitches'on's Hydraulic Testing Machine, and to be in use at the London, East and West 
India, and Victoria Docks. Its advantages for mining purposes, particularly for long 
capstan ropes, there being a considerable saving in weight, are stated to be great. The 
invention consists in making a rope of hemp and wire combined, which gives even greater 
strength than wire-rope, with the pliability of the hemp rope. It is manufactured by 
placing a single wire inside every ropeyarn, securely coating each wire with hemp, and 
separating each hard substance, making a sort of cushion for each wire to bed upon; so that 
when any heavy strain is applied, the wires do not cut each other, as in all wire-rope. 
Compared with wire-rope, hemp-rope, and chain, each to take the same breaking strain, 
the new " patent wire and hemp rope " is stated to stand thus : — 

Each to take breaking strain of 21 tons cwts. ; weight per fathom of patent wire and 
hemp, 10JS- lbs. ; ditto of wire-rope ungalvanised, 15J lbs. ; ditto of hemp-rope, 21 lbs. ; 
ditto of chain, 59 lbs. 



* The French " Tableau du Commerce" gives, for 1857, under this head, 1,299,855 tonnes 
metriques ; of which quantity 1 ,055,616 entered into home (French) consumption. 



52 



Notes and Novelties. 



f" The Artizan. 
|_February 1, 1859. 



Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mines [Clunes]. — The old squatting-station 
of Clunes is situated on the lower portion of Cresivick Creek, about 20 miles north of 
Ballaarat. The Clunes quartz reefs are said to he ihe first ever worked in Victoria. Worked 
at first superficially, and without system, these mines, which are exceedingly rich, are now 
worked in a miner-like manner — indeed, on as perfect a system, by the application of capital 
and machinery, as that met with in the best-conducted mines of Europe. Temporary shafts 
have been sunk for working out the quartz above the water level, and tramways are laid 
in the levels, and from thence to the roasting-kilns. Another tramway is laid, on the 
surface, from the north shaft to the engine-shaft ; and a double incline conducts the quartz 
from the engine-shaft to the crushing-works, the descending loaded waggons drawing up 
the empty ones. For working the veins below water-level, an engine-shaft h;is Ven sunk, 
between the "Old Man" and the east veins, to a depth of 250 It., and a 30 H.P. engine 
erected, with 10 in. pumps, to draw off the water. At the foot of the hill are the crushing 
works, connected wiih the mine and the roasting-kiln by tramways leading to the hoppers. 
The crushing machinery consists of 44 heads of wet stamps, and one Chilian mill, the latter 
being, principally, used for testing small parcels. They will crush 400 tons of quartz per 
week to fine powder, the escapes being covered with a wire gauze having 250 meshes to the 
sq. in. A good supply of water is obtained from the Creswick Creek, which flows in front 
of the works. 

Mining in Turkey. — The mines of the Pelion range are at present being worked by 
Englishmen wiih success, under a firman conceding the minerals of all Tricala and Janina 
for 21 years, terminating in 1887, lor an annual payment of £6n0. The operations are 
principally confined to the dressing and smelting the rich ore* of galena, yielding conside- 
rable quantities of silver and gold, foremen, chiefly Englishmen, receive from £3 to £4 
per week. Four hundred men and boys are employed at the Pelinn Works, and 20 ton< of 
mixed metal are run every week, every Ion of lead yielding from 00 to 100 oz. of silver and 
gold, the value of the gold being estimated as equal to that of the silver with which it is 
combined. The Turkish Government furnish a police force (from 25 to 50 men) especially 
for the protection of the miners against the attacks of pirates, to which, from their 
proximity to some of the Greek islands, they are constantly exposed. 

Iron Works of Scotland.— During 1857 there were 123 blast furnaces in full 
work, producing 9^8,725 tons of iron, the highest figure hitherto attained in that (certainly, 
for its mineral products, most important) portion of the United Kinudom. In a single 
year it supplied, for national consumption and foreign export, 843,000 tons; and, not- 
withstanding this enormous >upply, its stock in hand, on the 1st January, 1858, was 
100,000 tons. 

The Total Exports of Iron from Great Britain, according to the Board of Trade 
Eeturns, amounted, in 1857 (pig, bar, and steell, to 445,000 tons. 

The Imports of English Iron into France increased, in 1857, by 4,545 tons, 
as regards pis iron, whilst, for bars, they decreased 41.825 tons. 

To the United States the imports of English iron have slightly increased, as 
to castings and wrought, whilst, for bar, &c, there has been a decrease of 10,000 tons. 

Bronze Casting.— A demi-bust and plate, cast in Russian gun-metal in the brass 
gun-foundry of the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, representing the crowned head of Her 
Majesty, has been erected in the vacant spare formerly occupied by the public clock, in 
the eastern ornamental archway of the Royal Artillery Barracks. 

Australian [Sydney Koyal] Mint.— From the 1st of January to the 5th of 
November, the amount of gold-dust imported into the Sydney Branch of the Royal Mint, 
for the purpose of coinage, has been 291,925 oz. During same period, the amount of 
coinage issued has been 891,500 sovereigns, and 480,000 half-sovereigns. Total value, 
£1,134,000. 

Mineral Discoveries in Victoria.— The Bendigo papers announce the discovery 
of several mineral substances, which promise to be of great importance and value. The 
first resembles in colour and also in texture the red sulphuret of mercury, known in com- 
merce as cinnabar. Of this mineral there are several varieties, as the opaque, having the 
hue of cochineal; the earthy, scarlet-tinted; the bituminous, slaty and brick-red; the 
chloride of mercury, found in small crystals, of a greenish-gray colour, embedded in fer- 
ruginous gangue, See., with all of which characteristics of quicksilver ore, the Australian 
specimens alluded to are said to have points in common. Other considerations relating to 
these specimens lead, it would appear, to the probable opinion of the existence of coal, 
mercury, and bitumen in the midst of gold-fields— a combination of advantages which 
would indeed — to use the slightly sanguine, but, under the circumstance-:, excusable language 
of one of the local editors — "exalt Victoria to an eminence of prosperity such as the 
world has never seen." 

APPLIED CHEMISTRY, &c. 

Silicates of Potash and Soda.— New Process for fixing Crayon or 
" Pastel " DRAWINGS.— M. Ortlieb has just communicated a paper to the Academy of 
Sciences on this subject. His plan consists in executing the pastel or chalk drawing upon 
thick but unsized paper, such as is used in copper-plate printing, and afterwards applying 
the fixing liquid (solution of silicate of potash or of soda) to the back, it is thus quickly 
absorbed, without causing any disturbance of colours on the other side. None but mineral 
colours should be used, these being the only ones that can combine with the silicates, 
which have no action on vegetable colours. The pictures thus treated will resist damp, or 
even washing with water; acid vapours have no effect on them, and they become almost 
incombustible. 

Fatal Effects of Nitrous-Acid Gas.— A fatal accident occurred (3rd January 
ult.) at the Western Counties Superphosphate Manure Company's Works, Torpoint, Corn- 
wall, in a lead tank, 100 ft. long by 17 ft. wide, and 12 in. to 13 in. deep, divided into three 
compartments, enclosed in a chamber lined with lead, about 15 ft high, three holes of 10 in. 
diameter in the roof for ventilation, and three man-holes in one side: this chamber is for 
the purpose of condensing the gas which arises from the sulphuric acid in the tanks. A 
leak having been discovered in one of the compartments, fix men were directed to bale its 
contents into No. 2, an operation well known to be a highly dangerous one. The men 
hegan to complain successively of exhaustion, and were ordered by the manager to desist, 
and to go into the open air. Two of them, however, were past recovery, and died shortly after 
removal ; the rest recovered. The inhalation of an over-quantity of the gas in the chamber 
is attended with dangerous consequences, because it contains an excess of oxvgen— the very 
reverse of that which causes suffocation. Sulphuric-acid gas produces rapid pulsation, an 
excessive flow of blood through the lungs and heart, and a state of increased activity 
throughout the entire system.— [For inquest, see "Legal Decisions."] 



Nitrate of Uranium [Coloured Photographic Manipulation]. — M. 
Niepce de St. Victor, amongst others of his recent discoveries tending to simplify the pro- 
cesses of photography, directs as follows: — Impregnate a sheet of paper with any soluble 
salt— say, for instance, with the nitrate of uranium; — let it dry in a darkened room, and 
then insolate it under a negative. Take it back into the dark room, and treat it with a 
solution of red prussiate of potash. A beautiful red picture will be obtained; and if this 
be afterwards treated with sulphate of iron, a fine blue picture will be produced, and if other 
re-agents be employed instead of the sulphate of iron, pictures of different colours may 
be obtained. 

Electric Eight.— A new process is spoken of as having been successfully tried ; 
and, it is added, patented. Mercury, or other fluid or semi-fluid hodv, is ' used as 
one or more of the electrodes; a tube within the lamp is so arranged that it shall 
remain full, or nearly so, during waste or consumption by the light ; the supply of the fluid 
electrode is regulated by a tap. Other improvements — such as the condensation of vapour 
on the lamp, by causing a constant, flow of water over the glass, the prevention of vapours 
rising from the waste fluid, by the introduction of a stream of water into the waste-pipe, 
&c, Sec. — are also mentioned ; but a great step in advance will have been made, if only a 
constant, steady, unintermittingsupplyof light be effected by the apparatus in question. The 
use of mercury as an electrode is of ancient date, — coeval, we should think, with the earliest 
discoveries in galvanism itself. 

Oxalate of Silver. — Xtlo-PhotoGRAPHY, or photography applied to engraving 
on wood. — A new method of printing photographic designs direct on to wood (other modes of 
attaining the same result have been for some lime in actual practice) has been described 
in a recent number of the " Photographic News." The bloc-k is covered, in a darkened 
room, or by candlelight, with a mixture composed of oxalate of silver and water, to which 
may he added a little gum or pulverized bath-brick, to suit the convenience of the en- 
graver. The oxalate is spread over the surface of the wood in precisely the same way as 
employed by wood-engravers in applying their mixture of flake-white and gum-water: 
about as much as would lie on a fourpenny-piece, for a block 4 in. square, is sprinkled on 
the surface; and the finger being then dipped in water, the mixture is spread evenly over 
the whole surface of the block, by rubbing the finger backwards and forwards across the 
block in various directions, until the evaporation or absorption of the water leaves the sur- 
face impregnated with a delicate and almost impalpable coating of oxalate of silver. The 
blocks so prepared may be left for any time (in a dark place) until required for use, as 
they will, if protected from the action of light, preserve their sensitiveness unimpaired. 
Oxalate of silver is susceptible of being acted upon by the actinic rays; and, therefore, if 
the block so prepared be exposed under a negative in the printing-frame to sunlight, a 
positive picture Is obtained, in the same manner as on paper prepared in the ordinary way. 
The block requires no subsequent washing, nor any preparation of any description, before 
being placed in the hands of the engraver, who must not, however, expose it to the direct 
action of the solar rays while working on it, or it will gradually blacken on the surface ; 
but diffused daylight has no deleterious effect upon it, unless such exposure be continued 
for a great length of time — say several hours. 

Iodine a Specific fob the Cure of Corns. — Recently, the outward application 

of the essential oil of chesmits has been announced as a certain cure for tin- gout : and now, 
says the " Medical Times," Dr. Varges states that corns may be rapidly cured by the 
application of the tincture of iodine — the corn disappearing in a few days, if touched with 
the tincture several times a day ; or, if the corn be situated between the toes, it should be 
covered with a piece of linen, steeped in a mixture of the tincture and glycerine. 

ACCIDENTS FROM MACHINERY. 

Feeding Machinery.— A labourer in the works of Messrs. Highland and Co., manu- 
facturing chemists, Rose-street, Hutohesontown, whilst feeding the machinery with flour, 
got his arm entangled in some of the wheels, and was so injured by laceration as to neces- 
sitate his removal to the Royal Infirmary. 

Kailway Carriage Doors.— During a recent trip (on the 10th January ult.) from 
Dunse to Edinburgh, one of the railway-carriage doors had not been properly fastened; 
and, while the train was proceeding between Reston and Grant's House, a boy, 8 years of 
age, leaning against the door, fell out. It so happened that there was » small embankment 
where the accident occurred, and the youth, rolling into the ditch, luckily escaped without 
injury. The boy's mother attempted to jump out of the carriage after him, but was pre- 
vented. On the telegraph being put in motion, at Dunbar, she ascertained that her son 
was safe, and that he would be lorwarded to Edinburgh by the next mail-train. 

A Fatal Colliery Accident, caused on this occasion, not by fire-damp, but by 
negligence with the machinery for raising and lowering the men, has occurred (4th January 
ult.), at the Agecroft colliery-pit, Pendlebury, 4 miles from Manchester ; 7 persons 3 men 
and 4 boys) killed. — [For details on inquest, see " Legal Decisions" — " Colliery Drums." 

Oiling a Treadmill.— Recently, the City Coroner held an inquest at Canterbury on 
the body of a prisoner in St. Augustine's Jail, who met with his death under peculiar cir- 
cumstances, as detailed by the jail officials. In the treadmill there are two wheels. Deceased 
was oiling the machinery of the wheel not in motion. He was standing in the cylinder, 
with an oil-can in his hand : the lid of the can fell of, and rolled under the wheel in motion. 
Deceased got off the cylinder, and stooped down on his knees to pick up the lid, when he 
put his head between the spokes of the wheel in motion, and the upright standard supporting 
it ; and his head was immediately crushed against the upright standard, and nearly severed 
from the body. Verdict, "accidental death," with a recommendation that in future both 
wheels should be stopped while the machinery was being oiled. 

Self-acting 1'a'ilivav Points.— An accident took place (13th January nit.) at 
Bolton, in consequence of some self-acting points having failed to act in the proper manner. 
A passenger-train coming into the station was, consequently, turned off the line, and ran 
into a number of coal-waggons standing on the sidine. Result: — destruction of the waggons, 
some injury to the engine, and bruises among the passengers. Fortunately, the driver had 
the presence of mind to reverse his engine before the concussion. 

Screw-Steamer Collision in the Thames. — During the night of the 6th January 
ult., a collision took place between the Lord Panmurc screw store-steamer and the Dement 
screw-collier, a few miles below Sheerness. The Lord Panmure rapidly filled, and sank 
in twelve fathoms water. Crew saved. Loss estimated at several thousand pounds 

Another Collision took place in Sea Reach, just above Chapman's light, between 
the Great Northern screw-steamer and the brig Scadrift, from the north, with coals. The 
latter was sunk in seven fathoms, and the Great Northern was so much damaged that she 
had to be run ashore on the Essex coast. 



APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION 
ALLOWED. 
Sated 15th September, 1858. 
2154. M. A. F. Mennons, 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris— 
The separation of iron and steel from their combi- 
nation with certain foreign bodies. 
Dated 11th October, 1858. 
2258. J. Saxby, Brighton— Apparatus for working signals on 
railways. 

Dated 22nd October, 1858. 
2360. F. Whitehall, Bromley-place, Nottingham — Ma- 
chinery for the manufacture of cap fronts. 



LIST OF NEW PATENTS, 
Dated 1st November, 1858. 
2428. F. Wrigley, Manchester— Self-acting safety coupling 
for railway and other purposes. 

Dated 9th Novemba; 1858. 
250C. M. Henry, 84, Fleet-street— Manufacture of locks and 
fastenings, and keys for the same. 
Dated 10th November, 1858. 
2518. J. Corner, 15, Artillery-place, and 16, City-road, 
Finsbury-sq. — Machinery for making metallic screw 
rivets, and for uniting with them parts of boots, 
shoes, portmanteaus, and other leather articles. 
Dated 13th November, 1858. 
2548. J. Taylor, Birkenhead— Portable steam-engines. 



Dated 16th November, 1858. 

2572. A. I. H. Parent, Paris — An improved manufacture of 

buttons, and the apparatus employed therein. 

Dated 11th November, 1858. 

2588. M. Scott, 3, Stanhope-terrace, Hyde-park-gardens— 

Construction of breakwaters. 
2586. E. Welch, 63, St. John's-square, Clerkenwell— Manu- 
facture of tobacco, and apparatus therefore. 
Dated 19th November, 1858. 
2626. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields— Construction 
of electric telegraph cables or conductors. 
Dated 20th November, 1S58. 
2638. W. Lea, AVolverhampton— Lubricating cocks & taps. 



The Artizan, 1 
February 1, 1859.J 



List of New Patents. 



53 



Dated 26th November, 1858. 

2684. J. Harrison, Blackburn — Rollers applicable to sizing, 
dressing, calendering, and squeezing machines. 

2686. A. Bowie, Glasgow — Governors for marine engines. 

2688. M. A. F. Mennons, 89, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris — 
Manufacture of leather. 

2690. T. B. Hubbell and G. J. Rollason, Castle-st.— Appa- 
ratus for brightening and polishing metal surfaces. 

2692. W. Richards, Harpur-st., Red Lion-sq. — Construction 
of gas meters. 

Bated 11th November, 1858. 

2694. J. Spratt, 71, College-st., Camden-town— Manufacture 
and strengthening of paper. 

2696. J. Ramsbottom, Aecrington, Lancashire — Apparatus 
applicable to water meters, and to indicating and 
regulating the flow and pressure of fluids generally. 

2698. R. Alexander, Dillichip, Dumbarton, N.B.— Treating, 
preparing, and bleaching textile fabrics and other 
materials. 

2700. H. L. Pattinson, Stotes-hall, Jesmond, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne — Utilizing the heat of slags of iron and other 
works. 

2702. G. B. Sander, High Holborn— Jugs. 

2074. S. Diggle, Radcliffe, Lancashire — Pattern chains, or 
other such apparatus used in weaving. 
Dated 29th November, 1858. 

2706. L. A. Possoz, Rue Neuve St. Augustin, No. 9, Paris — 
Manufacturing alkalies, and obtaining simul- 
taneously other chemical products. 

2710. G. Collier and 'W.Noble, Halifax — Means or apparatus 
for the manufacture of spokes for carriage wheels, 
which improvements are also applicable to the 
cutting of wood for other purposes. 

2712. G. Hadfleld, Carlisle — Construction of carboys, 
barrels and other vessels of capacity. 

2714. C. Hancock, West-st., Smithfield — Insulation and 
manufacture of electric telegraph wires and cables. 

2716. W. A. Henry, Sheffield — Machinery or apparatus for 
attaching the soles and heels of boots to the upper- 
leathers, and in the fastenings employed for that 
purpose. 

2718. J. B. Blanjot, 8, Rue Thevenot, Paris— Petticoats for 
ladies. 

2720. C. Bedells, Leicester — Manufacture of elastic fabrics, 

and machinery employed in this manufacture. 
2722. G. J. Bensen, 7, Christian-street, St. George's-in-the- 
East — Cleansing or purifying animal charcoal after 
it has been employed by sugar refiners. 
Dated 30th November, 1858. 

2721. J. Luis, 1b, Welbeck-street, Cavendish-square — A 

watch, simplified with anchor escapements and rack, 
forming a double lever, catching in the pinion of its 
balance-wheel. 

2726. A. A. Burton, 30, Wych-st., Strand — A moveable face 
and handle for smoothing-irons. 

2728. I). Thomson, Old Brompton — Machinery for raising 
water and other liquids. 

2780. A. E. C. Scheidel, Watling-st.— Fastenings for belts, 
braces, pocket-books, and other similar articles or 
purposes. 

2782. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Telegraphic appa- 
ratus. 

2734. J. Coulson, Newark — Threshing and dressing-machines. 
Dated 1st December, 1858. 

2736. R. H. Bow, Edinburgh— Railway chairs and fasten- 
ings. 

2738. E. Jones, Dudley— Manufacture of coke in ovens. 

2742. J. Samuel, Great George-st., Westminster, and J. 
Nicholson, Wellington-st., Bromiey — Connection 
with marine, and other steam engines. 

2744. H. Adcock, City-road— Furnaces and apparatus for 
annealing wire. 

2746. G.W. Bales, Ipswich — Apparatus for retaining doors 
when shut or closed. 

2748. S. Newington, Ticehurst, Sussex — Agricultural imple- 
ments. 

2750. F. Fincham, Ravenhead, Lancashire— Construction of 
annealing kilns or ovens. 

2752. J. Lewis, Elizabeth, U.S. — Means for attaching sails 
to the yards of ships or vessels. 

Dated 2nd December, 1858. 

2754. L. MacKirdy, Glebe Sugar-house, Greenock — Com- 

bined bathing, washing, and watercloset apparatus. 

2755. L. MacKirdy, Glebe Sugar-house, Greenock — Manu- 

facture of sugar. 

2756. J. Rogers, 9, Queen-sq., Bartholomew-close— Manu- 

facture of ropes, cables, cords, and lines. 

2757. W. Robertson and J. G. Orchar, Dundee— Machinery 

for winding yarns or thread. 

2758. J. Tyssen, Rotterdam, Holland— Obtaining and apply- 

ing motive power. 

2759. J. Baillie, Vienna, Austria— Construction of railway 

wheels. 

2760. Lieut.-Col. G. Spiller, R.A., 15, Upper Southwick-st.— 

Knapsacks for military and other purposes. 
Dated. Srd December, 1858. 

2761. M. Henry, 84, Fleet-st. — Manufacturing or revivifying 

bone black or animal charcoal, and in kilns or 
apparatus employed therein. 

2762. T. Bailey, 37, Russell-street, Birmingham— A me- 

chanical movement applicable to loading fire-arms. 

2763. M. Tooke, Norwich — Apparatus for measuring the 

human figure, and in applying the same for tracing 
out garments for the human figure. 

2764. G. E. Noone, 28, Hodson-street, Prances-street, New- 

ington -butts — Machinery for generating gas from 
coal. 



2765. S. Peters, 12, Hue de la Briche, at St. Denis, near 
Paris— Manufacture of pipes and tubes, and in the 
apparatus employed therein. 

2767. C. Coates, Sunnyside, near Rawtenstall, Lancashire — 
Maundrills for printing. 

2768. C. F. Tasserot, 45, Essex-street, Strand— Apparatus 
for ventilating mines or other similar purposes. 

2769. C. F. Tasserot, 45, Essex-st., Strand— Improved win- 
dow sashes to prevent draughts and the infiltration 
of water. 

2770. H. Bevan, Shrewsbury — Improved machines for faci- 
litating arithmetical operations. 

Dated 4th December, 1858. 

2771. J. Cameron, Glasgow — Apparatus for the manufacture 
of sugar. 

2772. R. Legg, 11, Ashby-street. Clerkenwell — A machine 
for combining the operation of compressing and 
cutting: tobacco during the process of manufacture. 

2773. L. W. Fletcher, Bleaklow, near Bury, Lancashire — 
Construction of electric telegraph cables. 

2774. J. B. Fisher and J. Fisher, Stourbridge, Worcester- 
shire, and J. Bird, jun., Kingswinford, Stafford- 
shire — Doors and dampers of furnaces. 

2775. R. Pickering, Lockerbie, Dumfries — Communicating 
signals from one part of a railway train to another. 

2776. E. A. Servier, Paris — Pressure and fluid level indi- 
cators. 

2777. T. Sibley, Ashton-under-Lyne — Looms for weaving. 

2778. A. Smith, J. Townsend, and E. W. Williams, Bir- 
mingham — Breech-loading fire-arms. 

2779. J. B. A. Monnier, Nemours (Seine et Marne), France 
— Actuating railway brakes. 

2780. J. Turner, 8, Lavender-grove, Queen's-road, Dalston 
— Chairs. 

2781. H. T. Yates, Hounds-gate, Nottingham — Manufacture 
of boards or sheets when wood sawdust is used. 

2782. J. L. Norton, Belle Sauvage-yard, Ludgate-hill— Ma- 
chines for stretching and drying fabrics, and in 
drying wool and other fibres. 

2783. M. Henry, 84, Fleet-st.— Weaving, and in looms, or 
apparatus employed therein. 

2784. W. E.Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Grain and grass 
harvesting machines. 

2785. J. Piatt, Oldham— Mules for spinning. 

2786. T. R. Harding, Leeds— Combs, gills, hackles, and 
similar implements used in silk, wool, and flax 
machinery. 

Dated 6th December, 1858. 

2787. J. Jobson, Derwent Foundry, Derby — Manufacture of 
stoves and fireplaces. 

2788. J. G. Arnold, Worcester, Massachusetts, U.S. — Enve- 
lopes for letters and similar purposes. 

2789. B. Nieoll, 40 and 42, Regent-st.— Agricultural ma- 
chinery for all kinds of crop and other root-cutting, 
and for the purposes of haymaking, and rubbing 
corn and seed from the stalks (instead of thresh- 
ing). 

2790. J. Muir, Glasgow, and F. Muir, Paisley — Ornamental 
or color printing. 

2791. G. Snell, Leeds— Machinery or apparatus for cutting 
woollen fabrics. 

2792. J. Dawson, Holbeck, Leeds — Apparatus for raising 
the nap on woollen cloths. 

2793. D. B. White, Newcastle-upon-Tyne — Indicating 
gauges. 

2794. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street— Manufacture of 
gloves. 

2795. F. W. Fletcher, Hurdington, near Birmingham — Bolts 
for securing doors, and other purposes. 

2796. E. W. Scale, Merthyr Tydvil, Glamorganshire — Rail- 
way and other breaks. 

Dated 1th December, 1858. 

2797. J. E. Boyd, Hither Green, Lewisham— Construction of 
taps, valves, or other apparatus for gauging or for 
drawing off the liquid or fluid contents ot any cask, 
or other vessels. 

2798. W. A. Gilbee, 4, South-street, Finsbury— An im- 
proved portable bath. 

2799. C.Williams and W.Ellison, 17, Acton-place, Kings- 
land-road — A new mode or method of securing and 
liberating the corks and stoppers of bottles. 

2800. J. Whiteley and T. Kitchenman, Halifax — Press- 
plates or apparatus employed in hot-pressing 
woven fabrics. 

2801. W. Madders and J. Waddington, Manchester— Ma- 
chinery or apparatus for embroidering woven 
fabrics. 

2802. J. J. Harris, Woodlesford, nf ar Leeds— Apparatus for 
refrigerating and regulating the temperature in 
worts and beer. 

2803. G- E. Larned, Brooklyn, U.S. — Construction and 
arrangement of boilers and working parts of steam 
fire-engines, part of which is applicable to engines 
for other purposes. 

2804. J. V. Scarborough, Belfast, Ireland— Manufacture of 
boots and shoes. 

2805. J. Haslam and J. Lutener, Preston — Healds used in 
looms and dressing-frames. 

280G. W. Burness, 2, Prospect-terrace, Brixton — Pumping 
and forcing liquids. 

2807. S. W. Pugh, Nelson-sq., Commercial -rd., New Peck- 
ham — Obtaining and purifying naphtha, paraffine, 
and other oils, and also spirits. 

2808. J. Ferrabee, Phoenix Iron Works, and F. H. England, 
Foomhall mills, Strood — Maciiinery for carding, 

i scribbling, and condensing wool. 



Dated %th December, 1858. 

2810. G. F. Chantrell, Liverpool— Apparatus applicable to 

the manufacture and revivification of animal or 
vegetable charcoal. 

2811. C. de Cappot and A. Jarriant, 10, Route de la Revolte, 

Neuilly-sur-Seine — A new hydraulic counter. 

2812. R. L. P. Manning, Princes-square, Middlesex — A 

floating paddle-wheel. 

2813. M. Henry, 84, Fleet-street — Twisting fibrous mate- 

rials. 

2814. S. Phillips, Moseley, near Birmingham— Sliding win- 

dow sashes, shutters, and doors. 

2815. A. Lamb and W. A. Summers, Southampton — Appa- 

ratus for superheating steam. 

2816. W. King, jun., Guildford — Apparatus for roasting 

coffee and other substances. 

2817. C. M. Westmacott, Arboretum-street, Litchurch, near 

Derby — Permanent way of railways. 

2818. H. Meidinger, University of Heidelberg, Germany — 

Electric batteries. 

Dated 9th December, 1858. 

2819. R. L. Burrowes and J. Knowles, jun., St. Helen's — 

Construction of pianofortes and organs. 

2820. J. Barrow, jun., Manchester — Treatment of coal gas 

tar, and of the oils obtained by the distillation of the 
same. 

2821. H. Maudsley, 4, Cheltenham-place, Lambeth — Glass 

and other vitreous vessels. 

2822. J. Eccles, Blackburn — Machinery for manufacturing 

clay and other plastic earths into bricks, tiles, and 
pipes. 

2823. H. Bell, Belfast, Ireland— Musical instruments. 

2824. J. Little, Glasgow — Fire grates and heating appa- 

ratus. 

2825. J. Elder, Glasgow— Paddle-wheels. 

2826. J. Stewart, 69, Tottenham-court-road— Construction of 

the action of pianofortes. 

2827. T. Allen, Clifton, Bristol— Folding bedsteads. 

2828. J. Wilson, Wansford, Northamptonshire — Machinery 

for tilling and cultivating land. 

2829. H. Wilson, Norton, Durham— Pumps. 

2830. E. L. Pensuete, Dunkirk, France — Apparatus for 

driving piles by steam. 

2831. B. Lauth, Morley's Hotel, Trafalgar-square— Mode of 

manufacturing rods and shafts. 

Dated 10th December, 1858. 

2833. J. Lightfoot, Aecrington, Lancashire — Printing or 

staining yarns, fabrics, or fibrous substances. 

2834. J. Flockton, jun., Manchester — Stop or reversing 

taps. 

2835. A. Barclay, Kilmarnock, N.B. — Electric, magnetic, 

and electro-magnetic telegraph ropes or conductors. 

2836. A. Barclay, Kilmarnock, N.B. — Obtaining motive 

power by means of electricity, magnetism, and 
electro-magnetism. 

2837. C. Hodgson, Ballard Rathdrum, Wicklow, Ireland— 

— Fuel from peat. 

2838. W. Beardmore, Deptford— Steam boilers. 

2839. G. F. Wilson, Belmont, Vauxhall— Manufacture of 

lubricating oils. 

2840. G. W. B. Kiallmark, Bridgewater, and W. T. Time- 

well, North Wharf-road, Paddington — Manufacture 
of cements. 

Dated 11th December, 1858. 

2841. W. F. Hall and T. Dutson, St. Paul's-square, Bir- 

mingham — Fancy buttons for ladies' and gentlemen's 
wear. 

2842. J. B. Guthrie, Manchester — Manufacture of india- 

rubber overshoes. 

2843. S. Dudgeon, Sheffield— Gas regulator. 

2844. J. Hinks, Birminaham— Ships' and other lamps. 

2845. P. Robertson, Sun-court, Cornhill— Shuttles. 

2846. C. J. Richardson, 34, Kensington-square— Apparatus 

to be applied to chimneys or flues of buildings, for 
economizing heat. 

2847. M. Schaffner, Eisenach — Smelting zinc ores, and in 

furnaces employed for this purpose. 

2848. W. E. Wiley, 34, Great Hampton-street, Birmingham 

— Ever-pointed pencils. 

2849. A. Rollason, Birmingham — Manufacture of water- 

proof tissues. 

Dated lith December, 1858. 

2850. J. A. Carruthers and T. Blackburn, Blackburn, Lan- 

cashire — Apparatus for guiding and regulating the 
warp threads in tbe operations of warping, tape- 
sizing, looming and weaving. 

2851. R. Whittam, Aecrington — Apparatus for tracing 

designs from an engraved roller, or from an en- 
graver's sketch upon steel or other metallic sur- 
faces. 

2852. L. C. V. Yon, Lisieux, France— Elastic beds. 

2853. J. M. Roussel, 8, Impasse des Couronnes, Belleville, 

near Paris — Apparatus using air as a motive power. 

2854. J. E. Boyd, Hither-green, Lewisham— Candlesticks, 

lamps, and lanterns. 

2855. E. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Twisting and 

otherwise operating upon threads, twine, or cords. 

2856. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Manufacture of 

cranked axles and shafts. 

2857. E. Loomes, Whittlesea, Cambridgshire — Steam 

engines. 
285S. J. Ferrabee, Phoenix Iron Works, Stroud — Steam 

engines. 

Dated 14th December, 1858. 
2859. J. Webster, Birmingham — Recovering copper and 

zinc from liquids which have been employed to dip 



54 



List of New Patents. 



LThe Aktizan, 
Febru ay 1, 1859. 



2860, 
2861. 
2862. 



2864 
2865 

2866. F. 



2867, 

2868. 
2869. 

2870. 

2871. 

2872. 

2873. 
2874. 

2875. 
2876. 



2877. 
2878. 



2879. 
2881. 

2882. 
2883. 
2884. 

2885. 
2886. 

2887. 
2888. 
2889. 

2890. 
2891. 

2892. 

2893. 
2894. 
2895. 

2896. 
2897. 

2899. 

2900. 

2901. 

2902. 

2903. 
2904. 

2905. 

2906. 

2907. 
2908. 
2909. 



. J 



or pickle articles made of brass or other alloys con- 
taining copper and zinc. 

E. Bow, Port Dundas, Lanark, N.B. — Pumps. 
D. Anderson, Glasgow — Taps or valves. 

J. Wade, Bradford— Apparatus employed in weaving. 

G. W. Baker, Park Farm, Woburn, Bedfordshire — 
Construction of manger fastening. 

R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street— Transmitting elec- 
tric telegraph signals. 

J. T. Smets, Plagamen, France— Making vinegar from 
a refuse product obtained in the manufacture of 
starch. 

Jossa, Bishop Auckland, Durham — Furnaces for 
generating steam and other purposes. 
Dated 15th December, 1858. 
Pendlebury, Crumpsall, Lancashire — Apparatus 
for bleaching or cleansing textile fabrics or mate- 
rials. 

D. Rowan, Greenock — Steam engines. 

H. Bridges, Bridgwater — Means of working breaks on 
carriages on railways. 

F. C. N. J. T. Migeon, Morvillars, France — Manu- 
facturing screws, nails, spikes, and all similar 
articles made of metallic wire. 

A. Y. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Machinery for 

manufacturing bullets. 
A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Arrangement of 

condensing apparatus. 
J. Bullouga, Blackburn — Looms. 
C. F. Vasserot, 45, Essex-street, Strand — Pendulum 

governor for regulating the supply of steam to the 

cylinders of marine engines. 
W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Agricultural imple- 
ments. 
J. Wardill, Commercial-road-east — Controller, to 

stop and control the running out of chains and 

ropes. 

G. Bell, Wandsworth — Matches and fusees. 

T. Moss, Gainsford-street, Islington— Printing bank- 
notes, bills of exchange, and other documents 
requiring like security against being copied. 

W. Morgan, Witton Park Iron Works, near Darling- 
ton, Durham — Manufacture of iron. 
Dated 16th December, 1858. 

W. H. Carmont, 2, Rosamond-place, Upper Brook- 
street, and W. Corbett, 22, Blantyre-street, Chester- 
road, Manchester — Constructing furnaces for the 
production of wrought iron and steel. 

A. Stokes and F. J. Stokes, Birmingham— Manufac- 
ture of screws. 

R. Mushet, Coleford, Gloucestershire — Improved 
manufacture of cast steel. 

Capt. J. H. Selwyn, R.N., Woodland-crag, Grasmere, 
Westmoreland — Apparatus for paying out sub- 
marine telegraph cables or wires, and for raising the 
same after they have been laid down. 

J. W. Edge, Manchester — Balls, bullets, or other pro- 
jectiles to be employed in fire-arms or ordnance. 

J. W. Friend, Fieemantle, Southampton — Apparatus 
for ascertaining and registering the depth and flow 
of liquids. 

A. Mackenzie, Glasgow — Sewing machines. 

J. J. Margais, Paris — Galvanic batteries. 

W. White and J. Parlby, Great Marylebone-street— 
Treatment of " carton pierre," and such like com- 
position. 

R. A. Brooman, 160, Fleet-street— Plating and gilding 
forks, spoons, and other metal articles. 

W. Clark, 53, Chancery- lane— Submarine electric 
telegraph cables or conductors. 

Dated 11th December, 1858. 

J. J. Aston, 41, Doughty-street, Middlesex— Propul- 
sion of ships' boats and other vessels on and through 
the water. 

W. B. Johnson, Manchester-Apparatus for preparing 
for joining the rails of railways. 

J. Inshaw and J. Inshaw, Birmingham— Locomotive 
engines. 

A. Hinde, Wolverhampton — Preparing the cinder or 
slag from puddling furnaces for the purpose of 
facilitating the manufacture of iron therefrom. 

J.Kerr, 17, Bedford-ten-ace, Trinity-square, South- 
wark — Revolving fire-arms. 

J. Clegg, Keighley, Yorkshire — Lubricating the valves 
and pistons of steam engines. 

Dated i%th December, 1858. 

J. Aitken and J. Brooks, Irwell Vale Mill, Edenfield, 
near Bury — Looms. 

J. MacKenzie, St. Martin's-le-Grand — Ventilating sun 
burners. 

A. Mitehell, Glasgow — Apparatus for registering the 
speed of engines and other machinery. 

J. Taylor, Birkenhead — Pumps or engines for lifting 
and discharging water. 

A. P. How, Mark-lane — Cocks or stop valves. 

E. Weber, Mulhouse, France— Dyeing textile fabrics 
and materials. 

J. Soutter, Edinburgh — Apparatus for drying or air- 
ing linen or other articles of wearing apparel. 

J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields— Apparatus 
for re-working the waste steam of steam-engines. 
Dated 20th December, 1858. 

T. S. Woodcock, Salford— An improved index or book 
and paper marker. 

S. Hunter, Newcastle-upon-Tyne— Construction of 
Anchors, 

R. Maclehose, Ayr, N.B, —Stereoscopes. 



2910. J. Ronald, Liverpool — Machine for the direct spinning 

of hemp and other fibrous materials. 

2911. A. V. Newton, Chancery-lane— Lanterns. 

Dated 21st December, 1858. 

2912. F. Winter, Hoxton— Application of varnishes for 

waterproofing paper, linen, and textile fabrics. 

2913. R. McLean, Livingston, Alabama, U.S. — Self-detach- 

ing " safety-hook " or coupling. 

2914. W. E. Dando, Manchester — Apparatus for lowering 

boats from ships or vessels. 

2915. J. H. Bolton and C. Garforth, Chester— Drying yarns 

or fabrics. 

2917. W. S. Yates, Leeds— Apparatus for dragging bristles 

and drawing air and vegetable fibre. 

2918. N. Dawson, 76, High-st., Poplar— Order books. 

2919. W. Mainwaring, Brunfield, Herefordshire — Brakes for 

common road vehicles. 

Dated 22nd December, 1858. 

2921. R. Mushet, Coleford, Gloucestershire — Manufacture of 

cast steel. 

2922. G. Sharp and W. Elder, Jarrow, Durham — Furnaces 

and steam-boilers. 

2923. J. Nicholson, Halifax, and D. Crossley, Brighouse, 

Yorkshire — Jacquard machinery employed in weav- 
ing. 

2925. W. Spence, 50, Chancery-lane — Granaries for pre- 

serving grain. 

2926. E. T. Dunn, Hammersmith — Fabrics suitable for the 

covering of floors, walls, and other like purposes. 

2927. E. Green, Wakefield— Tables. 

2928. M. Shuldham, Dursley, Gloucestershire — Ships and 

vessels, and working parts of their gear and rigging. 

2929. E. Ransome, Ipswich — Manufacture of grinding and 

rubbing surfaces. 

2930. A. Prince, 4, Trafalgar-sq., Charing-cross — Ornament- 

ing and illuminating surfaces of glass. 

2931. J. J. Welch, 17, Cheapside — Manufacture of neckties, 

scarfs, or cravats. 

Dated 23rd December, 1858. 

2932. D. Lichtenstadt, Henry-cottages, Park-road, Peckham 

—Converting a certain vegetable substance into 
fibrous material. 

2933. J. Ronald, Liverpool — Machinery for the manufacture 

of " hard-tapped " and " soft-laid " twine, and 
cordage generally from heap, and other like fibrous 
material. 

2934. T. Bird, Manchester— Manufacture of cop bottoms or 

cop tubes. 

2935. J. Broom, Glasgow — Manufacture of steel. 

2936. J. Whitelaw, Dunfermline, Fife, N.B.— Sewerage and 

drainage apparatus. 

2937. A. Barclay, Kilmarnock, N.B. — Obtaining and distri- 

buting or applying electricity and magnetism. 

2938. J. Maudslay, Lambeth— Construction of ordnance, 

and projectiles to be used therewith. 
Dated 2Ath December, 1858. 

2939. J. T. P. Newbon and T. Smith, Fenchurch-street, and 

J. Brown, Follit-street — Apparatus for raising and 
lowering or otherwise moving heavy weights. 

2941. J. W. Child, Halifax— Manufacture of fabrics adapted 

to be used for curtains, coverings of furniture, table 
covers, and such like uses. 

2942. J. W. Child, Halifax — Dyeing wool and other fibres. 

2943. L. D. Owen, 192, Tottenham-court-road — Manufactu- 

ring horse-shoe nails. 

2944. E. Fellows, Canterbury— Vent-peg. 

2945. D. Edleston, Halifax— Preparing and finishing textile 

fabrics. 

2946. J. Railton and S. Lang, Blackburn — Looms. 

2947. E. Humphrys, Deptford— Brazing metal tubes in tube 

plates and other metal surfaces to each other. 

2948. A. Smith, Humbleton-hall, Yorkshire— Gigs, dog-carts, 

and other vehicles. 

2949. J. Little, Glasgow — Lamps. 

2950. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields— Permanent 

way of railways. 

2951. R. L. Giandonati, St. Paul's-churchyard — Ornament- 

ing leather-cloth. 

2952. W. B. Johnson, Manchester— Employment of gas for 

generating steam, and in engines connected there- 
with. 

Dated 21th December, 1858. 

2955. T. Steven and T. Scott, Glasgow — Heating apparatus 

for culinary and warming purposes. 

2956. J. Smethurst, Guide-bridge, Lancashire — Metallic 

pistons. 

2958. W. A. Gilbee, 4, South-street, Finsbury— Treating 

fatty bodies. 

2959. J. Macpherson, Aberdeen— Solidifying the raspings 

and other waste of horns and hoofs. 
2961. C. M. Marion, Paris— Case for containing and preserv- 
ing sensitive photographic paper, called " Marion's 
box." 

2963. H. Lowe, W. Trueman, and J. L. Pitts, Birmingham- 

Improved axle for carriages. 

2964. R. Hornsby, jun., Grantham, Lincolnshire— Ploughing 

and tilling land by steam-power. 

Dated 28th December, 1858. 

2965. B. Browne, 52, King William-street, London-bridge — 

Manufacture of boots and shoes. 

2966. J. Sinclair, Dublin — Pistons. 

2967. T. Warren, Glasgow — Manufacture of glass bottles. 

2969. J. Leek, Glasgow — Drying textile fabrics and mate- 

rials. 

2970. C. Fay, Manchester — Railway carriages and brakes. 

2971. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Manufacture 

of boots and shoes. 



2972, 
2973. 
2974. 
2975. 

2976. 

2977. 
2978. 

2979. 

2980. 

2981. 



2982. 
2983. 



2985, 
2986. 



2987, 
2988, 



2990. 
2991. 



2993, 
2994. 

2995. 

2996. 

2997. 



3000. 
3002. 



3006. 



Dated 29th December, 1858. 
W. Haworth and W. Baker, Todmorden, Yorkshire — 

Top clearers of machines for spinning. 
T. Welton, 29, New Compton-street, Soho— Giving or 

obtaining publicity. 

E. W. Carter and J. D. Abrams, Rochdale — Sewing 
machines. 

W. Taylor, Nursling, and W. D. Grimshaw, South- 
ampton — Regulating the admission of natural atmo- 
spheric air and eduction of rarefied air or gases from 
outhouses or any other place or premises, and for 
supporting a required temperature. 

R. D. Kay, Accrington, Lancashire — Applying or fix- 
ing on woven or felted fabrics certain colouring 
matters produced from tar. 

T. Pickford, 15, Mark-lane — Manufacture of manure. 

H. Hutchinson, Paris — Manufacture of india-rubber 
goods. 

S. Morand, Manchester — Apparatus for stretching 
fabrics. 

A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Machinery for 
reaping and mowing. 

T. W. Gowing, Camden-town — Roughing for the shoes 
of horses. 

Dated 30th December, 1858. 

H. N. Maynard, Crumlin, Monmouthshire — Anchors. 

F. Puis, Roxburgh-terrace, Haverstock-hill — Treat- 
ment of hydro-carbons. 

F. Johnson and J. H. G. Wells, 12, North-st., West- 
minster — Breakwaters and other similar structures. 

J. F. C. Heyne, Antwerp — Railway chairs and rails, 
and in the mode of fixing the same. 

T. Bell, Plaistow, Essex — Purifying gas. 

R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-st. — Stoppering or closing 
bottles, jars, and other like vessels. 

R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-st. — Washing and drying 
machinery. 

R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-st. — Revolving fire-arms. 

R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-st. — Machines for em- 
broidering. 

R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-st. — Machinery for splitting 
or dividing hides, skins, leather, and other like 
materials. 

R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-st.— Pipes for smoking. 

W. Burgess, Newgate-st. — Apparatuses for converting 
reciprocating into rotary motion. 

S. S. Bateson, 17, Bolton-st., Mayfair— Generating 
steam. 

J. Knowelden, Southwark, and R. D. Edwards, Upper 
Belgrave-place- Hydraulic engines. 

J. W. Duncan, Grove-end-rd., St. John's-wood. — 
Appliances for transmitting or conducting signals 
or action by electricity or magnetism. 
Dated 31st December, 1858. 

J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields— Permanent 
way of railways. 

H. Robin, Nantes, France — Reaping machines. 

T. Z. L. Maurel, 44, Rue du Dragon, Paris. — Pro- 
tracting indefinitely the working of any mechanism 
set in motion by springs, more generally applicable 
to clockmaking. 

L. A. Normandy, 67, Judd-st. — Shalt tugs. 



INVENTIONS WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS 
FILED. 
2953. M. A. F. Mennons, 39, Rue de 1'Echiquier, Paris — 
Composition for the protection of certain metallic 
surfaces— 27th December, 1858. 
2957. J. Shaw, Manchester — Mechanical combination, called 
an indefinite feed movement.— 27th December, 1858. 
26. M. A. F. Mennons, 39, Rue de 1'Echiquier, Paris- 
Steam generators. — 3rd January, 1859. 
78. T. H. Toms, Staining-lane— Materials for the produc- 
tion of raised ornamental figures or devices upon 
textile fabrics.— 10th January, 1859. 



DESIGNS FOR ARTICLES OF UTILITY REGISTERED. 

4132. Nov. 16. B. Edgington, 2, Duke-st., Southwark, 

"Base and Tripod for supporting the Centre 
Pole of a Tent." 

4133. „ 22. Smith and Ashby, Stamford, " Feed Roller 

for Chaff Cutter." 

4134. „ 30. A. Perry, 26, Ann-street, Birmingham, 

" Hall's Patent Cartridge Carrier." 

4135. „ 30. W. Aston, Princip-street Works, Birming- 

ham, " The Improved Alliance Buckle." 

4136. „ 30. F. B. Anderson, 56, High-st. Gravesend, 

"Spectacle Side-piece Fastener." 

4137. Dec. 1. W. Hewitt, Birmingham, " Rein Holder." 

4138. „ 7. A. Singer, Vauxhall Pottery, Vauxhall, 

Lambeth, " Cap or Cover for a Jar." 

4139. ,, 9. E. Wilks, Hanover House, Cheltenham, 

"Gentlemen's Wardrobe Hatcase Port- 
manteau." 
4140 ,, 13. Panklibanon Furnishing Ironmongery Co. 
(limited), 56, Baker-st., "The Standing 
Safety Fireguard." 
4141. „ 15. S. Collins, Birmingham, " Rack Pulley." 
4142 „ 20. G. A. B. Chick, Milk St., Leek-lane, and 
Callow Hill-st., Bristol, "A Block of 
Black Lead." 

4143. Dec. 27. J. H. Powell, 121, Newgate-street, E.C.— 

" Portable Stereoscopic Camera." 

4144. „ 28, T. Cowburn, Manchester—" Steam Pumping 

Engine." 



CO 



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N MARCH 



ENGINES OF SCREW STEAM SHIP 

K -f '1 1 A il'. 

>'<;istru./,,i A) i//,-.v, • STOTHERT I MARTEN, Bristol 




FIC I END ELEVATION 




FIC. 2. S I E ELEVATION. 




FIC 3 I' L A N 



1701 



1474 
970 



1872 

43 
1832 
1074 

1038 



1497 
1569 
1037 
164 



1 



953 



372 



312 
i » 

U418 

tl53 

'[846 
1090 



1 



1.395 

' 303 



1039 

ion 



igoo 



t 

%S8 



l334 

b 
j,503 

J980 



d aUB 
C ].i 

547 



61 



,170 



VESSEI 



55 



KATIO OF 



Knots. 
6-458 
7-147 
6-75 



7-818 



8-295 

6-822 
5-816 

9-289 



7-366 
10-293 

9-432 
10-537 



10-254 

9-375 
( estimated at 

(. 5-936 
( estimated at 
\ 3-5 



•625 



41 
5-32 



5-73 



I 



13-324 
11-891 



9-59 



t>>' Ee-g \ 
7-5 ] 



8-855 



estimated at 



10-241 
9-137 
4-515 

5-148 

0-494 
10-427 

8-708 

7-106 
7-686 
8-74 
6-3(19 

7-418 

6-497 

7-228 

10-074 
9-639 
S-238 

7-3 

8-096 

9-499 

8-011 

7-977 



9-782 
9-189 



8-747 
6-315 
7-685 
9-166 
6-518 

8-554 
8-41 
9-51 
estimated at 
3-5 



i-84 



>-69 



1-83 



i-47 
3 "3 



■ •76 
i-6 



H8 
09 

39 
>-3 

i V 64 
S-S4 



5-96 
19 



5-31 



5-32 



■ds. 



4-37 

17 
3-73 

53 
5-6 



15-28 
V48 
5-6 

7-87 



1-25 
1-12 
1-4 

0-86 

0-96 
1-21 
1-25 

1-22 



1-08 
1-41 



1-25 



Nominal power to 



5 £ 



3-73 
4-01 
309 



5-84 



3-07 

3-76 
3-67 

2-81 



3 09 



2-95 
1-74 



0-60 
0-56 
0-55 



2-81 
3-01 



1-5 
1-29 

0-93 

1-25 
093 



1-2 
1-11 
0-73 

0-73 

1-36 



105 
0-92 
0-81 
0-77 

0-62 



0-52 
11 

o'-91 

0-81 
112 
112 
1-12 
1 



1-12 
1 



1-29 

1-4 

116 



1-11 



1.18 



0-54 



0-62 

0-35 
0-61 

0-99 



1-11 



1-02 
2-04 



1-13 

1-06 



2-25 
2-12 
1-87 



1-73 



1-98 

0-97 

2-27 

3-13 



3-3S 
3-37 
3-19 
4-23 



3-2 
3-03 



Indicated power to 



S<2! 



117 
1-05 
1-08 



3-2 

2-74 



2-72 



•54 



2-77 
5-15 
417 

4-17 

3-28 
3-19 
3-47 

3-06 
2-99 
2-97 
3-45 
3-2 

3-78 

3 48 

3-49 

4-2 

3-06 

3-55 
3-44 
3-44 
3 4S 
3 13 



3-81 
3-08 



5-21 
4-22 
2-74 
3-09 

3-08 
3-09 
311 



3-02 



1-79 
1-56 



1-34 



0-55 



0'64 



0-91 
1-22 
0-12 

12 

0-99 
1-02 
094 

0-75 
0-76 
0-79 
0-27 
0-29 



0-28 

0-73 

0-6 

0-32 

0-27 
1-15 
1-15 
57 
0-5 



104 
1-02 



0-63 

1-2 

0-48 

1-2 

1-06 

1-07 
1-06 
1-05 



4-2 

3-79 



0-93 

1-07 

1-27 
1-93 



1-55 
2-33 
1-78 
4-91 



Numbers showing the relative performance 
jf the vessels, assuming the speed to vary 
directly ns the cube root of the power, and 
inversely as tbe eube root of 



The Area of the 
Midship Section. 



fig 



4-39 
3-98 
3-69 



211 
1-89 



3-76 



2-61 
2-89 
0-29 

0-29 

3-25 
3-32 
3-12 

2-27 
2-32 
2-38 
086 

0-91 



0-79 

0-88 

2-19 

1-9 

0-98 

0-84 
3-24 
3-24 
1-61 
1-46 



3-15 
31 



1-81 
2-88 
115 
3-84 
3-47 

3-48 
3-47 
3-45 



2-15 



5-08 
3-91 



2-99 
3-43 

4-73 

0-08 



4-73 

7-09 

5-57 

1016 



5-98 
5-45 



^■5 

s.-s 



448-8 
645-7 
559-7 



919 5 

895 3 
322 6 



359-9 
982 
822-3 
571-9 



952-3 
780-4 



X£ * 



229-8 
348-2 
283-5 



515-3 

531-1 

154-7 
414-5 



257-4 
467-6 
470-3 
238-3 



1-71 



1-41 



2-42 
2-86 
0-3S 



2-05 
2-34 
1-47 

11 
1-39 
1-49 
0-55 

0-72 



0-62 

0-66 

1-56 
1-32 

0-89 



0-69 
2-01 
2-12 
2-12 
0-95 



212 
1-86 



0-99 
2-11 
1-54 

2-4 
1-25 

1-56 
1-89 
2-3 



1-7 



11-94 
9-52 



4-8 



4-97 



6-9 

6-79 

0-91 



6-74 
7-63 
4-89 

3-34 

4-19 
4-48 
1-74 

2-34 



1-99 

2-05 

4-69 
4-15 

2-69 



2-15 
5-65 
5-95 
3-04 
2-78 



509-6 
434-8 



Displacement. 



« ca r 



119-6 
1721 
164- 



275-4 



287-6 

327-9 
86-6 



1179 
322-9 
263-1 
276-3 



326-6 
271-3 



1322 404-8 
1077-2 428 9 



655-2 



768-7 



1085-9 



6-43 
5-66 



2-S3 
5-05 
3-68 
7-72 
4-11 

5-11 
6-19 
7-53 



48-7 



1175-3 
625 5 
754-7 

111S-7 

802-2 
1111 
703-9 

478-9 
592- 
839-7 
945-6 

1387-8 



1101-5 

1327 4 

1400-6 
1477-7 
1714-4 

1439-3 
459 
741-4 

899-7 
1010-1 



898-6 
700-4 



10012 
208-8 
940-0 
642 2 
258-8 

586-1 
560-3 
814-9 



1177-2 



513 8 



490-8 



444-4 

206-7 
238-8 



416-6 

483-2 
448-1 

325-6 
326-6 
446-5 
477-0 

562-2 

442-1 

571-2 

654-5 
676-7 
624 6 

562-2 
563-6 
404 1 
478-6 
531-9 



440-4 
416-4 



077-5 
118-9 
293-4 
319-7 
21S-0 

400-3 
3141 
373-9 



519-6 



502-0 
443 2 



01-3 
91-5 
83-1 



159-7 

161-1 

41-5 
131-6 



84-4 
153-8 
150-5 
115-1 



180-1 
151-1 



197-9 
170-5 



234-4 

201-7 
309-2 



411-7 
263-5 
317-9 

471-2 

262-9 
341-5 
211-9 

158 
196-1 
280-2 
300-5 

450-5 

343-7 

426-6 

465-8 
470-8 
569-6 

463-3 
163-6 
264-2 
318-2 
346 9 



296-8 
250-2 



370-8 
87-6 
394-5 
200-4 
79-1 

179-4 
171-3 
248-8 



412-0 



183-8 



139-8 



155-7 
112-3 
100-6 



127 

148-5 

134-9 

107-4 
108-2 
149- 
148 1 
182-5 



137-9 

183-7 

217-7 
215-6 
207-5 

181 
93-8 
144 
169-3 
182-6 



145-4 
137-0 



236-7 
49-9 

123-1 
99-8 
66-8 

122-6 
96-1 
114-2 



181-8 



REMARKS. 



Not rigged, but ballasted. 

Ditto ditto. 

Rigged and fully equipped for sea. 
Engines appropriated to Horatio not completed. 
With Rifleman's Engines ; not rigged, but ballasted. 

Rigged and fully equipped for sea. 

Fitted with paddle-wheels also, speed 7501 knots. 

Rigged and partially equipped. 

Not completed. 

Rigged and partially equipped. 

Not completed. 

Jury rigged, ballasted to trim. 

Rigged and fully equipped subsequent to alteration of stern 

Not rigged. 

Engines not appropriated. 

Not rigged, but ballasted to trim. 
Ditto ditto. 



Rigged and fully equipped for sea. 
Not completed. 

Engines appropriated to Simoom. 
Not rigged, light. 
Rigged and fully equipped. 
Engines appropriated to Vulcan. 

Not completed. 

Rigged and fully equipped for sea. 

Engines appropriated to Sans l'areil. 
With Archer's engines. 
Not completed. 



Engines not appropriated. 
With Seahorse's engines. 
Not rigged, but ballasted to trim. 
Ditto ditto. 

Ditto ditto. 

Not completed. 
Rigged and fully equipped for sea. 

Ditto ditto. 

Ditto ditto but very deep. 

Not rigged, but ballasted. 
Rigged. 
Ditto. 
Not rigged, but ballasted to trim. 

Rigged and partially equipped. 

Rigged and fully equipped for sea. 

Ditto ditto. 

Not rigged, but ballasted. 

Rigged and fully equipped for sea, 6 in. false keel added on. 

Not rigged ; light. 

Rigged and fully equipped for sea. 
Prior to stern being made finer. Rigged and ballasted. 
Subsequent ditto ditto ditto. 

With Teazer's engines ditto ditto. 

Ditto ditto ditto ditto. 

With Horatio's engines, not completed. 
Engines appropriated to Megsera. 
Not rigged, but ballasted to trim. 
Rigged and partially equipped. 
Engines not appropriated. 

With Eurotas's engines. 

Not rigged, prior to stern being made finer. 

Ditto subsequent ditto. 

Not rigged, but ballasted to trim. 
Trial not considered satisfactory. 

Rigged and equipped for sea. 
Ditto ditto. 

Ditto ditto. 

Rigged and fully equipped for sea. 

Engines not appropriated. 

With Forth 's engines ; not rigged, but ballasted. 

Engines not appropriated. 

With Minx's encrines, not completed. 



to 





ON THE INTRODUCTION AND PROGRESSIVE INCREASE OF SCREW PROPULSION IN HER MAJESTY'S NAVV. 








— 


VESSEL. 




ENGINES. 


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BEMARKS. 



Wind No. 4. 
Wind No. 2. 



Fully rigged and complete with sea stores. 
Fullv rigged and complete with sea stores. 
Wind No. 5. 

Preliminary trial, vessel not in trim. 



Fresh breeze. 

Wind No. 6. 

Wind No. 5. 

Speed not taken on account of vessel being ordered away direct. 

154':! Wind No. 4. 
Wind No. 2. 
Preliminary trial. 
Wind No. 2. 
Wind No. 8. 

Not rigged, Tier lower masts only being In place. Wind No. 4 
Wind variable, No. 1 to No. 2. [to No. 5. 



) Trial with three propellers, the centre one 12 ft. 6 in. pitch. 
) those on the quarters 7 ft. 6 in. pitch. Aggregate areas of 
[discs taken in the calculation. 
Speed by patent log. AVind No. 5, abeam. Propeller 11 in. 
Wind No. 4. [out of the water. Negative slip. 



Wind No. 2 to No. 3. 

Wind No. 3. Fully ri 

Wind No. 5 to No. G. 

Wind varying from No. 1 to No. 3 



[service, 
ed and complete with stores for home 



ftriffiths's propeller. 
Wind No. 2. 

Wind No. 1. 

Wind No. 6 on the beam. 

Negative slip . 

Wind No. 3 to No. 4. abeam. No guns on board. Negative slip. 

Wind No. 3 to No. 5. 

Wind No. 4. 

Partly rigged ; no yards. 



Fully rigged and ready for sea. 
Wind No. 1. 

Calm, smooth water. Ship fully rigged and equipped. 
Speed could not be accurately ascertained. Mean of two runs. 

[Indicator broken. 
Wind light and variable. 
Wind No. 1. 476 tons of coal on board. 

Speed by patent, log. Weather calm, water smooth. 
Upper edge of propeller 2 ft. 4 in. out of the water. Wind No. 

[4, a little swell. 
Wind No. 3. 

Upper edge of propeller 1 ft. 8J in. out of the water. Wmd 

[No. 4. 
Trial not considered satisfactory. 
Vacuum imperfect. Negative slip. 



Vessel not in trim. [much by the stern. 

Wind No. 4. Speed not considered an average, vessel being so 

Wind No. 2 to No. 3. 

Wind No. 2. 

Wind No. 3 to No. 4. 

Wind No. 2 to No. 5. Variable. 

Wind No. 7 to No. 8. Weather unfavourable. 

Wind No. 3. 

Speed not taken on account of vessel being ordered away direct. 
Wind No. 6. 
Wind No. 2. 
Wind No. 1. 



Vessel not in good trim. Weather squally. 
AVind No. 4 to No. 5. 

Complete with stores for sea. 
Vessel not in trim. 



THE ARTIZAN. 



No. 194.— Vol. 17.— MAECH 1st, 1859- 



ADMIRALTY EXPERIMENTS WITH SCREW STEAM 
SHIPS IN THE ROYAL NAVY— WITH THE OFFICIAL 

TABLES. 

(Accompanied by eight pages of Tables.) 
In the year 1850, the Admiralty caused to be printed a series 
of experiments upon screw propulsion as adopted in Her Majesty's 
Service in vessels of various classes ; those experiments were extensive 
and elaborate, and the results were recorded in a tabular form, and were 
accompanied with some remarks "on the introduction and progressive 
increase of screw propulsion in Her Majesty's Navy." 

In the year 1856, a second official report was made to the Admiralty 
on the results of trials made in H.M's. screw ships and vessels, being 
continuation of the tables printed May 1850. This, like the preceding 
report of results of trials, was printed, and a few copies very sparingly 
circulated, principally amongst official persons, but with strict injunc- 
tions as to their being considered private and confidential, and therefore 
not to be published. Like most " private and confidential" documents 
which have been printed, and an unnecessary amount of importance 
attached to their being held as secrets, and considered as the property of 
a Government department, these documents were to be seen in the hands 
of Erench and Russian engineers and Government officials connected 
with their navies, whilst it was forbidden by the Admiralty that any 
public or beneficial use should be made of these documents for the 
advancement of scientific knowledge, or the more rapid and thorough 
advancement of the application of the screw propeller in the mercantile 
marine of this country. 

At the meeting of the British Association, held in Dublin in the year 
1857, a committee was nominated by the mechanical section (Sec- 
tion G) to consider and report on the best means of obtaining and 
recording facts connected with the performance of steam vessels at sea, 
with a view to advance the science of naval architecture. This com- 
mittee, upon being nominated, had to be confirmed by the council of the 
Association, but during the progress of the recommendation from the 
committee of Section G up to the council, other names (from another 
section) than those recommended by Section G were added to the 
committee, it having afterwards been stated, by way of explanation, 
that the officers of the British Association considered the objects of the 
committee to be of a statistical nature, and therefore to make room for 
members of the statistical committee, certain names recommended by 
Section G were struck out, whereupon several of the other members of 
the mechanical section, whose names were permitted to remain on the 
committee, declined to act, and so nothing material in the way of carrying 
out the original recommendation of the committee, resulted from the 
working of the committee as then constituted, but a report was issued 
by the acting members in conformity with the requirements of the 
association, which report, upon being read, produced considerable con- 

10 



troversy in the mechanical section of the British Association when they 
met in September last year at Leeds, and out of this controversy resulted 
the re-appointment of the whole of the members of the original com- 
mittee recommended by the Section, to whom were added several other 
members of Section G, and also several scientific noblemen and gentle- 
men, members of the association. 

The Committee thus appointed under a resolution " That it is desirable 
to call the attention of the proprietors of steam vessels to the great 
importance of adopting a general and uniform system of recording facts 
of performance of steam-vessels at sea under all circumstances, and to 
report to the Association at its next meeting," immediately commenced 
active proceedings, Admiral Moorsom being nominated chairman of the 
committee. The first meeting was held in December last, at the room, 
11, Buckingham Street, kindly lent to the Committee by Mr. Yates, 
one of the most active of the advocates for the introduction of the 
decimal system of currency, measurements, &c, into this country, and 
the committee has continued to meet monthly, a working sub-com- 
mittee having met, almost without interruption, weekly. 

One of the first matters brought to the notice of the committee was 
the existence of a vast number of figures and many valuable facts, in 
the form of printed tables of " Results of Trials made in Her Majesty's 
Screw Ships and Vessels ;" and although several members of that com- 
mittee had a copy of the printed tables, &c, issued by the Admiralty, 
yet each member so possessed felt himself precluded from giving to the 
committee, as a body, the advantage of a reference to those reports, the 
contents of which were patent to many of them. Although such in- 
formation was undoubtedly public property, having been collected by 
public servants, at the public cost, with vessels, the property of the 
nation ; and it might, therefore, be supposed for the public good, con- 
sidering the vast interest of the commercial community engaged in 
maritime affairs, and to whose fostering care (almost exclusively) the 
Royal Navy is indebted for the introduction of the screw, as a propeller, 
instead of the old, cumbrous, and ill-suited means of propelling steam 
vessels of war, formerly exclusively in use in the Royal Navy of England ; 
nevertheless, it seemed there was not only a total disregard of the com- 
mercial interest and the public good in the official withholding of the 
results of trials with the screw propeller in Her Majesty's ships, but 
also an unaccountable assumption of exclusive right of appropriation of 
whatever was likely to be useful in the way of experiment with steam 
vessels in the Royal Navy; for, as a rule, anything like a full and 
correct statement of the results of trials at the measured mile or else- 
where, even though it might be of importance to the reputation of the 
manufacturers of the engines, was absolutely forbidden. 

The committee, foreseeing the advantage it would be to give publicity to 
those tables, that they might be taken for what they are worth, and that 
they might be applied by naval architects, marine engine builders, and 
steam ship owners, to their purposes, to the extent to which they could 



RESULTS OF TRIALS MADE IN H.M.'S SCREW 
SHIPS AND VESSELS. 



Tn» numbers in lbs but [no Faiirc roliimns of Hit TsMo «hnw „pprojimfll(l; 
he relative rjccllener, In respect of tpeed, of Mir form* of the mini* vessel", 
wrjointly with the reUtlTC efBclrnry of the pp.pdlcr, as naaplrd to each of 

The formate by which the cnJculaliMU arc mmlr, are f.iiindnl an Hie assnmp- 
ion that the resistance or a vessel mri™ iu the square of tier velocity, and, 
hercfare, Ih.it the pnwrr required to produce Hint velocity varies: an the cube, 
ttl Hint the useful effect of the engine— that Is, the .-fleet which remain, after 
leduetin- tile power absorbed in overcoming friction, working air-pumps, fcc.— 
aire a, constant ratio lo the pow.T drrelop'd in tin- cylinder, known by (lie 
am ■• Indicated Howe Power." The raislance Is, Id the first of these 

ad in Hie bM column as the square of the cabe root of the dkpba raAt. 
Jirmc "! the* nviusptious, however, more especially the last two, are bU»0- 
itely correct, but probably ilicy are not so far from the trulli as Id render 
Jcleu and uninteresting a comparison, of which lliey are the IwudJ, made 

hichdonot materially differ In engines nnd di. placemen I, or in Ihearrauf 
ieir midship sections, such a, comparison is not only highly tnttrwtlmr, Iral II 
ay prove of great nine in pointing ant the forms of vessels and proporllon of 
propellers which ought to be adopted. In Mime striking eases It 1. scarce])' 
iry to make any other compariion llian Out of tperd. For cj.an.ple, ns 
! seen in the table printed in 1850, the Trnirr, after her form had been 
ed, went abOTe a, knot an bnur foster with. tO hone engines than the lind 
isly gone with engir» of WO liorse power, jlgnlii,' tbiio ehglnkj of 100 
horse, when transferred to the Rifleman—* reaiel approaching to double the 
e dro,e her, after Iht fonu liad been altered, ns Cut as the bus pre- 
driTen by enema of d 0U W c the power, nnd nearly two knob, faster 
ae same engine, drove the smaller teasel before the alteration of her 
after-body. 

Admiralty, Auijuit, J&a. 





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58 Experiments with Screw Steam- Ships. — Committee on Steam- Ship Performance. 



["The Aetizan', 
L March 1, 1859. 



avail themselves of the information, passed a resolution several months 
ago, that they should memorialize the Admiralty with reference to 
obtaining permission to make a series of experiments of a thoroughly 
reliable character, and amongst other things, to obtain the publication of 
the various official papers, reports, &c, connected with trials of the vessels 
in the Royal Navy; and amongst those papers are the two official 
documents hereinbefore referred to, viz. : the first, dated May, 1850, and 
the second (being a continuation of the tables printed May, 1850), dated 
Admiralty, August, 1856. 

The Committee on Steam Ship performance, having recently memo- 
rialised the Admiralty, and the prohibition to the publication of the 
two sets of tables just referred to, having been removed, we are now 
enabled to present to our readers, the two sets of tables which are 
issued, without additional charge, with the present Number. It should 
be observed that the Committee on Steam Ship performance, have for 
some time past had placed at their disposal, by us, copies of the tables in 
manuscript, for the purpose of reference, and we are now glad to be 
enabled to place those tables, for what they are worth, before our readers ; 
at the same time expressing a hope that experiments on steam vessels, 
in the Royal Navy will in future be conducted not only publicly, or at 
least that the results may be available for the advancement of practical 



science, but also that other and equally important elements which are 
omitted to be given in the tables of 1850 and 1856, may in future be 
added to those which it is thought worth while noting for the purpose 
of drawing conclusions, by which the comparative merits of vessels and 
their machinery have to be judged. We more particularly refer to the 
entire absence of any details respecting the source of power — the 
boilers, the coal consumption, and other equally important elements for 
enabling practical men to arrive at useful conclusions respecting the 
relative and comparative merits of the steam machinery employed on 
board of vessels in Her Majesty's service. 

In presenting our readers with these two sets of tables, we have made 
a transposition of some of the columns, as we had previously done in 
manuscript for our own convenience, but, with that exception, the tables 
are faithfully reprinted from the originals issued by the Admiralty. 

In conclusion, we think it but fair to the members of the Committee 
of the British Association on Steam Ship Performance to state, that to 
them solely is due the credit for obtaining the publication of the official 
papers and tables of results of trials made in Her Majesty's screw-ships 
and vessels ; and thus, by effecting one step in advance, they have paved 
the way for other material improvements. 



COMMITTEE ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 

The following circular letter and form have been issued by the Com- 
mittee, and we call the attention of steam-ship owners, engineers, and 
steam-ship builders thereto, and express a hope that their cordial and 
zealous co-operation will be extended to the Committee: — 

" The British Association, at its meeting at Leeds, appointed a Com- 
mittee to call the attention of proprietors of steam- vessels to the ' great 
importance of adopting a general and uniform system of recording facts 
of performance of steam-vessels at sea under all circumstances, and to 
report to the Association at its next meeting.' 

" The return is intended to contain such particulars of the trials in 
smooth water at the measured mile, as it is usual to obtain for the satis- 
faction of the designer of the vessel and the builder of the engines; and 
the Committee are aware that such particulars are usually confined to 
the knowledge alone of those persons. 

" It is, however, well known that information respecting these trial- 
performances constantly appears in the newspapers, and that, not being 
authentic, and seldom furnishing all the requisite data, very erroneous 
conclusions are liable to be drawn from such statements. 

" The Committee believe that authenticated facts recorded in the form 
proposed would materially aid the scientific naval architect and the 
practical shipbuilder, together with the engineer, in determining many 

RETURN OF PARTICULARS RESPECTING THE STEAM-SHIP 



elements which are at present held as opinions only, and about which 
considerable differences prevail. 

" The object of the Committee is to make public such recorded facts, 
through the medium of the Association, and being accessible to the 
public in that manner, to bring the greatest amount of science to the 
solution of the difficulties now existing to the scientific improvement of 
the forms of vessels and the qualities of marine engines. 

" They will especially endeavour to guard against information so fu»- 
nished to them being used in any other way, and they trust they may 
look for the co-operation of members of the Yacht Club having steam 
yachts, of shipowners, as well as of builders and engineers. 

" The return of particulars of performance at sea will afford the means 
of making such comparisons with smooth-water performances as cannot 
fail to throw light upon qualities of vessels, which as yet are matter of 
speculation only. 

" The names of the Members of the Committee are annexed. 

Vice-Admiral M00RSOM, Chairman. 



The Marquis of STAFFOED, M.P. 
The Earl of CAITHNESS. 
The Lord DUFFERIN. 
Sir JAMES GRAHAM, Bart., MP. 
WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN, F.E.S. 
JOHN SCOTT EUSSELL, F.R.S. 

HENRY WRIGHT, Secretary. 

" Committee Room, 11, Buckingham Street, Strand 
"London, March 1st, 1859." 



JAMES KITSON, C.E. 
WILLIAM SMITH, C.E. 
JAS. E. McCONNELL, C.E. 
CHARLES ATHERTON, C.E. 
Prof. RANKINE, LL.P. 
JAMES R. NAPIER, C.E. 















ACTUAL 




PROPELLERS. 














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THE LINES 
















































OF THE SHIP. 




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The Aiitizan,~| 
March 1,1859. J 



The " Artizan" Steam- Shij). — Hopkins s Patent Journal-Box . 



59 



THE "ARTIZAN" STEAM- SHIP. , 

(Illustrated by Plate, No. 140.) 

Tub screw stearn-ship Artizan, built by Messrs. Stothert and Marten, 
of Hotwells, Bristol, and named after our Journal, was fitted with hori- 
zontal direct-actiag engines of 100 nominal H.P., having the cylin- 
ders on one side of the screw-shaft, and the condenser, with air-pumps 
and feed and bilge pumps (worked direct off the piston) on the other 
side, the steam being conducted to the condenser over the engines in 
large copper pipes, into which a portion of the injection is taken. They 
take up very little room in the vessel, and have an unusually long con- 
necting-rod. Everything is arranged so that the different parts can be 
easily got at, and as the engineer stands upon the driving-platform, he 
can see the whole of his engines at work. 

They have been at work for some time, and give the greatest satis- 
faction, making 120 revolutions per minute, without any accident or hot 
bearings since they were set to work. 

The engines and machinery are very creditable specimens of the 
engineering ability of a young firm ; and a reference to the accompanying 
Plate will show that considerable attention has been paid to the con- 
trivance and arrangement of the engines, and for compactness they will 
bear comparison with the engines of other firms. 

The following are the particulars of the ship and machinery : — 

DIMENSIONS OF " ARTIZAN " SCREW-STEAMER. 
Built by Messrs. Stothert and Marten ; Engines by the same firm, of 100 H.P. nominal. 

Length on deck, 170 ft. 6 in.; breadth of beam, 25 ft. 6 in.; depth of 
hold at ditto, 15 ft. 6 in. 4 length of engine space ; 26 ft. 8 in. Tons : — 
hull, 454-29; engine-room, 145-37; register, N.M., 308-92 ; tonnage, 
B.M., 535^. Kind of engines, horizontal direct-acting; ditto boilers, 
tubular; diameter of cylinders, 37 in.; length of stroke, 1 ft. 10 in.; 
diameter of screw, 9 ft. 3 in. ; length of screw, 2 ft. 8 in. ; pitch of screw, 
17 ft.; number of blades of screw, 2 ; number of boilers, 2; length of 
ditto, 8 ft. 8 in.; height of ditto, exclusive of steam-chests, 11 ft. 6 in.; 
number of furnaces, 6; breadth of ditto, 2 ft. 4 in.; length of fire-bars, 
1 ft. 6 in.; number of tubes, 657; internal diameter of ditto, 2£in.; length 
of ditto, 6 ft. 6 in. ; diameter of chimney, 4 ft. 2 in. ; height of ditto, 
34 ft.; load on safety-valve in lbs. per sq. inch, 16 lbs.; contents of 
bunkers in tons, 40; draft forward, 4 ft. 6 in.; ditto aft, 12 ft. 6 in. 

Prames— Shape, angle-iron, 3f in. by 2| in. by \ in. and 16 in. apart; 
number of strake of plates from keel to gunwale, 6; thickness of plates, 
i 7 g in - to -re in -; number of bulkheads, 3; diameter of rivets, \\ in. to £ in.; 
distances apart, 2J in.; part single and part double riveted; depth of 
keel, 7 in.; dimensions of ditto, 7 in. by 2Jin.; masts, 3; rig, three- 
masted schooner. 



Intended service — Iron ore trade. 

Classed at Lloyd's for twelve years A 1. 

Remarks — She has a ballast tank, containing 150 tons of water; 
length, 28 ft.; depth, 10 ft.; area of mean section of ditto, 223-4. 

Girt of midship section of ship on the ribs, from centre of keel to 
underside of the deck at side, 26-6J. 



HOPKINS'S PATENT JOURNAL-BOX. 

The accompanying- illustrations exhibit views of " Hopkins's Improvements in 
Journal-Boxes." The novel features claimed for this invention are the intro- 
duction of diaphragms, to prevent the ingress of dust or grit to the box, in 
combination with an elastic rubber or lubricator, by which the oil or lubri- 

a 
of 

Fig. 1 ; A being the housing or casing of the box"; b, the opening through 
which the journal end, e, passes ; p being a leather diaphragm or collar, work- 
ing in one 'of the three grooves g,— of which diaphragms or collars there may be 
more than one (and it is advisable to apply at least a second, to fill the space 
h) ; 1 is the top block, which receives the bearing ; J being- a white-metal or 
brass lining ; k, a block-piece or cross-bar, for receiving the end-thrust and 
occasional wear of the axle (this piece is moveable, but is securely held within 
the housing or box); 1 is a moveable pan or cover, to protect the loose 
cotton, o, from dust ; M, a pad or rubber of woollen or other material, which 
is mounted upon the moving arm I, which may be a steel spring, the 
rubber being kept in contact with the underside of the journal by the spring- 
arm, I ; n being the capillary feeder, which may either be a flat band or a 
series of threads, the lower ends of which dip into the oil-pan or reservoh 1 . 

Fid. Fie. II. 




The end cover, c, is perforated, and lined inside with wire-gauze and open- 
woven cloth, or other similar material ; D being a porous diaphragm stretched 
over the entire surface of the end cover. 

These journal-boxes have been in use in America for several months, running 
400 to 500 miles every 24 hours ■ and it is certified, by some American railway 
authorities, that these axle-boxes have run over 6,000 miles without more than 
half exhausting the oil filled into the reservoir before starting. 



-WHILST UNDER TRIAL. 



ENGINES— continued. 


BOILERS. 




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60 



The Patent Hoist Governor. — Accidents and Occurrences in the United States. 



tTHE Artizan, 
March 1, 1859. 



THE PATENT HOIST GOVERNOR. 

The principle of this invention is that of making the hoist box or cage 
used in mills, warehouses, and mines of every description, its own gover- 
nor and regulator. This is accomplished by a pair of governor balls 
(similar to those used in ordinary steam-engines), attached to the top of 
the hoist-box, which acquire a momentum through the medium of a 
friction roller, which constant^ rests against the guide or side of the 
shaft or well-hole, and by a driving-band communicating therefrom to 
the governor. Should the hoist box or cage ever attain a speed above 
that to which it is originally regulated to travel at, the immediate action 
of the governor brings into operation cams and catches, which, upon 
being once brought into contact with the ordinary sides or guides 
of the hoist, instantly retard the descent of the box; and the cams 
and eccentric feet, upon being brought into operation, are not dependent 
upon any artificial pressure, such as springs, levers, &c, but exert their 
retarding force according to the weight of the box or cage. For example: — 
Let any hoist box or cage be regulated to travel, say, at 80 or more feet 
per minute, as desired: so long as this speed is not exceeded, the governor 
will admit of the free working of the hoist, but should the descending 
box from any cause acquire a greater velocity, the friction roller imme- 
diately imparts an accelerated motion to the governor, which disengages 
a trigger, and allows the machine to come into action, so that the box 



cannot but be retained in position at the instant the regulated speed has 
been exceeded. 

It is well known that several methods have been employed to sustain 
the box in the event of rope breaking, but, whereas nineteen accidents 
in every twenty happen from other causes than the breaking of the 
rope, the methods hitherto adopted are unsafe and not to be depended 
upon; and the patentees of the Hoist Governor assert, that, with this 
governing apparatus applied, the box or cage cannot be made to descend 
(let what will occur to engine, ropes, wheels, or gearing) at a quicker 
speed than that to which the box is restricted by the application of the 
governor. 

Having been invited to witness the operation of the Patent Hoist 
Governor at the warehouse of Messrs. Watts and Co., Portland-street, 
Manchester, we visited Manchester expressly for that purpose ; and 
having personally tested the working of the apparatus in the severest 
manner possible, we consider it a duty to mine-owners, and the proprie- 
tors of warehouses and mills having hoists, to urge upon them the 
application of an apparatus at once so efficient and inexpensive. 

For the information of the mechanical portion of our readers, we give 
herewith three illustrations of the Safety Hoist Governor apparatus, 
applied to a warehouse hoist, which views are sufficiently explanatory 
of the action of the apparatus to render any further textual descrip- 
tion unnecessary. 




^ liiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiFiiiMTi'iMiiiiiiiiiiSiiiiiiiiiiiiiiSiil 
Fig. 1. 




Fig. 3. 



ACCIDENTS AND OCCURRENCES IN THE UNITED 
STATES IN JANUARY, 1859. 

In the " Philadelphia Press " for January 3rd we are informed that 
about 40 miles of the Georgia railroad track have been washed away 
by the recent flood at different points. It adds that on the previous 
Friday a train of cars was thrown off the rails near Columbus, owing 
to the washing away of the track, and precipitated a distance of 30 ft. 
into the stream; twelve dead bodies have been recovered, and seven 
persons are still missing. 

In the " Philadelphia Evening Argus," January 3rd, is given the 



following list of disasters to steamers on the western rivers during the 
year 1858: — 

Burned 27 

Sunk on rocks, snagged, or run ashore 108 

Collisions 27 

Explosions 10 

Number of lives lost 346 

Aggregate value of loss, 1,414,000 dollars. 

From the "Philadelphia Press," January 11th, we learn that the 

boiler at the lard-oil mill of Joseph Whitaker, on Broadway, Cincinnatti, 

exploded on the morning of the 10th of January, severely injuring seven 

persons. The concussion was tremendous, lifting up the floors, and 



The Artizan, ~] 
March 1, 1859. J 



American Notes for 1859- — No. 2. 



61 



forcing out all the doors and windows in the rear and front of the 
building. The damage to the property will not exceed 1,200 dollars. 

The "Philadelphia Ledger" of January 17th states a terrific explosion 
of a boiler occurred at Mr. Wells' grist and saw mill, at Hampstead, 
Kent, county Virginia, on the 10th inst. Five slaves were killed. 

The " Baltimore Sun " of January 21st states that the Winans " Cigar" 
steamer has been on her trial trip, and with a pressure of steam of 56 lbs. 
per in. (half the pressure intended to be used on her voyages), an average 
speed of 12 miles per hour was obtained; and that in every respect the 
performance of the vessel was satisfactory to the enterprising projectors. 
(To an outsider, the speed obtained does not indicate much proba- 
bility of her making the run from New York to Liverpool in six days.) 

The "Philadelphia Ledger" of January 25th informs us that the 
IT. S. steam-frigate " Niagara " (of cable-laying celebrity) is now 
lying at New York, and has had her engines taken out for the necessary 
repairs to be effected on them. (So young a vessel ought not to require 
such extensive repairing to her engines as this would indicate.) 

The " Philadelphia Press " of January 29th says that the throttle 
valve of the steamer " Onward " burst, near Albany, on the Willamette, 
Oregon, and scalded five of the crew; two of them are reported to have 
died. 

The "Baltimore American" states that during the past few days 
it has been reported that the Winans "Cigar" steamer is to be length- 
ened 28 ft., 14 ft. each end of the wheel, for the purpose of increasing 
her speed. ( We wish they may obtain it .') 

As a matter of scientific interest to English engineers, I send you 
the following extract from the " Public Ledger and Daily Transcript " 
of the 5th February : — 

" New Steam Generator. — One of James Black's new steam generators, 
for which a patent was recently granted to Scott, Todd, and Co., of this 
city, has just been put in operation at the foundry of Morris, Tasker, and 
Morris. The novelty of the invention consists in injecting into a 
suitable generator a mixture of atmospheric air and water, by which 
steam is obtained for mechanical purposes of a greater tensive force, it 
is said, witli a given quantity of fuel, than from water alone. The 
generator referred to consists of two vertical conical coils made of 2 -inch 
lap-welded pipe, 30 in. in diameter at base, and 20 in. at the top, con- 
nected to a horizontal steam-drum, 6 ft. long and 17 in. diameter. The 
air and water is forced into the lower ends of the coils in graduated 
quantities, where it is almost instantly vaporized. The coils are sus- 
pended in a stack over grate-bars having a square surface of 7 ft. The 
generator, which was put up for 15 H.P., has been found to generate 
steam for 25. Among the advantages claimed for it, are — a great saving 
in fuel, exemption from danger by explosion, saving* of space" by its 
compactness, dispatch in raising steam, and greater durability than 
other boilers. Its non-explosive property arises from the fact that the 
coils will bear a pressure of 2,000 lbs. to the square inch, and that the 
almost instantaneous vaporization of the water and air leaves no water 
in the generator. Fifteen minutes is required' for raising steam, and 
the inventor claims that the highest pressure may be attained with 
safety. The claim of durability is founded upon the absence of flues to 
collapse, or joints to burn out." 

By the way, to show you we are getting rid of the old savage " Biler 
Buster," the above extract from the " Ledger " explains the plan of 
expanding common atmosphere with steam, which you see is done by 
injecting a little water with the air. ,. This plan, however, although it 
will cut down the quantity of fuel ordinarily used to about one-half, 
does not equal by a vast deal the advantages of another plan, which I 
have before described to you ; for the following reasons : — First, it 
requires 212 degrees of heat to cause water to commence expanding, or 
to change it to a state of vapour, and then some hundreds of degrees 
of heat still added to that, in order to give the same vapour a powerful 
expansion to drive the engine. But by the other plan, you will observe 
that the atmosphere is already in a suspended or vaporous state, and 
at a low temperature — say of '62 to 70 degrees, — and hence ready 
to expand at any increase of temperature upon that ; so that by the 
time it receives heat to that degree which boils water, the expansion 
is already sufficient to drive the engine. In fact, but a moment elapses 
after the application of the fire to the charger or heater, before the 
engine is " off." I tried an experiment of this kind, and, starting with 
everything cold, at exactly the ninth second the engine moved off with 
considerable speed. 

Mr. Ericsson proves that common atmosphere is quite sufficient to 
drive engines for many purposes, and is continually constructing them, 
and sending them all over the world, and is at this time dispatching a 
very nice one to Kome. The Ericsson engine is desirable where water 
is not conveniently available ; but so little water is required in 
the new plan, that the latter must take the universal lead, as that 
little imparts to the engine all the power of the ordinary steam engine, 
particularly since it can be run with about one-eighth of the fuel. In 
fact, 10 tons of coal per day would be quite sufficient to drive the 
" Persia " or " Adriatic." You may call this crazy, or what you will, 
but it is nevertheless true. 



AMERICAN NOTES FOR 1859. 

No. II. 
DIMENSIONS OF NEW STEAMEES. 

DIMENSIONS OF STEAMER "A3IONA." 
Hull built by Harlan, Hollingsworth, and Co., "Wilmington, Del. i Engines, ditto. 

1 Ft. In. 

Length on deck 201 6 

Length at load line 200 

Breadth of beam (moulded) 34 

Depthofhold 10 

Depth of hold to spar deck 17 C 

Length of engine-room 75 

Area of immersed section at load draft 228 

Hull 032 tons. 

Engine-room and bunkers 230 tons. 

Description of engine, vertical beam condensing ; ditto of boiler, one flue, 
return; diameter of cylinder, 3 ft. 8 in. ; length of stroke, 11 ft.; diameter of 
water wheel over boards, 30 ft. ; length of wheel blades, ft. 6 in. ; depth of 
ditto, I ft. 10 in. ; number of ditto, 26 ; number of boilers, 1 ; length of ditto, 
24 ft. ; breadth of ditto, 15 ft. 6 in. ; height of ditto, exclusive of steam chimney, 
7 ft. 7 in. ; number of furnaces, 4; breadth of ditto, 3 ft. 5 in. ; length of grate 
bars, ft. 2 in. ; number of flues above, 8 ; ditto below, 8 ; internal diameter of 
ditto above, 1 ft. 5f- in. ; ditto below, oval, 1 ft. G in. by 2 ft. ; length of ditto 
above, 19 ft. 2 in. ; ditto below, 15 ft. 6 in. ; diameter of smoke pipe, 5 ft. 3| in. ; 
height of ditto, 33 ft. 8 in. ; draft forward, light, 4 ft. 6 in. ; load, 7 ft. ; ditto 
aft, light, 5 ft. 2 in. ; load, 8 ft. ; date of trial, January, 1859 ; heating surface, 
1,880 sq. ft.; consumption of fuel per hour, § tons; maximum pressure of 
steam, 30 lbs. ; point of' cutting off, 5 ft. 6 in. ; geared direct; maximum revo- 
lutions at above pressure, 17J ; speed in knots with tide, 14J ; ditto against, 10 ; 
weight of engine, 360,000 lbs. ; ditto boiler, with water, 130,000 lbs. 

Frames, bar iron (Fig. 1); depth, 3f in. ; width of web, 1 in. ; number of strakes 
of plates from keel to gunwale, 12 ; thickness of plates, \ in., T 7 g in., and £ in. ; 



Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

description of cross floors, bar iron, 1 in. by 3| in., and 11 cross keelsons 20 in. 
high, with angle iron on top of ditto (see Figs. 1 and 2); depth of keel, 5 in. ; 
diameter of rivets, f in. and f in. ; distance apart, 2 in. ; single riveted; keel 
double, upper plate single ; independent steam, fire, and bilge pumps, 1 ; 
boilers, chimney, and smoke pipe, how protected from communicating fire, 
felt and iron ; masts, 2 ; rig, schooner ; number of bulkheads, 4. 

Intended service — New Orleans to Brazos. 

Remarks — Flange iron clamp around the gunwale of ship made of sheet, 

24 in. wide, and \ in. thick, with wrought-iron knees to each frame, and 12 
fore and aft keelsons, 20 in. high. 

DIMENSIONS OF STEAMER " KENSINGTON." 
Built by Birely and Lynn, Philadelphia; Engines by Reaney, Neafie, and Co., 
Philadelphia. 

Ft. In. 

Length on deck 208 

Breadth of beam 31 

Depth of hold 18 

Depth of hold to spar deck 25 

Hull 1050tons. 

Kind of engines, vertical beam ; ditto boilers, flued ; diameter of cylinder, 
56 in.; length of stroke, 3 ft. Sin. ; diameter of screw, 13 ft. ; pitch of screw, 

25 ft. ; number of blades of screw, 4 ; number of boilers, 1 ; area of 
immersed section at load draft of 15 ft. 400 ft. ; load on safety-valve in lbs. 
per sq. in., 15 lb. ; date of trial, December, 1858 ; draft forward, 13 ft. 6 in. ; 
ditto aft, 15 ft.; average revolutions, 50. 

Frames, 14| in. by 10 in., and;12 in. and 28 in. apart. Number of bulk- 
heads, 2 ; independent steam, fire, and bilge pumps, 1 ; masts, 3 ; rig, fore- 
topsail schooner. 

Intended service — Philadelphia to Boston. 

DIMENSIONS OF STEAMER " BALTIMORE." 
Hull built by John A. Robb, Baltimore ; Engines by Murray and Haslehurst, Baltimore. 

Ft. In. 

Length on deck 150 

Breadth of beam (moulded) 20 6 

Depth of hold 8 6 

Depth of hold to spar deck 15 

Area of immersed section at load draft of 10 ft 170 

** u11 . I 452 tons 

Engine-room > 

Description of engine, vertical direct ; ditto boilers, horizontal tubular ; 
diameter of cylinder, 35 in. ; length of stroke, 2 ft. 3 in. ; diameter of screw, 
9 ft. ; length of blades of screw, 2 ft. ; pitch of screw, 18 ft. ; number of blades of 
screw, 3 ; number of boilers, 1 ; length of ditto, 14 ft. ; breadth of ditto, 9 ft. ; 
height of ditto, exclusive of steam chimney, 11 ft. Sin. ; number of furnaces, 2 ; 
length of grate bars, 5 ft. ; number of tubes above, 74 ; internal diameter of ditto 
above, 3f in. ; length of ditto above, 10 ft. ; diameter of smoke pipe, 46 in. ; 
height of ditto, 34 ft. ; draft forward, 9 ft. 6 in.; ditto aft, 10 it. 6 in. ; date of 
trial, December, 1858; heating surface, 1,000 sq. ft. ; consumption of fuel per 
hour, 7 tons ; maximum pressure of steam, 30 lbs. ; point of cutting off, half; 
maximum revolutions at above pressure, 75. 

Frames, moulded, 11 in. ; sided, 8 in. ; 27 in. apart from centres ; depth of keel, 
6 in. ; independent steam, fire, and bilge pumps, 1 ; masts, 3; rig, schooner; 
number of bulkheads, 2, 



62 



On the Economic Performance of Steam- Ships. 



["The Artizan, 
L March 1, 1859, 



Intended service — Baltimore to West Indies. 
Remarks — Has two atkwartship bulkheads. » 

DIMENSIONS OF STEAMER "WHITE CLOUD." 

Hull built by Thomas Collyer, N.Y. ; Engines by Morgan Iron Works, New York. 

Ft. In. 

Length on deck 180 

Ditto at load-line 179 

Breadth of beam (moulded) 30 

Depth of hold 10 7 

Depth of hold to spar deck 10 7 

Area of immersed section at load draft of 5 ft. in 140 

Sne^oom'.":::::::: ::;::::::::::::"::::::::::: :} 55otons 

Description of engine, vertical beam ; ditto boilers, flue single return ; 
diameter of cylinder, 44 in.; length of stroke, 10 ft. ; diameter of water-wheel 
over boards, '26 ft. ; length of wheel blades, 7 ft. 6 in. ; depth of ditto, 3 ft. ; 
number of ditto, 24 ; number of boilers, 2 ; length of ditto, 26 ft. ; breadth of 
ditto, 8 ft. 6 in. ; height of ditto, exclusive of steam chimney, 8 ft. ; number 
of furnaces, 2 in each ; breadth of ditto, 3 ft. 6 in. ; length of grate bars, 7 ft. ; 
number of flues above, 4; ditto below, 10; internal diameter of ditto above, 
17 in. ; ditto below, 10 in., 12 in., 12^ in. ; length of ditto above, 19 ft. 7 in. ; 
ditto below, 13 ft. 11 in. ; diameter of smoke pipe, 5 ft. ; height of ditto, 31 ft. ; 
draft, 5 ft. 6 in. ; date of trial, January, 1859 ; heating surface, 2284 sq. ft. ; 
maximum pressure of steam, 30 lbs.; point of cutting off, variable; maximum 
revolutions at above pressure, 24. 

Frames, moulded, 14 in. ; sided, 5 in. ; 26 in. apart from centres, and strapped 
with diagonal and double-laid braces, 3J in. by 3-8th in. ; independent steam, 
fire, and bilge pumps, 1 ; masts, 2 ; rig, schooner. 

Intended service — Canton River. 

Remarks — Water-wheel guards for half width extend fore and aft. 

C. H. H. 



ON THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF STEAM- SHIPS. 

(Continued from page 35.) 

The same calculation has been made with the square of the midship section 
shown by the line em, and the result by the other line CD, and so this one 
has more obliquity. The first, viz., ab, was adopted as the expression of a 
common measure, and named by the author utilisation relative. According 
to that, the theoretical efficiency multiplied by 1,000, and divided by the 
beam, must give 9"C4. If less, the ship is in bad working condition, and if 
more it is satisfactory. 

This rule is not perhaps the true one, as it is based on the curve of M. Le 
Bouleur, but it is to be hoped that this has been traced with sufficient accuracy 
to believe that the proposed rule is not far from truth, and can be adopted for 
practice. 

Should all that precedes be true, it is evident that, if instead of being cal- 
culated by the card, the efficiency is the result of the coal burnt, the correction 
applied to the power will hold good to the second, and give a common standard. 
So all ships would have the same propellers, lines of water equally good, and 
boilers making the same use of coal. The result would be a constant number 
and a right line. 

But we saw that the midship section was good for comparing propellers 

and engines; the displacement » was the best to calculate the economical 
efficiency. It is evident that the correction applied to the first will be good 
for the second, and will give a method of comparing economically ships of 
various dimensions. The utilisations economy in relatives were calculated 
according to these principles, and the results put on the columns of various 
Tables, where the speed and quantity of coal burnt by nearly all the ships of the 
French Navy and Messageries Imperiales are to be found as the basis of all 
calculations made on the new principles established by Admiral Paris. 
All data collected during many years, and calculated according to the 



adopted formula 



V 3 x D« 



, have been put on the Plate III., where the 



coal x beam' 

vertical scale shows the displacement, J centimetre being equal to 100 tons ; 
and the utilisations relatives are on the horizontal scale, where 1 centimetre 
is equal to one unity. 

_ As the measures of this kind of efficiency have not been taken in similar 
circumstances, those observed during the trials have been distinguished from 
the results of common navigation by peculiar marks. The means expressed 
by vertical lines show 7-2 for the efficiency of ships of every size during their 
trials — that is to say, with smooth water, calm, all in good order, and generally 
coal of a good quality. Whereas, the mean of navigation is 6-2 for ships 
of 3,000 tons displacement and less. It will be remarked that men of war 
and large frigates are not placed according to their navigation. This has been 
done according to the difficulties of putting in order so many data, and the 
stoppage it would have produced for the publication of this new work. This 
is not to be rejected because the utilisations economiques of men of war are 
of a very low rate, according to the shortness of their hull, and bluff form of 
the bow. This is shown in Plate III., as the relative utilisations of men of war 
during their trials are not superior to those of ordinary steamships. 
A general rule is concluded from all this : it is, that in the present state of 



things in France, and in the the trials, 



D a 



must give at least C 2 , and 



coal burnt 

the same calculation for seaservice gives only P 2 . So there is a difference of 
v q, and it agrees with experience; however, they generally allow that to ensure 



the near speed of packets, a ship running 12 during her trial, has no more 
than 10 when running on a line of postal service. The lines traced on the 
Plate iii. are used in that manner to separate the good ships from the bad 
ones ; and in the Plate it will be seen how many are far from the middle line 
on both sides ; and it will be remarked that by this inethod the qualities of 
ships are more clearly shown than by the first plan. 

There is also a peculiarity to point out : the results of experiments are not 
disposed in the same manner as those of navy returns. The first are evidently 
favourable to small slups, as it is shown also by Plate ii. ; it is because they 
are much longer in proportion than of the old model men-of-war. 

In utilisations so calculated to those calculated with midship section the 
advantage of long hulls is very evident, and it is a consequence of the use 
of displacement in the formula, and a proof of the utility of using D§ to the 
enumerator, when the beam to the divisor establishes a compensation, which 
combination of data shows at once the advantages of a ship for transport, speed, 
and economy. 

To show the advantage of small ships in experiments, the line a b has been 
drawn amidst all final rounds, and the line c d shows the mean of the position 
of crosses, and proves that if small ships are advantageous for smooth water 
experiments, it is far from being the same at sea ; in which case relative 
utilisations are quite equal for all, as the small ships find more obstacles than 
large ones when working against heavy seas, and that what is a fair sea for 
the large is heavy for the small. It is also to be observed that these vessels 
are the first built, and not on so good lines as now, and also their machinery 
is quite old. 

The proposed method will be a standard for the verification of the state of 
machinery or of that of the bottom, for if tried in a calm, a ship which 
had 10 for her coefficient of relative utilisation, gives no more than 8, she 
has lost 20 per cent, of her value. It is very important to possess an evident 
proof of decay, and to be forced to search for the cause. The first investigation 
must be directed to the boiler, — which is generally the cause of evil and of 
the overplus of expense : if it is clean, the evil is probably in the dirty state of 
the bottom, or in the bad order of the engine by leaks, worn bearings, or shafts 
out of truth. This kind of index will be useful for the captain to know the 
changes which have happened in his ship, and for experiments it gives a com- 
parison. If less useful to the shipbuilder than the former formula of M. 
Bourgois, it is at least more important for the owner and the seamen when 
they take possession of a ship. It is to be hoped that the data collected by 
Admiral Paris will be observed with care by many others, and give to this 
method the certainty of a great many facts collected for the same purpose. It 
is in looking for the cause that there is a hope to find a remedy, inasmuch as 
the first one ignored, nobody thinks about the second. 

The preceding observations have been ascertaiped by another combination. 
It has been by searching in the accounts of various trials in the French Navy 
how many horses of 75 kilogrammes per square metre of midship section were 
necessary to drive various ships at the speed of 19 knots : when it has been 
more or less, the correction has been made in proportion of cubes of speeds. 

From these numbers it will be remarked that when the Ariel wants 37 - 8 
H.P., of 75 kilogrammetres, to go at 12 knots, 28-5 are necessary to the 
Tmpcratrice Eugenie, 24 - 6 to the Algeziras, and only 21-2 to the Bretagne: 
that is, that the speeds are quite in the inverse ratio of the beams. To prove 
this a Plate has been traced, giving not only the position of these numbers, but 
also those expressing the beams and the square root of the midship section. 
The data collected are not numerous enough, and they present an anomaly, 
their positions on the figure being a straight line, which continued till the 
level expressing the midship section of the Leviathan, would show that that 
admirable specimen of naval construction should want no more than 15 H.P., 
per square metre, to go at 12 knots. It will be very curious to collect many 
other facts to corroborate the proposition shown by these calculations, which 
are quite proved by other combinations, which will be seen at the end of this 
work. 

Now having spoken oi the Leviathan, it will he interesting to calculate what 
will be the speed of this remarkable ship. The power of the screw engines isl,600 
nominal H.P., and of the paddle engines it is 1,000. These 2,600 nominal 
H.P. will certainly perform the duty of 7,800 H.P. of 75 kilogrammetres, which, 
divided by the midship section, i.e., 163 square metres at the mean draught of 
7'62 metres, gives 47-8 H.P. per square metre. We saw that the Bretagne, 
having 119 square metres, wants 21 H.P. to go at 12 knots, and that for the 
same speed 15 are enough for the Leviathan, that is, that the value of each of 
these increases in the ratio of 15 to 21 ; so the 7,800 H.P. will do the same 
service as 10,920 H.P., or 07 H.P. of 75 kilogrammetres per square metre. 
Then establishing the ratio of speed as the cubic root of powers, we find that 
the speed of the Leviathan will be 18'8 knots. But it must be considered that 
when using the midship section it has been very disadvantageous to the great 
ship, because, much sharper than those compared with, she has more than, 
eight times her beam, when the Bretagne has only four times and a half. 

The calculation, established in another manner and compared to Napoleon, 
will give almost the same result. So, considering only the nominal powers, and 
admitting that the horses of both machineries have the same effective value, 
we shall remark that Napoleon has 9-5 nominal horses per square metre, when 
the Leviathan has 15-94. The relative powers of ships are as 1 : P67. Ac- 
cording to the rule of speed in ratio to square roots of power the Leviathan 
will have 14-8 knots, without taking her size into account. But these are 
enough to be counted, and as with equal relative powers the speeds are as 
the cube roots of linear dimensions, — (this principle is verified farther, — the 
Leviathan would perform 14-396 knots for the only advantage of greatness, 
but this is not advantageous, and the calculation being made with the length 
her speed will be 16'41 : the mean is 14-83, which combined with her moving 
power, would give 17 - 4; when calculating with her length, it would be 19-5. 
The builder appears to hope more, because the paddle-wheels have 16-47 metres 
of effective diameter, or 51-7 metres of circumference ; which corresponding to 



Ttip. Artizan, "I 
March 1, 1659. J 



On the Economic Performance of Steam- Ships. 



63 



Table No. III.-NUMBER OF HORSES REQUIRED TO OBTAIN A SPEED OF TWELVE KNOTS. 





Displace- 
ment. 


Fictitious 
surface 

expressed 
by 2/3. 

displace- 
ment. 


Surface 

of midship 

section. 


Proportion 
between 

preceding 
surfaces. 


Nominal 
power. 


Power in 
horses of 
75 kilogram- 
metres. 


Number of 
horses per 
ton of 
displace- 
ment. 


Number 
of horses 
per square 
metre of 
midship 
section. 


Speed 

in 
knots. 


| Number of horses 

necessary to 

1 transport one ton 

j displacement to 

one mile with a 

1 speed of 12 knots 


HI '—' ° E/J W "O 

? 5 -3 S p. 5 1 B 

3 C C3«'S 'J 

z, » " >* 

w 

21,20 
20,80 ) 
24,76 } 
28,34 ) 
28,58 ) 
26,18 j 
23,94 ) 
24,97 j" 
23,31 
28,48 
37,99 
31,93 
37,7 
35,32 


Means. 




tons. 
G800 
5120 

3? 

5050 

5023 

4440 
3796 
3784 
1452 
225 
174 


347 
297 

;» 

294,'4 

293'7 

270'2 
243,4 
242,8 
128,2 
36,99 
31,17 


square met. 
119,5 
99,0' 

;) 

99*0 

9£y 
ios'o 

68,47 
69,8 
38,5 
9,53 
8,08 


2,917 
3,000 

33 

33 

2,973 

2,874 

33 

2,573 
3,554 
3,478 
3,070 
3,882 
3,857 


1200 
950 

,? 

950 

800 

600 
800 
800 
400 
120 
80 


2407 
2168 
2361 
1714 
1725 
1996 
2383 
2445 
1648 
1950 
2280 
1038 
359 
154 


0,370 
0,422 
0,455 
0,334 
0,341 
0,393 
0,474 
0,486 
0,373 
0,514 
0,602 
0,714 
1,595 
0,884 


20,14 
21,84 
23,84 
11,31 
17,42 
20,16 
23,94 
24,97 
15,70 
28,48 
32,66 
26,96 
37,70 
19,05 


11,80 
12,20 
11,85 
11,00 
10,17 
11,00 
12,01 
12,00 
10,52 
11,99 
11,41 
11,75 
12,00 
9,72 


w 

0,3955 

0,4015 

0,4726 

0,4336 

0,5603 

0,5103 

0,474 

0,489 

0,5539 

0,514 

0,700 

0,761 

1,551 

1,664 










24,60 








27,38 




24,45 
















Croiseur 





(1) The number of horses of 75 kilograinmetre, on the piston, is taken from experiments with the speeds differing but little from 12 knots. When 
different, it has been calculated how many horses per square metre of midship section were wanted for 12 knots; but it must be observed that, except the 
Croiseur, all other ships get at least 12 knots. 

(2) The results of these two columns have been calculated for 12 knots, and have no relation with the speed inscribed on the preceding one. 



[Table No. III., few.— NUMBER OF HORSES OF 75 KILOGRAMMETRES NECESSARY FOR DIFFERENT SPEEDS. 







Number 




Number 




Number 




Number 




Number 




Number 




Number 




Speed 


of horses 


Speed 


of horses 


Speed 


of horses 


Speed 


of horses 


Speed 


.of horses 


Speed 


of horses 


Speed 


of horses 




in knots. 


of 75 kilo- 
grammetres. 


in knots. 


of 75 kilo- 
grammetres. 


in knots. 


of 75 kilo- 
grammetres. 


in knots. 


of 75 kilo- 
grammetres. 


in knots. 


of 75 kilo- 
grammetres. 


in knots. 


of 75 kilo- 
grammetres. 


in knots. 


of 75 kilo- 
grammetres. 




8,4 


1070 


11,2 


2148 


11,54 


3568 
















33 




10,60 


1231 


11,23 


2115 


12,00 


2445 


12,10 


2383 














Souverairi. . . . 


9,13 


873 


9,50 


1490 


9,57 


1350 


9,74 


1383 


9,95 


1646 


10,37 


1587 


10,50 


1648 


Algeziras 


9,80 


1109 


10,32 


1521 


11,0 


1714 


11,21 


2335 


10,92 


1604 


11,85 


2361 


12,20 


2153 




11,85 


2361 


12,69 


2456 


33 




,? 


>? 












;? 




9,27 


1665 


9,80 


1227 


10,17 


1725 


10,89 


2028 












3? 


Tmperatrice . . 


7,99 


570 


7,14 


466 


10,71 


1233 


10,72 


1764 


11,18 


1247 


11,67 


1775 


11,74 


1663 




11,99 


1951 


11,93 


2121 


12,05 


1896 


12,06 


1977 


12,07 


1941 


12,25 


2092 






Impetucuse. . . 


7,14 


597,6 


7,79 


714 


8,17 


634 


10,02 


1709 


11,07 


1740 


11,41 


2260 




3? 


Phlegeton .... 


10,5 


614 


11,75 


1038 


?3 


33 


?? 


33 










33 


33 


Isly 


7,85 


467 


9,63 


788 


12,09 


1375 


» 


33 




33 


33 


5, 


33 


33 



Table No. V.— PADDLE STEAMERS OF IMPERIAL NAVY. 
ECONOMICAL EFFICIENCIES DURING THE YEARS 1852, 1853, AND 1854. 



540 
650 

450 



220 



200 
160 



120 
100 



NAMES OF SHIPS. 



Descartes , 

Mogculor 

Asmodee, Gomer, Labrador, Magel- 
lan, Orenoque, Montezuma, El- 
dorado, Sane, Albatros, Canada, 
Christophe Colomb 

Veloce, Archimede, Cameleon, Gas 
sendi, Pluton, JEspadon, Caiman, 
Cassini 

Eclnireur, Phcenix, Mouette, Heron, 
Milan, Brandon, Dauphin 

Crocodile, Meteore, Cldmere, Ftdton, 
Cerbere, Tartare, Acheron, Ton- 
nerre, Gregeois, Grondeur,EupUrate 

Vedette, F'lambart 

Averne, Voyageur 



11 



11 

2 



70,14 
70,96 



69,60 

58,05 
49,00 



46,20 
42, 00 
40, 45 



12,40 
12,20 



12,00 

9,00 
8,10 



8,00 
6, 55 
6,18 



tons. 
3 023 
2 736 



2 605 



1 279 
569 



777 
357 
286 



sq. met 
55, St 
51,68 



51,28 

29,31 

16,50 



21,55 
12,45 



knots. 
7 ,73 
9 ,20 



7,518 



5 ,68 
7,833 



5,474 
5,680 
6,220 



Ml. 

2 268 
2 307 



1 550 



883 
913 



687 
600 
105 



EC ONOMICAL EFFICIENCY. 



B > 



10. 



11,38 

17,45 



14,00 

6,08 
8,41 



5,15 
3,80 



11. 



0,909 
1,430 



1,171 

0,575 
1,038 



0,644 
0,595 



T> 



12. 



48,9 

52,46 



52,64 



29,28 
34,23 



22, 206 
20,75 
33,73 



c-> 



13. 



4,00 
4,30 



4,38 



3,25 
4,22 



2,77 
3,17 
5,45 



14. 



615,8 
925,9 



COAL BURNT. 



15. 



710, 



276,9 
289,3 



212,6 
150,6 
197,7 



kit 

293,4 
250." 



206, 20 

156,05 
120,4 



125, 50| 
105, COl 
59,531 



The details of calculations whose means are inscribed here are to be found in the "Treatise on the Screw Propeller.' 



To transport 1 ton 

of displacement 

1 mile. 



At the 
speed of 

8th 
column. 

16. 



kil. 
0,097 
0,091 



0,070 

0,121 
0,211 



0,161 
0,212 
0,209 



At a 
speed of 

10 
knots. 

17. 



kil. 

0,210 

0,117 



0,186 

0,660 
0,439 



0,931 

1, 157 
0,869 



the 16 strokes of the nominal power, makes 26-7 miles per hour. But as the 
surface of paddle is rather small for such a mass (nearly l-20th of midship 
section), the ship will be probably 15 per cent., notwithstanding the powerful 
help of the screw and with 16 strokes, the ship would go at a rate of 21-9 
knots. 



On looking at the formula of relative utilisation some would have been 
struck to see displacement § ; that is to say a surface divided by a line as the 
beam is. It would appear that the result should be a line. If the bottoms of 
ships were regular and similar solids, this would be true for admitting a cube 
of 10 metres on the side, viz., 1,000 metres of volume, taking the root ? viz 



64 



On the Economic Performance of Steam-Ships. 



I" The Artizan, 
L March 1, 1859. 



100 square metres of surface, and dividing by 10 the result is 10, which is the 

V 3 x 6 
side. It would appear more natural to give this simpler form ^3aJ . But 

the bottom of a ship is far from a regular solid, and it would be very erro- 
neous to adopt such a mode of calculation. 

They can say also, that without adopting such a simplification it would have 
been right to divide by the cube root of k displacement instead of the beam ; but 
then the ship would have been apparently shortened, and the long one would 
have lost the advantage we have demonstrated before. As a proof, let us take 
again the example of the two men-of-war we have spoken of, and let us put 

1 for the beam as well as the displacement of the smaller, we shall have ,/[ 

3 

and^ , or 1*26 ; that is to say that the real beam being 16-20 metres the 
theoretic would be 20-41 metres, or \ more than reality. The division of the 
result by this number would be too disadvantageous to the long ship. These 
calculations have been executed by the author. They have given a new 
proof of the preference to be given to the proposed method, which, under the 
simplest form, keeps the best account of all qualities and proportions of a 
steam-ship. (Plate III.). 

There is, however, another formula, which, according to the principles 
established, gives a means of better calculating the peculiar qualities of the 
steam engine and its propeller. It is to take the economical utilisation accord- 
ing to the midship section ; that is to say, the cost of overcoming the resist- 
ance to the propulsion, and to divide it by the beam, as has been done in the 
beginning, for the theoretical utilisation. These kind of calculations have 
been put in a Table, and their results are shown on Plate III. by an asterisk. 

On looking at these numbers, it is to be remarked how great are the differ-, 
ences in the result of engines and propellers, as the fuel is made useful in the 
extreme proportions of 3-48 to 0-50— that is to say, they are engines doing 
seven times more work than the worst. The uncertainty of observations do not 
permit the adoption of such results as certain, out they show the immense dif- 
ferences in the work of engines according to their first making, the care taken 
of them, and their efficient working. They prove, once more, that for steam 
navigation there is no small economy, and that good engines are as precious 
as good engineers, and, we may add, intelligent captains. When comparing 
on the plate or on the tables this kind of utilisation with those calculated with 
displacement f, the influences of proportions of length to beam are to be 
remarked. So the Roland, whose utilisation is superior with the midship 
section, loses her advantages when calculating with displacement §. She is 
compared with long packets — as Hydaspe and Jourdain, of Messageries 
Imperiales. The form of such a table is certainly the best to compare ships 
of every dimension, but it takes only the amount of the force expended to 
overcome an obstacle that is to force the midship section through water, but 
not the real work in transporting a given weight: each of these methods has 
its own value. 

If to all these combinations they had added the weight of coal necessary to 
force a metre of midship section through water, some curious comparisons 
would have been made between long and short ships. But this would have 
been nearly a repetition of what had been shown on the third Plate. 

Admiral Paris employed another manner of counting the utilisation of ships. 
It has been to calculate, as for railways and every means of transport, what is 
the cost of a weight carried at a fixed distance. Till now the work done has 
been compared to the displacement ; and it is very easy to establish that the 
duty is 1 ton displacement to 1 nautical mile, which is done by dividing the 
coal burnt during one hour by the produce of the displacement by the number 
of knots. It is evident that such results vary not only according to the square 
of the speed, but also as to the dimensions of the ship. Such calculation has been 
made for every speed, and put on a plate, where the disorder of positions was a 
proof that such a comparison was to be made for the same speed, and the 
reduction has been made according to the square of knots observed to 100 — that 
is to say, to the square of 10, this number being the speed adopted. The 
result inscribed on various tables has been collected on the Plate vi., of which 
the vertical scale shows displacement of every ship, half a millimetre being 
equal to a ton ; and the horizontal scale is for the number of grammes of coal 
burnt — and half a millimetre is equal to one gramme. The first glance at this 
plate shows the economy of transport on board of large ships, and to make it 
more sensible two curves have been traced as two lines on Plate i. — that is, 
one from the large ship having the best results (i.e. Algeziras) to the small 
ones having the same quality {i.e. Ariel and Faon), and' passing through the 
points of ships which make good use of their coal ; and another of ships of 
indifferent qualities. It is to be observed for this Plate, as for any others, that 
coal burnt during trials is designed by a small round, and that crosses are used 
for navigation. 

This Plate is an evident proof of the heavy expenses incurred by bad engines ; 
but instead of being general, as on Plates 1. and III., this curve can be 
used only for shins of the same size. It is seen that Louis XIV. and Fleurus 
make good use of their fuel — half of A Igiziras — and there is a similar difference 
between the Fleurus and Sovereign ; and this is to be attributed only to the 
engines, as these two men-of-war are both old models. The Sevre pre- 
sents very advantageous results; and it is not only owing to the engine made 
by Mr. Moll, but also to her great relative length. When looking down to the 
small ships, more striking differences are remarked between the results of those 
of the old construction and those recently made whose engines make a better 
use of coal. The old paddle sloops-of-war of 220 and 160 H.P. are now, for 
that reason, a very expensive means of transport, though they are very slow. 

The measure of the coal used to perform a transport of 1 ton displacement to 
1 mile presents the best manner of comparing ships of the same size, and 
especially to know the differences which by-and-by happen in the qualities of 
ships ; for engines lose very often a great deal of their propelling force, and 
often very sensibly produce a loss of speed. Generally the boiler is the cause of 



the loss ; and if such comparisons do not point to the true cause, they have the 
advantage of awakening attention. 

The French author made also some researches into the cost of the accelera- 
tion of speed of ships of different sizes. For that purpose he investigated in the 
results of the working of the French Navy, how much coal had been burnt 
at various speeds; but as the officers never gave their attention to these 
questions, they never tried with low speed, and generally they never observed 
below seven knots ; so the inferior point of observation is not as low as would 
have been proper for good examples. The trials of small ships never give such 
experiments, except on board of the Ariel where the chief engineer had deter- 
mined exactly the expense of coal at various speeds. The results have been 
put on Plate VII., on which the vertical scale represents the speed in knots, and 
the horizontal one the coal burnt to carry 1 ton displacement to one mile ; 
half a millimetre representing 1 gramme of coal. The calculation being made 
for a distance of a mile, the expense would be in the ratio of the square of the 
speed, the influence of expansion not being counted, and not of the cube as for 
absolute speed. From the extreme point of each group to the point zero, 
curves have been traced in the ratio of the square of speed; and it is to be per- 
ceived that they follow almost exactly the various points marking the expense at 
every speed, and they prove that the increase of expense with the speed is almost 
the same on board of small as well as of large ships. However, it is probable 
that little ships require proportionally more force ; because the Ariel having 
sharp lines, and six times her beam, is there compared with a man-of-war of 
coarse lines having no more than four times, and a frigate or corvette of four 
and five times the beam. Consequently it is to be assumed that even with a 
calm, small ships are more expensive than large ones, when the speed becomes 
quicker ; and Admiral Paris found a proof of it by a similar curve, traced with 
the coal burnt to force a square metre through water with different speeds. 
It is to be wished that numerous experiments of this kind may be made from 
slow to quick speed, for it is probable that if with their displacement men-of- 
war were built on lines as sharp as those of packets, they would find the 
advantage of great dimensions proved by the table of number of horses wanted 
at different speeds and with various dimensions. To obtain a solution, it would 
be necessary to know the cost of sharp-built packets like VEuphrate, Gauge, 
Thabor, and Sinai, at different speeds. Without that similarity no comparison 
is exact ; and to compare Ariel with old men-of-war, is to compare a gazelle 
with a drayhorse. 

This delineation is probably the best to throw some light on the questions of 
the influence of dimensions on speed, and it will be of great use when new lines 
of packets are intended. It is supported by facts, and if executed on a large 
scale and for ships of every dimension, it will present to commercial associa- 
tions a basis much more secure than any others now in use. 

Consequently, it is to be wished that officers, and especially captains, when 
navigating would record what they consume with different speeds on board 
of small ships as on board of men-of-war, and all these data committed to 
paper would present some results that could be depended on. 

Here the advantage of good engines is again to be remarked. Algiziras 
and Eylau are on the left of Napoleon, and, notwithstanding her dimensions, 
Bretagne has her curve on that of Imperatrice, Arcole, and Roland. So- 
the advantage of large dimensions is lost by indifferent working of the engines. 

The facts shown prove how engines of the same nominal power are far from 
giving equal results, and how many errors would be made if the nominal 
power were relied on — they would believe that similar vessels of equal power 
are able to perform the same service. This has been fully proved by the 
experiment of the squadron in the Mediterranean Sea, and this is a new proof 
of the immense value of good engines, well kept and wisely directed. 

How much the makers of engines must struggle against difficulties to produce 
equally powerful engines, what better example can be cited than that of the 
Algiziras of M. Dupuy de Lonce, whose 8,000 tons of displacement cost no 
more for the same speed than the 1,280 tons of the old paddle-corvette of 
220 H.P., and the 770 of smaller ones of 160 when these ships are in good 
circumstances at sea. But if we look at the common service (Plate i. and vi.), 
those old-built ships burnt double, to travel over the same distance, how- 
ever they had the chances of the wind, which are more favourable than adverse 
when good use of the wind is made. 

Considering that the expense of force for 1 ton to a mile is in the ratio of 
the square of the speed, and that the lessening of this one permits us to make 
a better use of fuel by expansion and moderate firing, it is astonishing to 
see such an accordance between the curve with full line and the coal burnt 
with different speeds. For if these two lines were really over each other, or 
in one, it would be concluded that expansion is not a source of economy in the 
production of force, or that the resistance of the bottom is not in the ratio of 
speed, as it had been admitted. 

In order to make a verification of this principle, the French author took in 
the experimental trials the number of horses at 75 kilogrammetres necessary 
to each ship with various speeds, and the results were put in a similar manner 
on another plate. And from the extreme group to the point zero a line was 
traced in the ratio of cubes of speeds. Tins shows a complete concordance 
with the former, and the curve passes so well in the middle of points, marking 
the number of horses, that we can admit practically that the expense of power 
is practically in the ratio of the cube ot speeds. Unfortunately, it is to be 
regretted that not a small ship has furnished observations of this kind, so as to 
have a real value ; this must be done with the results of a great variety of 
ships. 

The comparison of the positions deduced from the number of horses shows 
that the engines with two cylinders of the Algeziras and Imperatrice, as well 
as the equilibriated cranks of the Eylau, present an economy of force in com- 
parison to those with four cylinders— the Bretagne, Arcole, and Impetueuse. 
As to the coal, the results are different, and a ship which shows such advan- 
tages on the Table 7 is far from being the same with an indicated number of 
horses. So the Impetueuse, which is over for power, is under for the coal ; 



The Abtizan, "I 
March 1, 1859. J 



On the Economic Performance of Steam- Ships. 



65 



Table No. VI.— EFFICIENCY OF SAILING SHIPS ACCORDING TO THE SURFACE OF THEIR SAILS, 
ADMITTING A COMMON SPEED OF EIGHT KNOTS. 



Names. 



Ocian, Friedland 

Tugp, Jemappes 

Breslau, Turenne, Bayard 

Diademe, Neptune, Suffren 

Uranie, Iphigenie, Didon 

Pandore, Nereide, Heine, Blanche 

Thetis, Eriejone, Africaine 

Galatee 

Heroine, Bereeau 

Naiade, Triomphante, Danaide . . 

Hussa rd, Adonis, Alcihiade 

Genie, Mercure, Faune 

Alcyone 

Alsaeienne 

Estafette... 



Number 

of 

guns. 



120 
100 
90 
86 
CO 
52 
44 
30 
30 
30 
20 
18 
10 



Length. 



62,99 
62,50 
60,72 
60,50 
53,93 
52,00 
48,00 
43,30 
42,00 
38,21 
33,68 
33,70 
24,44 
25,06 
18,46 



Beam. 



16,30 

10,20 

15,77 

15,75 

14,13 

13,30 

12,40 

11,80 

10,70 

9,70 

9,00 

9,10 

6,39 

6,40 

5,05 



Propor- 
tion. 



3,881 

3,857 

3,850 

3,841 

3,810 

3,892 

3,879 

3,070 

3,925 

3,938 

3,631 

3,70 

3,82 

3,91 

3,65 



Displace- 
ment. 



5 057 

4 445 

4 058 

3 960 

2 558 

2 200 

1 707 

1 179 

1 015 

751 

550 

540 

188 

165 

108 



Efficiency, 



Surface 

of 
sails. 



sq. met. 
3 066 
3 040 
2 880 
2 829 
2 582 
2 006 
1 920 
1 593 
1 450 
1 264 
1 112 
1 139 
873 
765 
547 



To displacement 

T3xl) 
surface of sails. 



850,3 
745,5 
721,4 
716,7 
507,1 
561,0 
455,2 
378,9 
358,4 
304,2 
253,3 
277,8 
110,2 
110,3 

ino.B 



To displacement 

2/3 

Y3xD 2/3 

surface of sails. 



49,20 
45,53 
45,23 
45,29 
37,09 
43,12 
38,09 
35,87 
35,74 
33,47 
30,91 
32,63 
19,25 
20,12 
21.23 



Relative 
V 3 x I) 2/3 



surface of S x. b 



Mean = 



3,02 
2,81 
2,87 
2,87 
2,79 
3,22 
3,07 
3,04 
3,34 
3,45 
3,43 
3,58 
3,02 
3,14 
4,20 

3,18 



Square metres 
if canvas necessary 

to transport 

one ton displaced, 

or, 

surface of sails 

displacement. 

m2 
0,606 
0,683 
0.709 
0,797 
1,009 
0,911 
1,124 
1,351 
1,423 
' 1,083 
2,020 
2,110 
4,643 
4,636 
5,064 



T\ble No. IX.-MEAN RESULTS OF THE SERVICE OF MESSAGERIES IMPERIAL ES DURING THE YEARS 1852, 18.53, AND 1854, 

MARKED M' ON THE PLATES. 



Nominal 
power. 



300 to 350 
320 
220 

180 

100 

120 



NAMES OF SHIPS. 



Euphrate, Gauge, Indus 

Thahor, Sinai 

Osiris, Egyptus, Alexandre 

Caire, Nil, Louqsor 

Merovee, Hellespont, Oronte, 

Bosphore, Philippe-Anguste . 
Leonidas, Lycurgue, Tancrede, 

Scamandre, Mentor, Teli 

maque, Aventin, Eurotas . . . 
Pericles, Pharamonrl 



3. 



79, 
60,00 

54,40 

50, 80 



50, 00 
48,50 



10,96 

8,77 

9,24 
6,95 



8,00 
6,62 



6. 



tons. 
2 714 
1 121 

1 031 

571 



771 
374 



so,, met 
53,32 
29,18 

27,72 

17,17 



20,49 
11,92 



knots. 

9,91 

10,81 

8,91 

8,94 



7,61 
9,03 



til. 

1 618 
1 531 

1 070 

939 



830 
698 



ECONOMICAL EFFICIENCY. 



32, 08 
24,53 

18,33 

13,06 



9,39 
12.58 



2 x 

<u 



2, 92G 
2, 797 

1,983 

1,879 



1,174 
1.900 



117,50 
89,40 

64,35 

54, 65 



46,04 
53,52 



s. x 



10, 63 
10,19 

6,96 

7,86 



5,75 
8,09 



z- 



1633,0 
942, 

681,8 

434,3 



402, 
394,6 



COAL BURNT. 



15. 



til. 
102,5 
150, £ 

125,7 

110,0 



113,0 
80,7 



To transport I ton 
displacement at 
1 mile distance. 



With the 
speed of 
the 8th 
column. 
16. 



til. 
0,060 
0,134 

0,122 

0,192 



0,149 
0.232 



With a 

speed of 

10 

loots. 

17. 

kil. 
0, 062 
o; 100 

0,172 

0,269 



0,338 
0,315 



The details for each of these ships, whose general means are inscribed here, are to be found in the " Treatise on the Screw Propeller. ' 



Table No. X.— MEAN RESULTS OF THE SERVICE OF MESSAGERIES IMPERIALES DURING THE YEARS 1854, 1855, AND 1856, 

MARKED M' ON THE PLATES. 



Nominal 
power. 



1. 



H.P. 
300 to 350 
240 to 370 



220 
160 



180 
120 



NAMES OF SHIPS. 



Euphrate, Gauge, Sinai 

Cydnus, Simois, Mersey, Borys- 
theue Hydaspe, Carmel, 
Banube 

Cheliff, Mitidjah 

Alexandre, Caire. Egyptus, 
Nil, Louqsor, Osiris 

Leonidas, Lycurgue, Aventin. 
Mentor, Telemaque, Sca- 
mandre 

Bosphore, Hellespont, Merovee, 

Oronte, Philippe- Auguste ... 

Phnramond, Pericles 



3. 



11 
2 



79,80 

66,6 
66,42 

54,40 

50,00 

50, 80 
48. 50 



10,96 

9,51 
7,03 

9,24 

8,00 

6,95 

5,62 



tons. 
2 714 



1 496 
1 175 

1 031 

771 

571 
374 



53,32 

32, 99 
28,2 

27,72 

20,49 

17,17 
11,92 



knots. 

9,96 



9,30 
7,91 

8,29 

7,36 

8,776 
8. 025 



til 
1 06; 



1 41 
91 C 

1 124 

856 

944 
654 



ECONOMICAL EFFICIENCY. 



23,81 

21,54 
15,34 

14,06 

8,12 

12,30 
9,42 



•-5 ) 

ii. 



2,17 

2,26 
2,18 

1,52 

1,01 

1,78 
1,42 



73,70 

75,19 

61,05 

51,45 

38,96 

51,59 
39,43 



6,72 

7,90 

8,68 

5,56 

4,87 

7,42 
5, 95 



1 062 

836 
645 

516 

359 

' 397 

298 



COAL BURNT. 



15. 



til. 
182 



153 

126 

135 

108 

109 
81 



To transport 1 ton 
displacement at 
1 mile distance. 



/ 

With the 
speed of 
the 8th 
column. 
16. 

til. 
0,077 



0,108 
0,107 

0,133 

0,158 

0,189 
0,255 



With a 

speed of 

10 

tnols. 

17. 

til. 
0,104 



0.132 
o;211 

0,234 



0,396 

0,279 
0,415 



11 



66 



On the Economic Performance of Steam- Ships. 



[The Abtizav, 
March 1, 1859, 



and the Algeziras, which is mingled amongst others in the second case, is 
separated on the plate according to her economy of fuel. 

At least, Admiral Paris searched to find the variations of economical utili- 
sation according to the speed, and, taking necessary data on his various tables, 
he formed a plate with speed in ordinates, and utilisation in Plate IX., not only 
for midship sections, but also for displacement § and displacement. If the 
results had not been influenced by wind, or by an increase of resistance greater 
than the square of the speed, they would have been on a straight line parallel 
to the ordinates, which is not the case except for the Napoleon and Ariel. 

Here is found again the influence of the dimensions of ships, as the Ariel, 
though having a beautiful relative utilisation is everywhere on the left of all 
others. It is also to be remarked that the Sovereign, which has a good 
utilisation with the midship section, is losing this advantage with displace- 
ment |, so much that she is on the right in the first case, and on the left in 
the second. 

Some of the points have been taken when a favourable' or adverse wind was 
blowing, and they show how great is the influence of wind on the economical 
utilisation, and that unfortunately it is only with fair weather and a smooth 
sea that comparisons can be made, because the obstacles of wind and swell 
cannot be measured. Few useful instructions are to be found in this last 
manner of considering the economical utilisation, because the ships were not 
working together against the same adverse swell and wind. 

But how many precious instructions would be found if several ships of 
various forms were compared against the wind, and if thrown in the road of 
Hyeres against a fresh north-wester, they pass from the smooth water of _ this 
extensive road to the hard and short swell from these islands to Marseilles. 
The powerful engines would gain in the scarcely ruffled water of the road, 
because they would not feel so much the influence of forms and of positions of 
•weights, but when exposed to the swell the sharp bows would gain the full 
head in spite of their powerful engines. An old man-of-war lost in such a 
case from 9-8 knots to 1-8, and during some time she was completely stopped 
though the wind was the same when inside and outside. Other ships working 
heavily against the swell had 50, GO, and even 68 per cent, of slip. Careful expe- 
riments are wanted on this subject, and as the obstacles of wind and sea cannot 
be measured, it is to be wished that comparative experiments would be made 
against the so frequent difficulties of the sea. 

There was naturally some interest to know if theoretical utilisations would 
not show some curious facts, and for that reason the French author cites 
all those he collected, in the same way as for economical utilisations, but he 
would not deduce any law. 

At least he acted in the same manner for sailing ships, and considering the 
surface of canvas as the expression of the moving power, he calculated how 
many square metres of sail would carry a ton of displacement to I mile 
distance and at 8 miles speed, and what were the utilisation with the midship 
section, the displacement §, and displacement as for steaming ships ; the curves 
were nearly the same ; but what proved the truth of what has been established 
for economical relative utilisation, has been the result of the same method for 

sailing ships whose results on marking sul . lace of " saU x beam had been 1 uite a 
straight line, parallel to the ordinates, showing that the same law holds good 
for sailing as for steaming ships, and that "it can be adapted to the best 
standard. 

The administration of Messageries Imperiales lately made a very interesting- 
application of the ideas emitted by Admiral Paris in 1855, when he published a 
translation of the " Treatise on the Screw Propeller," by Mr. Bourne, followed 
by practical observation, descriptions of new screw engines, and tables of 
utilisation. M. Delacour, engineer of the Company, and director of the 
Company's dockyard at La Ciotat, took the results of speed and coal burnt by 
every packet during three years, or less for steamers whose flue boilers were 
changed for tubular ones. He made after that a formula, and gave to each ship 
a co-efficient of performance, which has been the basis for calculating the 
economies made by each ship during the year 1857, of which economies a part 
has been given to the captain and to the chief engineer of each packet. The 
result has been an economy of nearly 10 per cent, on the coal, according to the 
three years taken by these means as the point of comparison,. and for the year 
(1858) it will probably be more, because the case is better understood by 
the generality of captains and engineers. It was the act of a right and 
generous mind when Mr. Baker, director of the navigation service of the 
Company, gave to the author of the work the data of all his service. 

How many instructive hints would be deduced if all steam companies 
would publish periodically, and with the same truth and exactness, the results of 
their packets ! As the French Author says, the steam navigation companies 
have not generally the same concurrence between themselves as other indus- 
tries. What rivalry there is between the Cunard Line and the Peninsular and 
Oriental Company ! Some small ones are at times playing close to the large, 
but they have never the same mode of acting and the same purposes as miners, 
who are working close to each other, and all to extract coal from the deep 
shaft. However, they have founded the Cornish Association, which, looking 
to the practical point, and making no abstract theory, established that the best 
engine is that which hoists most for least coal burnt. If, then, the duty is easy 
to measure, and can be exactly appreciated at every moment, because the 
condition of their engines never varies, it is not a reason why the uncertainty 
of weather and winds, and even of qualities of ships, should be an obstacle to 
do the same for steam navigation. But there, instead of counting during a 
short period, it is necessary to take a long one — the year — and, by and by, 
several years, to cross in every direction the chances of sea and wind. Navi- 
gation is not perfect enough to give to such data less chances of errors than 
the study of winds and currents. However, Captain Maury has collected so 
many log-books, and made what Dapres de Mannevillette and Horsburgh did 
at a time for some seas, and he did it on so large a scale that useful instruc- 
tions shall rise from this remarkable re-union of facts. 



Why, then, could not a steam navigation economical society be founded, 
like a wind and currents one, or like the Cornish Association, and the Societe 
de Mulhouse ? If the data collected were less exact than those in the mines, 
or of workshops, how superior they would be to those on the winds, and 
especially on currents, which, though much more important, are observed at 
sea by so coarse a mean — the difference between the log-book and the altitudes 
taken at different hours. But some will say, perhaps, that the pride of a 
captain is not at all engaged if he encountered head wind and heavy sea, and 
then he will deliver exactly what he observed and marked on his log-book. 
But all seamen are fond of their own ship— they are not pleased to hear 
her badly spoken of, and it hurts their pride to confess that their naviga- 
tion has not been successful ; it is natural, because the captain has a great 
influence on the results, and the engineer also in his own quarter. Truth 
would be perhaps difficult to know in that way. But for the owners it is not 
the same ; and this part of the management of affairs not being their own, they 
can better publish it, and with a sufficient exactness, as they know the coal 
burnt, and the hours of arrival and departure ; that is all that is wanted, when. 
for the first time, the dimensions of the ship, and especially her displacement 
at different draughts, and each draught is known. 

For the application of these useful ideas, Admiral Paris concludes by the 
means of making the applications of what he tried to prove, and the result of 
his work is as follows : — As economical qualities of ships can never be measured 
in the same manner, whatever may be their dimensions, it is possible to 
establish direct comparisons, whose utility is demonstrated by observations of 
the same kind made on shore. 

An adoption of a general measure, at least in the Imperial Navy, is much to 
be desired, and to see it extended afterwards to every company, in order to obtain 
for steam navigation results as those of Captain Maury's ' Wind and Current 
Charts,' which results would be as useful, and probably much more certain. 

An association founded for that purpose, would do more service than 
theoretical studies, it would enable us to weigh the relative merits of all con- 
structions ; and as the packets employed on lines of service do not generally 
make any concurrence to each other, such as establishments working close to 
each other, and mines, the publication of exact results of the speed, and coal 
burnt, would throw light open to every one without producing prejudicial 
rivalries. 

It would be necessary to establish the economy of fuel as the chief condition 
of bargains for new engines, that the quantity of coal burnt would be stipulated 
for au introduction of steam and a number of strokes according to the power. 
That the measures taken of the fuel would last long, to divide more the errors 
of the beginning and the end of observations ; at least, some money would be 
deducted from the maker of the engine in case of too much coal burnt ; and 
also a price (called in France une "prune) would be paid according to the 
economy. This expense would be very soon paid back and the service of ships 
would be secured. Such means extended to the lubrication, that is the quantity 
of oil and tallow, would diminish the expenses and the dirtiness of the hold. 

The commissioners of receipt for the government engines would be ordered 
to measure the fuel as exactly as they do the power by means of the indicator. 
They should act not only at full power, but also with slow working to study 
some important laws, and determine the true profits of working expansively. 
They should indicate atheorigin and quality of fuel and the number of furnaces 
deducted, that is to say shut, as a guarantee of the production of steam during 
the future service. Their observations would be collected, according to the prin- 
ciples preceding, by established form, and would present the various conomical 
utilisation, the value of a ton of displacement transported to one miledistance, 
and the number of grammes necessary to force one metre of midship section 
through the water. Vhese data would be after calculated for a common speed of 
10 knots. The commissioners would be ordered to determine the coefficients at 
different grades of expansion and during a calm. The experiments should last 
long, and the distance used as the base for speed should be long also ; a mea- 
sured mile has no value, but the distance from Toulon to Corsica, Minorca or 
Algiers. The index of economical qualities of the ship would be inscribed 
at the beginning of the ministerial report of steam-ship navigation. At least, 
when experiments have been made against a heavy swell this would be mentioned 
with the loss of speed, and utilisations observed under unfavourable circum- 

The reports would mention all that occurs, and they would calculate the 
utilisations and especially the value of the ton transported, as well as that of 
the square metre forced. The observations made with fresh breezes or heavy 
sea would be always separated from those made during a calm and smooth 
sea, because these permit exact comparisons with other ships. The difference 
between the type-coefficients of trials and those observed after would be 
explained, and their causes investigated in order to discover a remedy. At 
least to insure as much as possible the exactness of observations, it would be 
necessary to record the quantity of coal on board at the beginning and at the 
end of each period of report, and to have these quantities controlled as well as 
receipts and expenditure by the purser of the ship and the authority on 
shore. 

Admiral Paris suggests that to obtain useful comparisons, it would be neces- 
sary to give the chief data of the construction of the ship, as length,* beam, 
depth, draft of water, mean displacement at sea, midship section at the usual 
draft, its position acccording to its length, angle of fore-water-line at water- 
level and at the height of the gunwale, surface of sails, &c. For the engine : 
principal dimensions, number of strokes, pressure of the steam-force m gauge- 
horses, proportions of the propeller, number of revolutions, heating surface, 
grate surface, and funnel section. For the sea service ; speed by log, or ac- 
cording to the line of direct track on the map, mean slip, consumption of 
coal, its origin and quality, details of the state of the bottom, circumstances 

* For the length, that taken at the water-level and from cutwater to stern-post is more 
us?ful than over all. 



The Artizak, "] 
March 1, 1859. J 



The Barometer as an Engineering Instrument. 



67 



of navigation which had an influence on the means calculated, curious facts 
observed, and details on the results against wind and sea, in order to compare 
with other ships. 

The economical utilisations should he calculated with these data, as well as 
the expense of coal to transport one ton of displacement a mile, reduced to the 
common speed of 10 knots ; and each captain or owner seeing the results of his 
ship compared with those of other companies, would be exerted to acquire new 
qualities or keep well those he possesses, — because ships and their engines are 
losing a great deal of their qualities, and it is the knowledge of the loss which 
would very often excite and compel them to search for the remedy. In short, 
it would be on the sea as is done in Cornwall, and though the sea questions are 
more complicated, their investigation would not be less profitable. 

We regret that it is not possible, for the present, to afford more space for 
citations from Admiral Paris's very admirable volume ; but we hope to be able, 
at an early date, to enter again upon the task. In the meantime we believe 
that every one who takes an interest in the important question of steam-ship 
economy, and can read French, will refer to the work itself, which is published 
by M. Arthus Bertrand, of Paris, and may, no doubt, be had of any of the 
foreign booksellers in London. 



EXTRACT FROM "THE OVERLAND COMMERCIAL GAZETTE," 
Port Louis, Mauritius, 27th Dec, 1858. 
We have much satisfaction in announcing, that to facilitate the recently- 
established mail service between this port (Australia) and the mother country, 
the Mauritius Dock Company have commenced the excavations for a vast dry 
dock, to afford every facility for repairing such noble vessels as we shall shortly 
have calling at our port (Port Louis). The size of the dock is to be 350 ft. 
long, 80 ft. extreme breadth, 60 ft. mean, and 40 ft. minimum breadth; depth, 
22 ft. ; in fact, capable of easily taking in such magnificent vessels as the JDuke 
of Wellington, of 3,756 tons ; length, 278 ft. ; length of keel for tonnage. 
202 ft. ; depth of hold, 24 ft. ; breadth, 62 ft : her Majesty's steam-frigate 
Mersey ; length, 336J ft. ; length of keel for tonnage, 254 ft ; breadth, 52 ft. ; 
burthen, 3,726 tons. Her Majesty's ship Boscawen, which was lately here, is 
2,212 tons; length, 213 ft. Such a vessel would appear like a longboat in the 
new dock. The most important fact is, that merchant ships of all sizes can be 
taken into dock, and immediately repaired. 

The pumping machinery is being constructed by Messrs. Gwynne and Co., 
engineers, London, whose names stand so favourably before the public. Engines 
of 100 H.P. will work three centrifugal pumps each, discharging 12,000 gallons 
of water per minute ; and the dock, when full, containing 13,000 tons of water, 
•will be entirely emptied in 2J hours. 

Besides these pumps, a smaller one, worked by a separate engine, will keep 
the dock dry during repairs to vessels. 

The Company have in addition a forge, and every appliance for the repairs 
of iron vessels. This fact cannot be too widely known. 

The contractors have engaged to finish the excavations in a year ; but nine 
months will probably suffice for the reception of vessels. 

THE ASSOCIATION OF FOREMEN ENGINEERS.— ELECTION 
OF CHAIRMAN. 

The Associated Foremen Engineers held a meeting at the Bay 
Tree Assembly Rooms, City, on the 5th ult., principally for the election of a 
President in the place of Mr. Sheaves, whose demise was noticed in our last. 
Mr. Joseph Newton having been proposed by Mr. Keyte, and seconded by 
Mr. Ross, he was unanimously elected. 

Mr. Newton, in thanking his fellow-members for the spontaneous favour 
conferred on him, took occasion to remark upon the sterling character of his 
predecessor, and to expi-ess a hope that he himself might be enabled to walk 
worthily in his footsteps. The President elect, in further speaking of the very 
hopeful position in which the Society stood with regard to the mechanical com- 
munity generally, and its prospects of extended usefulness to the particular 
class from whom its members are drawn, incited all to increasing activity in 
furthering its interests and their own intellectual advancement. Those who 
had not hitherto prepared Papers for the monthly discussions must now, he 
said, commence to do so. They need not stand upon the niceties of composition ; 
the manner would not be criticised so long as the matter was good. Foremen 
engineers should become as useful in their own institution as they were in 
their workshops. Each one knew something which his neighbours knew not, 
and individual exchange of ideas resulted in general improvement and 
enlightenment. Mr. Newton himself promised a Paper for the next meeting, 
•which would be held at the same place and time (8 p.m.), on the first Saturday 
in March, the subject being the "Influence of Mechanical Science and 
Mechanical Men on the Age in which we Live." 

Later in the evening considerable solicitude was expressed on account of 
Mrs. Sheaves, relict of the late President, and her infant family of four sons, 
and it was thought that if the fact that unfortunately no provision had been 
made for them were published, some kindred spirits might thereby be induced to 
come to the rescue. There are, no doubt, many individuals connected with the 
various branches of the engineering profession who, though having sufficient 
for the day, are unable to make provision for the future, and the more espe- 
cially when Fate is sudden in its decrees. To the affluent and the charitable, 
of whatever sect or profession, it may be said that assistance in this case will be 
of great value, and is painfully needed. 

Mr. Henry Grissell, of the Regent's Canal Iron Works, City-road, London, 
has kindly consented to act as treasurer for the widow and orphans, and he will 
gratefully acknowledge any and every contribution, large or small, on their 
behalf. 



ON THE ELECTRIC CONDUCTING POWER OE THE METALS.* 
By Augustus Matthiesse:*, Ph.D. 
The following values for the conducting power of the metals were 
determined in the Physical Laboratory at Heidelberg, under the direc- 
tion of Professor Kirchhoff, by the same method as is described in the 
" Philosophical Magazine," February, 1857. 

Conducting Power at Temp, in Celsius's degrees. 



Silver 100 

Copper, No. 3 77-43 

Copper,No.2 72-06 

Gold 55-19 

Sodium 37-43 

Aluminium 33 "76 

Copper, No. 1 30-63 

Zinc 27-39 

Magnesium 25-47 

Calcium 22-14 

Cadmium 22-10 

Potassium 20 -85 

Litluum 19-00 

Iron 14*44 

Palladium 12-64 

Tin 11-45 

Platinum 10-53 

Lead 7-77 

Argentine 7-67 

Strontium 6 -71 

Antimony 4 -29 

Mercury 1 "63 

Bismuth 1 "19 

Alloy of Bismuth, 32 parts } q .go , 

Antimony, 1 part ) 

Alloy of Bismuth, 12 parts ) q .-jg 

Tin, 1 part ) 

Alloy of Antimony 2 parts, Zinc 1 part -413 

Graphite, No. 1 -0693 

Graphite, No. 2 0-0436 

Gas-coke 0-0386 

Graphite, No. 3 0-00395 

Bunsen's Battery-Coke -00246 

Tellurium 0-000777 





18-8 
22-6 
21-8 
21-7 
19-6 
24-2 
17-6 
17-0 
16-8 
18-8 
20-4 
20-0 
20-4 
17-2 
21-0 
20-7 
17-3 
18-7 
20-0 
18-7 
22-8 
13-8 

24-0 

22-0 

25-0 
22-0 
22-0 
25-0 
22-0 
26-2 
19-6 



Red Phosphorus 0-00000123 24-0 

All the metals were the same as those used for my thermo-electric 
experiments, with the exception of cadmium, which was purified by my 
friend, Mr. B. Jegel. 

THE BAROMETER AS AN ENGINEERING INSTRUMENT. 

By John M. Richardson, B.S.f 
(Continued from page 36.) 

Thus far the results given by the level have been regarded as abso- 
lutely correct, and those obtained by the barometer as subject to error. 
But, after the comparisons which have been made, the question very 
naturally arises, which instrument gives the most reliable results? The 
question cannot be decidedly answered at present. Theoretically, both 
the instruments give correct results, but each is subject to numerous 
errors. The chief sources of error in the case of the level are— (1) con- 
struction; (2) adjustment; (3) observation; (4) refraction; (5) dew- 
point, as affecting refraction; (6) unequal expansion and contraction 
of the parts of the instrument; (7) curvature of the earth. 

The errors arising from 1, 2, and 3, can be reduced to their mini- 
mum by careful selection, adjustment, and observation; those arising 
from 4, 5, 6, cannot perhaps, in practice, be avoided ; that pro- 
duced by 7 can be partially corrected. The principal causes of error 
in the use of the barometer are eight— viz., (1) construction; (2) ad- 
justment; (3) observation; (4) dewpoint, as affecting pressure of atmo- 
sphere; (5) unequal expansion and contraction of parts of instrument; 
(6) changes of temperature, as affecting pressure of atmosphere; (7) 
agitation of the upper strata of the atmosphere, currents, &c; (8) daily 
variation. 

Errors arising from 1, 2, 3, as in the case of the level, can be reduced 
to their minimum by careful selection, adjustment, and observation; 
those arising from most of the others can be corrected, but they are 
usually small; and, regarding the barometer as an engineering instru- 
ment, they would not perhaps be corrected, except the one due to changes 
of temperature. 

The adjustment of the level is a complex and tedious operation, and 
requires so much time that it cannot be done before every observation. 
Hence an error of adjustment may exist for some time before it is discovered. 
The adjustment of the mercurial barometer is simple, requires but a 
moment, and has to be made before each observation. The liability to 
error of adjustment in the case of the barometer, is not so great, then, as 

* From the Bond., Edin., and Dub. Phil. Mag., Sept., 1858. 
t Extracted from the " Journal of the franklin Institute." 



68 



The Barometer as an Engineering Instrument. 



I" The Abtizajt, 
L March 1 



1859. 



in the case of the level; but an error of adjustment of the former, although 
small, will probably cause a much greater error in the determination of 
differences of altitude, than an error of adjustment of the latter. 

An error of observation with the level will usually vary the result but 
little; but, as a very small change in the height of the mercurial column 
corresponds to a considerable difference of level, a slight error of obser- 
vation with the barometer may introduce a very material error in the 
final result. Upon the whole, then, taking into consideration the other 
errors, as well as those to which allusion has been particularly made, 
the liability to error on the part of the level appears to be less than on 
the part of the barometer. Everything, however, will depend upon the 
care and skill of the observer; care in avoiding errors, and skill in elimi- 
nating those which cannot be avoided. 

Prom this view of the relative liability to error on the part of the two 
instruments, and the examination of observations made with them, it 
follows, that although the level is probably the most correct, yet the 
barometer, when carefully used, will be a valuable auxiliary to the engi- 
neering profession. 

It is to be hoped, however, that more comparative observations will 
be made with the two instruments, and it is respectfully suggested to 
scientific gentlemen who may visit Black Mountain, or who may have 
opportunity to do so at any other mountain, to run carefully a line of 
levels from the foot to the summit, driving a stake at ever}' station 
corresponding to a change of level of 50 or 100 feet, and at every station 
so determined, to make careful barometric observations. The results 
thus obtained would probably be of great value, and would determine 
whether or not the barometer differences of altitude are too great within 
certain limits, and too small within others. Some of the results of 
the observations quoted from the report of Lieutenant W., appear to 
indicate the possibility of this being the case; if it is, and extended 
observations can alone determine it, the limits between which the baro- 
meter-altitudes are too great or too small, can, and should, be determined. 

This paper has grown under the hands of the writer into a length 
much greater than he anticipated when he commenced it ; and the sub- 
ject will be dismissed, after making some general observations upon the 
method of conducting a barometric survey, and giving a few formulas, 
tables, &c. 

According to Biot and others, in order to determine the difference of 
level of two stations by means of the barometer, simultaneous observations 
should be made at them; but this does not appear to be strictly neces- 
sary; for, besides the trouble and expense of having two sets of instru- 
ments and two observers, if the stations are sufficiently near for the 
same atmospheric conditions to prevail at them, they will hardly change 
during the time required for an observer to record his observations at 
one and pass to the other. If the stations are too far apart for the same 
atmospheric conditions to prevail at them, it is evidently unnecessary 
for the observations to be simultaneous. 

How far, north and south, east and west, do the same atmospheric 
conditions prevail? Has observation determined it? It is believed not. 
Here is a fruitful and valuable field for investigation. If two stations 
are separated by a considerable distance, and particularly if rivers, 
swamps, forests, chains of hills, mountains intervene, it appears to be 
very improbable that the same atmospheric conditions, temperature, 
amount of moisture, clouds, winds, &c, &c, should prevail at them; and 
in order to apply the correction for horary variation, it is only necessary 
to know the time of each observation. 

In making a survey, however, it will be best to compare only those 
observations which have been made under pretty much the same atmo- 
spheric conditions. Thus, although it might do to compare together 
those observations made on a cloudy, or a windy, or a fair and still day, 
it would not do so well, perhaps, to compare those made on a cloudy 
day with those on a fair day; or those made on a windy with those on a 
still day, &c. Hence, having concluded the survey for one day, the sur- 
vey for the next day should commence at the last station of the previous 
day's survey. Connecting the different days' work together in this 
manner, the final result, or difference of level of the two extremities, as 
determined by this chain of observations, should agree essentially with 
the result obtained by comparing together the independent observations 
made at the two extremities. Thus the barometer furnishes a check 
upon the observations made with it at intermediate stations. 

It is advisable that barometrical surveys should be made during fair 
and calm days only; and as the observations require but little time 
comparatively, and as they need be taken only where there are con- 
siderable changes of level, an engineer can so select his time as to execute 
the survey in good weather. 

Travellers usually employ the " Mountain Barometer " (mercurial) 
for the determination of the altitudes of mountains, and for engineering 
purposes it is perhaps the best also. But the " Aneroid" is so portable 
and convenient, and requires such little time for making observations, 
that on these accounts it is preferable to the mercurial. The difference 
between the two is at most but little, and the " Aneroid " is constantly 
approaching nearer and nearer to perfection. As bearing upon the 
relative accuracy of the mercurial and Aneroid barometers, the following 



mean result of fifty-six comparative and simultaneous observations made 
upon them by Belville, of the Koyal Observatory, Greenwich, England, 
is given: — Mercurial, S9-6I; Aneroid, 29-59. 

Twenty of the observations agreed exactly. The greatest difference 
was '03, and it occurred only three times. 

Formulas and Tables. 

(1.) From Williams's "Practical Geodesy." 

Let A = difference of level of two stations ; sr and m the barometer- 
readings at lower and upper stations; t and x' attached, t and t' detached 
thermometer at lower and upper stations; then, 



h = 68-965517 



log m— 3-9S2271 



Example- 



Barometers. 
31 = 29-98, 
m = 26-17, 
Substituting in (14), 

h = 68-965517 806 + 1 



] 



'][ 



806 + t + t! log m 4- log (9600— t + x')— 



(14) 



Thermometers. 



Attached. 
T = 63° 
x' = 47 



Detached. 
t = 62 lower station. 
t' — 45 upper „ 



[' 



-3-982271 



] 

: 91 

—3-982271 



[ 



log 29-98 + log 9584— log 26'17 



= 68-965517 X 913 X 1-476832 + 3-981547—1-417804 



(15) 



0-058304 = .3671-1415 . / 

Manual of the Mercurial and Aneroid Baro- 



= 68-965517 X 913 
(2.) From Belville's 
meters." 

Let A = difference of level of two stations; a the mean height of the 
barometers in inchess; a, their difference; b, the number in the following 
Table corresponding to the mean height of the thermometers; then, 
30 a b 
A = . . . (16) 

A 

(16) is the formula of Sir George Shuckburgh; it is empirical, and 
gives results rather greater than those of (14); but the experiments of 
Sir George are regarded as being very exact. 

For the Aneroid, Belville gives this formula : 

As the sum of the readings : is to their difference : : 55000 : the 
difference of level. 

Let k = difference of level of two stations; 3i and m the readings of 
the barometer at them; then, 

h = 55000 (3i— hi) (3i + -J-) - 1 . . (17) 

The results of (17) correspond pretty well with those of (16). 
Table of Sir George Shuckburgh giving the factors corresponding to the 
mean of the thermometers 



Ther. 


Factor. 


Ther. 


Factor. 


Ther. 


Factor. 


Ther. 


Factor 


Ther. 


Factor 


Ther. 


Factor 


30° 


864-4 


39° 


883-4 


48° 


902-3 


57° 


921-4 


66° 


940-3 


75° 


059-3 


31 


866 5 


40 


885-4 


40 


904-5 


58 


923-5 


67 


942-4 


70 


061-4 


32 


mis-;, 


41 


887-5 


50 


906-6 


59 


925-6 


08 


944-5 


u 


062-5 


33 


870-6 


42 


889-0 


51 


008-7 


60 


927-7 


00 


946-7 


78 


965-6 


34 


87'-; -7 


43 


801-7 


52 


910-8 


61 


929-8 


70 


948-8 


79 


067-7 


35 


874 -0 


-14 


893-8 


53 


913-0 


62 


931-9 


71 


050-0 


80 


969-9 


36 


877-0 


45 


8015 -0 


54 


915-1 


63 


934-0 


72 


953-0 


81 


972.0 


37 


870-2 


46 


808-1 


55 


917-2 


64 


036-1 


73 


955-1 


82 


974-1 


38 


881-3 


47 


900-2 


50 


919-3 


65 


938-2 


74 


957-2 


83 


975-2 



(3 ) From Boye's Pneumatics. 

Adopting the same notation as in (14), and representing by l the 
latitude of the place — 

h = /■' + h" — K" + A" 

h' = log ( 31 [1 + 0-0001001 (32° — x) — 0-0000104 (62°— x)]j 

'-■g (m |"1 + 0-0001001 (32° — x') — 0-0000104(62° — t')]) 

V J ) (19) 



+ 60158-5; 
h" = 0-00111 (t + t'— 64) A'; 
A'" = 0-0028371 cos. (180°— 2 l) (A' + ¥)■, 

h> + A»-A"' 4-52252 

20886861 v " 



The Ahtizan, 

March 1, 1859. 



] The Barometer as an Engineering Instrument. — Hows Patent Stop- Valves. 



69 



(18) is the most correct formula (theoretically), of the four which 
have been given. It takes into consideration nearly all of the errors 
"which can be corrected in the calculation. For extreme theoretical 
accuracy, m and m should also be corrected for horary variation. 

In applying (18) care must be taken to give to /(", //'", and A IV , their 
essential algebraic signs, h" is usually positive, and varies from - 03 to 
•06 of h'. 

The essential sign of h'" will depend upon the value of l. If l is 
less than 45°, cos. (180° — 2 l) will be negative; and the term — It", will 
become + A"', h" is always positive. 

If the latitudes of the stations differ, l may be taken as their mean. 

//'" and A lv are usually so small that they may be omitted when only 
ordinary accuracy is necessary. Neglecting them, (18) becomes, 

h = h! + h" . . . (20) 

The values of h' and h" are obtained from equations (19). 

The formula by which the results in the "Report" were obtained is 
not given. This is a grave oversight on the part of Lieutenant W., or 
his computation. The principal reason for instituting the comparison 
between the two instruments, was to determine their relative accuracy; 
and it is not sufficient to give merely the results of the computations ; 
processes and formulas should be given in full. Different investigators 
have deduced different formulas, and these do not give the same results. 
In instituting a comparison between the two instruments, the particular 
formula used in the computations should be given, for any other will 
not, probably, give the same results. 

For engineering purposes the formula should be as simple as possible. 

Should this reach the eye of Lieutenant YV., it is hoped that he will 
communicate the formula which he employed. 

For more particular information with regard to the philosophy of the 
barometer, its construction, &c, the reader is referred to " Boye's Pneu- 
matics," "Belville's Manual," "Williams's Geodesy," and works on natural 
philosophy generally. 

The following Tables are given as being not devoid of interest, in con- 
nexion with this paper, which treats of the relative accuracy of the level 
and barometer: — 

(«) (*) 





S. Barom. 


A. Barom. 


Hygrom Lev. 


Br. 


8. Barom. 


A. Barom. 


Hygrpm Lev. 


Hr. 


Barom. 


Th. 


Baro. 


Th. 


W.B 


D.B 




Baro. 


Th. 


Baro. 


Th. 


W.B 


D.B 




7 


28-942 


01° 


28-937 


00° 


56 c 


59? 


4-742 


■ 


29-100 


82*° 


29-250 


84° 


78° 


84° 


3-978 


8 


28-950 


68* 


28-962 


65 


59* 


65* 


4-730 


5 


29-110 


82 


29-262 


84 


77* 


84 


4-1111 


'.) 


28-964 


73 


29-000 


0!M 


63 


70 


































4-741 





29- US 


82 


29-202 


85 


77 


S3* 


1-000 


10 


28 1)70 


76 


29-025 


74 


CO* 


74 


4-770 

4-734 
















3-985 


ii 


20' ,n 


78 


29-025 


77* 


70 


7S 


4 -730 








(c.) 










12 


28-952 


83 


29 -025 


81 


71* 


81* 


4-725 


■ 1 


20-142 


70 


29-312 


75* 






4-180 






















76 


29-312 


7& 


72* 


75 


4-184 


1 


28-930 


84 


29-012 


834. 


73 


83* 


4-722 


10 


29-200 


79* 


29-330 


78 


75 


78* 


4-107 


2 


28-912 


80 


29-000 


85 


74 


86 


4-711 
4-742 


11 


29-212 


82 


29 -350 


SO* 


70 


81 


4-192 
4-184 


o 


28-900 


83<| 


29-000 


86 


74 


85 


4-684 


12 














4-197 
4-184 


4 


2S-900 


S5* 


29-000 


SO 


74* 


85 


4-715 
4-740 








(a.) 










6 


2S-900 


87* 


28-981 


85* 


75* 


84* 


4-714 


3 


29-134 


87 


29 -305 


SO 


78* 


SO 


4-083 
















4-830 


4 


29-130 


S7 


29-325 


86 


77 


85* 


4-000 


6 


28-90 


82 


29-006 


85 


74 




















3-992 
















4-73.3 


o 


29-192 


85* 


29-250 


854 


79 


SO 


4-092 



The observations in Table (a) were made on the 30th May, 1857; all 
of the instruments, except the level and rod, were indoors; the rod 
was kept in the shade; the telescope of the level ranged about E. 
and W. 

The observations upon the level were made without any anticipation 
of the results whch followed. At 7 a.m., it was carefully levelled and 
clamped; after which the clamp and tangent screw were not touched 
until the observations for the day were over. The rod was 66 ft. from 
the level. At 8 o'clock the bubble was observed to be displaced, but the 
instrument was levelled by means of the levelling screws, before the 
reading was taken. Afterwards, two readings of the level were taken 
at the expiration of every hour; one before levelling, and one after. 
The numbers at the extremities of the dotted horizontal lines are the 
readings after levelling. There was a good deal of wind during the day, 
from the south ; clouds commenced to gather also, and during the next 
two days there was much rain. 

These facts are mentioned as affecting the barometer-readings; they 
are not supposed to have influenced those of the level. Curiosity having 
been excited by the differences of the level-readings, opportunity was 
taken to verify them by other observations. Those recorded in (6) were 
made during the afternoon of August 7th, 1857. The telescope ranged 
about N. and S. ; the rod was 66 ft. south of the level. 

On the following morning the observations recorded in (c) were made. 
The telescope ranged N. and S., and the rod was 66 ft. south of the 
level. 



During the afternoon of the same day, the observations in (r/) were 
made. The telescope ranged E. and W., and the rod was 66 ft. on 
the west. 

In the notes giving the observations recorded in (&), (c), (rf), nothing is 
said about the state of the weather, and the presumption is, that it was 
caim and fair: such also is the recollection of it. 











CO 














(/) 










S. Barom. 


A. Barom. 


Hygrom. 


Lev. 


Hr. 


S. Barom. 


A. Barom. 


Hygroma 




Ilr 


Baro. 


Th. 


Baro. 


Th. 


W.B 


D.B 


Baro. 


Th. 


Baro. 


Th. 


W.B 


D.B 


Lev. 


7 


29-310 


50° 












1 


29-336 


74° 


29-412 


71° 






5-020 


8 


29-330 


58 


29-342 


50 u 






4-988 


2 


29-322 


75 


29-412 


!■) 






5-002 


9 


29-344 


03* 


29-392 


62 






5 ' 252 
4-902 


■^ 


29-336 


70 


29-418 


77 






5-024 
t-980 


10 


29-354 


00* 


29-408 


00 






5-000 

4-982 


'4 


29-330 


82 


29-462 


84 






5-030 
4-940 


11 


29-350 


70 












5 


29-330 


72* 


29-425 


7~i 






5-030 


12 


29-344 


72 


29-425 


771 

/~2 






4-973 
4-980 


'5* 


29 : 32s 


H 


29-412 


73 






5-033 
5-032, 



Fair, but rather windy. 

The observations recorded in (<?) were made during the morning of 
18th September, 1858; those in (/) during afternoon of same day. 

The variations of the level-readings are attributed to unequal expan- 
sion and contraction of the parts of the instrument; but to whatever 
j cause they may be due, it is evident that the bubble will not remain 
stationary for any great length of time, when the instrument is exposed 
I to the sun. 

It Very frequently happens that much time elapses, after a back- 
sight has been taken, before the next fore-sight can be made; during 
; this time the bubble will probably be displaced, and the question arises 
should the level-man restore the bubble to the middle of the tube 
before making the next reading? The observations with regard to this 
\ source of error have not been sufficiently multiplied to warrant a de- 
I cided reply to the question.; but the general result, thus far, seems to 
1 indicate that he should. This subject merits, and it is hoped that it 
I will receive, the attention of engineers. Upon the accuracy of the 
I spirit-level depends the correctness of their calculations with regard to 
I many of the most important and costly operations in railroad engineer- 
1 ing. The error due to this variation of the reading, whatever may be 
I the cause of the displacement of the bubble, will increase as the distance 
I of the rod from the level is increased. In the foregoing observations the 
rod was placed 66 feet from the level each time. Calling the error for 
I G6 feet, a; the error for 100 will be, 1-5 a; for 200, 3a; for 300, 4-5 a ; 
and so on, in arithmetical progression. 

It will be observed from the Table, that when the telescope ranged 
E. and W., the bubble ascended to the west end of the tube in the 
morning, and the east end in the evening. 

Care was taken to place the levelling-rod in the same spot at each 
observation. It was supported upon a broad and hard-bearing surface, 
to prevent it from settling in the ground. 



A. P. HOW'S PATENT STOP- VALVES. 
The accompanying illustration exhibits an excellent contrivance invented by 

Mr. How as a substitute for 
the ordinary stop-valves in 
use for opening against con- 
siderable pressures; its prin- 
ciple is similar to the double- 
beat balance valve, Mr. How 
having made an excellent adap- 
tation of it to cocks and valves, 
as v.-ill be seen by reference to 
the accompanying longitudinal 
section. 

The lever handle or hand- 
wheel, applied to the top of the 
screw for turning it and open- 
ing and closing the valves, is 
not shown; but it would be 
better understood, that upon turning the screwed double-button valve, they 
will be raised from their seats, and, the fluid pressure on the top of the lower 
valve being very nearly the same as that upon tiie underside of the upper valve, 
the power required to open or close the passage-way is but little more than 
that due to the friction of the screw. This stop-valve will be found very useful 
wherever pressure has to be encountered. 




70 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



r The Artizan, 
L March 1, 1859. 



ENAMEL WITHOUT LEAD ON BAR AND SHEET IRON. 

By II. PlEISCHL. 

The author gives two recipes for the enamel, viz :— 

1. Silica from 30 to 50 parts 2. Quartz from 30 to 50 parts 

Flint „ 10 to 20 „ Granite „ 20 to 30 „ 

Kaolin „ 10 to 20 „ Borax „ 10 to 20 „ 

Pipe clay „ 8 to 16 „ Glass „ 6 to 10 „ 

Chalk „ 6 to 10 „ Magnesia „ 10 to 15 „ 

Pulverised porce- Feldspar „ 5 to 20 „ 

lain „ 5 to"15 „ Effloresced carb. 

Boracic acid „ 20 to 40 „ soda „ 10 to 20 „ 

Nitre „ G to 10 „ Lime „ 5 to 15 „ 

Gypsum „ 2 to 6 „ Sulphate of baryta „ 2 to 8 „ 

Fluor-spar „ 3 to C ,, 

Each of these substances to be powdered separately as fine as possible, 
mixed carefully and fused with an enamel; this is again ground, and 
applied to the objects, which are then furnaced. The proportions indi- 
cated may vary very much with the different kinds of utensils which 
are to receive it. The coat should be thin, otherwise it will crack in 
heating or cooling, and the objects coated should be cooled as slowly as 
possible, so as to prevent the enamel from shrinking irregularly and 
cracking.— Bull. Soc. Encour. de V Indus. Nat. (Paris.) 

AMALGAMATING ZINC. 
M. Berjot has just discovered and communicated to the Academy of 
Sciences, at Paris, what he considers a new and advantageous mode of 
amalgamating zinc, by a liquid formed by dissolving 200 parts of mer- 
cury in aqua-regio and adding hydrochloric acid. If he will wet his 
zinc with the acid, and then rub with nitrate of mercury, he will find 
less trouble and equally good results. We can hardly believe that the 
manufacturers of galvanic batteries in Erance have been in the habit of 
amalgamating, as M. Berjot states, by immersing the zinc in acidulated 
water, and rubbing metallic mercury on them with a brush made of fine 
copper wire. If they have, they have been unaccountably behind the 
art, and we would recommend M. B's. process to them. 



WATER-PRO OEING STUEES. 
Take a pound of gelatine, and a pound of neutral tallow-soap; melt 
them in 4| galls, of water, and add little by little 1J lbs. alum; continue 
to boil for a quarter of an hour; wait until the milky-looking liquid has 
come down to 113°, then plunge the stuff into it, allowing it to become 
well soaked. Take it out, let it drip, and dry it completely by hanging 
it up without wringing; wash it carefully, dry it again, and calender 
it. The soap must be made with tallow, for no other fatty matter will 
remain suspended in the gelatine.— Bull. Soc. Encour. de flndus. Nat. 
(JParis.~) 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

January 25, and February 1, 1859. 

Joseph Locke, Esq., M.P., President, in the Chair. 

The discussion upon Mr. M. Scott's Paper, Description op a Break- 
water at the Port op Blyth, and of certain Improvements in 
Breakavaters, applicable to Harbours op Refuge, occupied four 
evenings. 

Before proceeding- with the discussion, it was remarked, on behalf of the 
author, that an error had been overlooked iu the abstract of the paper. The 
abstract stated, that the breakwaters at Alderney, Portland and Holyhead had 
sections whicli presented nearly, if not all, the advantages of the vertical wall ; 
whereas they were in direct antagonism with the principle of the vertical wall. 
Now, what it had been intended to convey was, that the experience at those 
places had shown, that the sea did not disturb rubble at a depth of 15 ft. below 
low water ; and that there was a combination of the vertical wall and slope, 
which was nearly equal to a vertical wall ; as when a nearly perpendicular wall 
was built upon a rubble mound, as near to the edge of the slope as was consistent 
with the safety of the foundation ; the surface of the mound being 15 ft. below 
low water, and the slope being the natural one of about 1 to 1. 



or 5,000 it. of the natural breakwater, formerlv an outlying ridge of rocks, in 
a direction to intercept the set of the flood tide,"had produced any effect on the 
tidal flow up the river, which had originally extended four or five miles inland. 
Also, whether any observations had been made as to the vertical rise of the tide, 
and the extent of the flow, previous to the commencement of the works, and 
since their completion ; and whether any comparison had been instituted be- 
tween the two series of observations, the average of a number of tides being- 
taken ; because it was believed that the tidal flow was perceptibly diminished. 
In the river Wear, prior to the construction of the north pier,— that on the 
south having been previously erected,— a wide mouth was exposed to the N.E., 
which allowed a large quantity of water to pass into the river, causing the tidal 
How to reach two miles higher up the river than at the present time. There 
was likewise a difference of 4 or 5 ft. in the present tidal flow, at nine miles from 



the mouth of the river, and quays were in existence, in the upper parts of the 
river, which were at present 10 or 12 ft. above the high-water mark. 

It was stated, that wooden piers, nearly similar in construction to one of 
those described in the paper, had been adopted in the river Wear, upwards of 
seventy years ago, by Mr. Shoot, the engineer at that period. The carcasses 
were built on the land, in lengths of 30 ft., and launched into the river, loaded 
with large stones, being floated to their positions, and sunk on the sand, at 
about the level of low water. Instead, however, of the interior being filled up 
with rubble, as suggested in the paper, the river and outer walls were built up 
with large blocks of stone, like an ordinary pier, so that when the timber 
became affected by the worm, the wall remained tolerably perfect. The timber 
was not so much eaten away by the worm, on the river side, as on the seaward 
face ; and on taking down some of these old piers, the cills which had been 
buried in the sand were found to be quite perfect. 

It was contended, that breakwaters having long flat slopes, were more liable 
to be damaged than those with nearly vertical walls ; not perhaps so much by 
the direct action of the sea as by the recession of the waves, when the efflux of 
the water through the open joints tended to disturb the materials, and when 
once they were deranged, a breach was certain to occur. It was believed that, 
in many instances, a redundancy of material had been employed in the con- 
struction of breakwaters. It was well known that the violence of the sea did 
not extend more than 15 ft. below low water, and as all that was required was 
still water inside a breakwater, it was worthy of consideration whether the 
sections adopted had not, in many cases, been too broad and too large for 
effecting that purpose. Then, again, the materials used as " pierre perdue," 
would rarely be found to take an inclination greater than 1 to 1. Thus, it would 
appear, that an unnecessarily large expenditure was frequently incurred; 
whilst if a cheaper and equally durable system was adopted, a greater number 
of these essential works could be undertaken. With reference to the pier at 
Dover, it was remarked, that before the present works were commenced, it had 
been suggested that a simple embankment, similar to a railway work, should, 
have been formed from the materials of the adjacent cliffs, by which means a 
harbour of refuge would have been obtained at a comparatively trifling cost, 
and in less time than had already been spent upon the new works. It was 
thought, that as these works already afforded a quay, both for embarking and 
disembarking passengers, their further extension seawards should be executed 
in a rough manner, so as merely to prevent the sea from breaking into the 
harbour. An opinion was also expressed, that it would have been more correct 
to designate the work as the " Wellington Pier," rather than the "Admiralty 
Pier," as but for the interest which the great Duke took in the matter, the 
pier would probably never have been executed. The effects of breakwaters 
upon the adjacent coasts ought to be narrowly watched, or else it might happen 
that they would cause the destruction of other ports. 

The piers, or jetties, of Calais and Boulogne, which had been constructed 
after Vauban's jetty [at Dunkirk, and had been alluded to in the Paper as being 
similar to that at Blyth, might be cited as examples of successfully constructed 
works, well adapted as breakwaters for a flat sandy shore, serving at the same 
time as conductors and protectors to a channel, into and out of the harbour. 
It was doubted, however, whether this system could be applied to an isolated 
breakwater in deep water, exposed to the violent action of the waves. It should 
also be remembered, that the western, or Old Mole of Genoa, which had been 
formed of caissons, or chests of timber, filled with stone and cement, on which 
a superstructure was raised to a height of 18 ft., had occupied twenty-six years 
in advancing 340 yards in length ; and that the action of the waves on the face 
was such as to necessitate large stones, 15 tons in weight, being thrown down 
in front of it, in a depth of water of 60 ft. The destruction of the celebrated 
cones at Cherbourg might also be mentioned, as affording another illustration 
of the disadvantages of that system cf construction. 

It was stated, that the Admiralty Pier at Dover was formed of a hearting of 
large blocks of concrete, composed of Portland cement and shingle, and faced 
with granite. The width of the pier was about 80 ft. at the base, and it was 
founded 45 ft. below low-water mark, up to which level it was built by divers. 
The blocks were continued to a little above half-tide level, and above that 
point ordinary concrete was filled in between the granite faces. It was 
intended to have a parapet of Bramley Fall stone, on the sea side, but that 
was not yet constructed. The pier had already been useful for sheltering- 
vessels coming into the old harbour, as well as in forming a landing and 
embarking-place for passengers. It was thought that its extension further 
seaward, would be attended with corresponding advantages, as large vessels 
would be able to come up to the pier. The estimated cost for a length of 
1,800 ft., including the parapet, was £650,000. 

In regard to a statement in the paper, that the cost of the works at Port- 
land had been £150 per lineal foot, it was stated, that the most expensive part 
of that work, in the deepest water, with the superstructure complete, and in- 
cluding- the parapet and a wall 40 ft. in width, had not exceeded £120 per foot. 

It was considered, that sufficient distinction had not been drawn between 
breakwaters intended for deep water, and those designed for shallow seas ; and 
that there was a wide, practical difference between the two kinds, which re- 
quired to be allowed for in their construction. Timber had been shown to be 
a useful material for making barriers against the sea, on the east and on the 
south coasts of England, on the coast of Holland, at Boulogne, at Calais, and 
at other places ; but none of these were cases of deep-water piers, and it was 
below low water that the great difficulties were encountered. In the construc- 
tion of a deep-water pier, at Mill Bay, near Plymouth, where the plan of 
dropping stone vertically, from a timber stage, was first put in practice, it 
was found, that the number of pile supports and of timbers must be reduced to 
a minimum, so as to allow the water to pass through without resistance; the 
timberwork thus becoming a mere accessory to the permanent structure. At 
the Plymouth breakwater, some of the largest stones had been driven out of 
the top pavement and the inside slope. All experience went to show, that in 
designing works, which had to contend with deep-sea waves, the greatest pos- 



The Artizan,"] 
March 1, 1859.J 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



71 



aible weight and solidity must be obtained, that was practicable with the mate- 
rial at hand. . 

Allusion was made to a design for a breakwater, combined with a landing 
sta»-e, or pier, constructed of iron and wood. A vertical wall of creosoted 
timber, with a broken or unbroken surface, was supported in its position by 
wrought-iron piles, with Mitchell's screws as foundations, firmly tied and 
braced together. It was considered, that such a system of structure would 
greatly facilitate the construction, lessen the time occupied, and reduce the 
cost. 

In a supplementary Paper " on the Form and Cost of Breakwaters, appli- 
cable to Harbours of Refuge," by Mr. J. Murray, M. Inst., C.E., it was re- 
marked, that a harbour of refuge did not require the enclosed water area to be 
as tranquil as in a wet dock, where vessels loaded and discharged their cargoes 
alongside of quays. A little undulation in the outer harbour was not objection- 
able ; and the protecting moles, or piers, would fully answer their purpose, if 
the great force of the waves was broken, and they were thus prevented from 
doing injury to the vessels at anchor inside. 

It appeared to be generally admitted, as to the work under low water, that 
rubble-stone, used as " pierre perdue," remained stationary, until it attained 
a height of 12 ft. or 15 ft. under low water; that the slopes of the deposited 
mass assumed an angle of 45°, or an inclination of 1 to 1 ; and that this was 
the cheapest mode of bringing up the works to that level. In corroboration of 
this latter statement, a comparative estimate was made, of the cost of bringing^ 
up, by diving-bell work, an upright mole from the bottom, in a depth of 
6 fathoms, with a spring tide rise of 16 ft. and of a simple deposit of rubble-stone 
of the requisite width to receive the superstructure, for which purpose a berm, 
or bench, of 10 ft. on each side, was added to the other profile. The estimated 
cost amounted, in the former case, to £296 per lineal yard, and in the latter to 
£37 per lineal yard, both exclusive of staging; while the time required to be 
bestowed, in the construction of the former, would be far greater than for the 
latter. The upright mole would, also, be considerably augmented in cost, if 
the facing of the walls were of granite, and the interior filled with level courses 
of concrete blocks, in the manner now being pursued at Dover. 

With regard to the superstructure, it was estimated, that the cost would 
vary thus, according to the form adopted : 

1st. When constructed on a rubble stone deposit, 
brought up to 12 ft. under low water, and having a 
sectional area of 4,149 superficial ft £300 per lineal yard 

2nd. Of completing the upright mole, with outer and 
inner walls, and having an area of 3,200 super- 
ficial ft , £558 „ ,, 

3rd. With rubble-stone blocks and cement £330 „ „ 

4th. With concrete-blocks £303 „ ,, 

All these systems were, however, expensive, because skilled labour was em- 
ployed, to a considerable extent, in the construction ; whereas, for the purpose 
of a breakwater only, this item should be reduced to a minimum. 

In the construction of rubble-stone breakwaters, it was considered that the 
system pursued by the French engineers — of not mixing any small material 
with the large blocks, as practised at the mole of La Joliette, at Marseilles, and 
to be adopted at the new mole D'Arene, was the correct principle ; for there the 
large blocks were only used where required, and were not unnecessarily wasted 
by being sunk into the heart of the work. By this plan it had been found, that 
perfect consolidation was attained, with a saving of material. Acting on this 
principle, it was proposed that, for a breakwater in the assumed depth of 
6 fathoms, the nucleus, or core, from the bottom to 22 feet under low water, 
should be wholly composed of third-class rubble, or from quarry rubbish to 
blocks of half-a-ton in weight ; that this should be coated with second-class 
rubble, from half-a-ton to 2 tons in weight, which it was considered would 
remain stationary, up to 12 feet under low water ; and that first-class rubble 
in blocks weighing from 2 to 5 tons, should then be employed up to low water, 
■with a berm, or bench, on the sea side, at a depth of 12 feet under that level. It 
was further suggested, that the upper part should be formed of beton blocks, of 
20 to 25 tons in weight, being of sufficient gravity to resist the force of the 
waves, not, however, as a coating, but as a mass, and terminating at the level 
of high water ; then for 10 or 12 feet above that height, two or three courses of 
heavy blocks, bonded and adjusted by manual labour, should be laid. It had 
been found at Marseilles, that these beton blocks cost 5^d. per cubic foot, and 
at Algiers something more ; that the interstices between the blocks amounted 
to one- third of the cubic contents ; and that the blocks arranged themselves at 
an angle of 45°, or an inclination ofltol. Assuming, however, the price to 
amount to 8d. per cubic foot, and that the section adopted had an inclination of 
2 to 1 for the sea side, and 1 to 1 for the inner slope, then the cost per lineal 
yard would only amount to £200, which contrasted favourably with the esti- 
mated cost — £300 per lineal yard — of a mole, founded on a rubble deposit, being 
a difference of £176,000 in a mile of breakwater, or, if the comparison was made 
with an upright wall from the bottom, the saving would amount to £630,000 — 
a sum sufficient to construct an ordinary harbour of refuge. 

In reference to the calculated cost — £150 per foot — of the Portland break- 
water, it was remarked that the basis of the calculation was in the reports laid 
before Parliament. From the last report it appeared that the total length 
already executed was 5,907 feet, including the entrance, 400 feet wide ; and 
that the cost had amounted to £715,919. In this sum was included the cost of 
a coal store and jetty, which might be set down at £20,000, and of a length of 
superstructure of about 1,200 feet, irregularly constructed, which, at £35 per 
foot, would amount to £42,000. These being deducted from the gross cost, left 
an amount of £653,919, which, being divided by the total length of the pier, 
gave £111 per lineal foot. To this must be added the price of the superstruc- 
ture, bringing up the sum to £146 per foot, supposing the superstructure to be 
completed. But as the value of the convict labour was not allowed for in the 



cost of the work, the Author had considered that the amount should be 
increased by whatever that was worth ; taking convict labour, as compared 
with free labour, to be as three to eight nearly, being the proportion assigned 
to it by the engineer of the breakwater, or equivalent to Is. l\A. per day, then 
the value of the labour of 800 convicts, employed during the ten years the work 
had been in progress, would amount to £24 per foot run, making the total cost 
£170 per foot, whereas it had only been stated at £150 per foot. 

In reply, it was stated, that the cost of the works, as given in the Parlia- 
mentary returns, included all the preliminary expenses, amounting to about 
£80,000 or £90,000, some portion of which had been incurred for special 
reasons ; and that these charges must, in fairness, be distributed over the whole 
of the work, when it should be finished, as well as over all the contingent works. 
It was maintained, that in the most expensive portions, the Portland Break- 
water had not cost £120 per foot. The convict labour had not been charged to 
the cost of the breakwater, and it had yet to be ascertained whether that would 
affect the result. There were contingencies connected with tiie employment of 
such labour, which, although only subject to a mere nominal charge, would 
materially add to the cost in several other respects. The risk was greater, and 
the works would take a longer time in construction, more especially with a 
timber stage; and under no other system would it be possible to employ convicts, 
with any chance of a profitable result, or with that degree of regularity and 
freedom from stoppages during gales which was so essential. At Portland, the 
works had only been delayed from this cause from ten to twenty days during 
ten years. Then to do the same quantity of work in the same time, the 
" plant " must be greatly increased— say in the proportion of 8 to 3— and it 
must also be of a special description, suitable to unskilled labour; added to 
which it would be more liable to damage when used by men without skill and 
without experience ; so that, strange as it might appear, it was much doubted 
whether any pecuniary saving had hitherto resulted from the employment ot 
convict labour. Now, however, by the employment of free labour in particular 
parts of the work, the rate of progress was being increased, and the scale was 
being turned in favour of the employment of convict labour. 

It was remarked that when a wave reached a vertical wall, it was immediately 
reflected back, producing the converse of itself ; and this again gave rise to two 
reflected secondary waves— one vertically upward, and parallel to the face of 
the wall, and the other downwards. If the wall was situated in water of a 
moderate depth, and was founded in or upon sand, mud, or other soft material, 
a hollow trough would become excavated along the base ot the wall by the 
reflected wave ; and unless it was founded deep, its base might be undermined. 
This actually occurred at the Commercial Wharf, Kingstown Harbour, some 
years ago. The seas which washed over the wall falling forward into the water 
of the lee side, also produced a wave by their impulse which penetrated to the 
bottom, and produced at that side another but smaller trough along the base of 
the wall. The remedy adopted was to fill the troughs, on both sides, with 
angular shingle concrete made with Aberthaw lime. 

It was observed, that if timber could be rendered permanent, it might be 
advantageously employed in the construction of breakwaters, inasmuch as by 
its use there would be obtained a continuity of structure, which stonework did 
not possess, unless the materials were of very large size. The structure at 
Blyth had been exposed to the action of heavy seas from the N.E. for two years, 
without accident. It was thought that an improvement might be effected in 
carrying out stone breakwaters, by means of timber staging, by constructing a 
permanent stage, carefully put together for the whole length ot the intended 
works, and loading it with rabble stone, so as to form for a time a breakwater 
in itself. The stage should be sufficientlv strong to carry machinery, capable 
of lifting and transporting masses of masonry, constructed on shore, of twenty- 
five or thirty tons in weight, and of depositing them on the stone tacework 
continuously, and progressing along its whole length instead ot horn the end 

™ It* was remarked, that the estuary at Blyth was similar to that of the Mersey, 
admitting a large quantity of tidal or back-water. Originally, during JN.H. 
gales, there was no protection to vessels entering the tortuous channel leading 
to the harbour, and numerous wrecks took place upon the sands to the eastward ; 
while in S.E. gales vessels went upon the ridge of rocks. The breakwater had 
acted as a guiding- wall to the current, and a straight channel had been dredged 
out; an additional depth of 2 ft. of water had been attained, and vessels were 
sheltered immediately on entering. So far, therefore, the structure was 
successful, and had answered the purposes required. 

It was stated that, in 1814, the late Mr. Rennie made a report upon the 
harbour of Blyth, in which he proposed the erection of a stone breakwater, in 
a similar direction to that now under construction, and also to widen and 
deepen the entrance channel, jetties being intended to be carried out from 
the south shore to preserve the channel. The estimated expense of these works 
was £47,079, or, for the pier alone, £38,015, being at the rate of £9 5s. per toot ; 
whilst the present pier was stated to have cost £10 per foot; so that no great 
pecuniary advantage had been gained by the adoption of the system ot timber 
and stone combined. This mode of construction was by no means so novel as 
it appeared to be considered, for it would be found described in theworKsot 
Vauban, Belidor, Sganzin, and other French writers. It had also been carried 
into effect at Dunkirk. Calais, Boulogne, Dieppe, and other places on the freneii 
coast, where there was no means of getting other materials. It was tnougnt 
that this system could not be applied with propriety to deep-water sections ; and 
it was mentioned that several extensive works had already been executed m 
stone at about £70 per foot. For example, at Kingstown Harbour about 
9,500 lineal ft. of pier were executed at £73 per foot, in a depth of water 
of from 12 ft. to 27 ft. at low water spring tides, with a rise ot tide ot ironi 8 to 
10 ft. Again, at Howth, where, in 1812, the " pierre perdue " system was first 
used, it was believed, in tins country, the quay-walls and parapet cost only 
£71 per foot. The Plymouth Breakwater, which was built in a depth ot 
7 fathoms of low-water spring tides, cost £294 per foot, including the 
masonry, which was expensive ; but that was an instance of an isolated break- 



72 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



"The Artizan, 
.March 1, 1850. 



water, to which all the materials had to he conveyed a distance of nearly 
7 miles in sailing-vessels, and at a time when the machinery and plant for 
executing works of such magnitude were not so perfect as at the present day. 

It was observed, that the'cost of the Holyhead Breakwater had been about 
£100 per toot, not £200 per foot, as given in the paper. It was urged, that 
it was impossible to come to a conclusion that any one system of breakwater 
could be universally adopted ; and, indeed, in no branch of engineering was 
there one material, or one mode of construction, proper to be employed, under 
all circumstances. With regard to the particular system under discussion, it 
was remarked, that there was nothing new in the design ; for wooden piles, 
with or without stone thrown behind them, had been generally used where no 
better material could be afforded. In the United States, twenty years ago, 
with the exception of a single graving dock at Boston, it was believed that 
there were no walls, either of docks, quays, or piers that were not so 
constructed. It was thought that loose stones, requiring the support of the 
timber to keep them together, would not stand in such rough seas as the break- 
waters at Holyhead, Portland, and other places, were exposed to; and if that 
part of the structure was only intended as a nucleus for a permanent stone 
masonry structure— from which to build stone walls in water 70 ft. in depth, 
then it was much questioned whether there would be any economy in 
construction. 

In reference to comparisons of the cost of different breakwaters, it was 
remarked, that the cost of a wooden structure, in one place, could not fairly be 
contrasted with the outlay incurred in another situation, under totally different 
circumstances, and on entirely dissimilar works. Great care was required, even 
in contrasting the cost of stone breakwaters in different places; for the rock in 
one case might be much harder, more difficult to quarry, and more expensive to 
carry, thanin another. 

It was contended that, in the construction of breakwaters, the objects for 
which they were required were not sufficiently kept in view ; and that un- 
necessary labour and expense were incurred in rearing a superstructure, which 
was not at all necessary. It frequently happened that the parapet, by opposing 
a barrier to the waves, caused the water to fall on the platform within, and to 
disturb and destroy the work. 

It was remarked, that to execute a structure of the kind described in the 
paper, in a depth of water of 60 ft., it would be necessary that the timber 
frames should be upwards of 80 ft. in height. Judging from the difficulty of 
placing single piles in position in a less depth of water, it was argued that the 
setting up of each frame with precision in a rapid tideway, which generally 
prevailed round the head of a breakwater in progress, would be a matter of 
considerable difficulty. It was doubted whether the manoeuvring of such large 
masses of buoyant material could be accomplished with advantage, even where 
it was practicable. It was thought that where there was only a small base of 
rubble, it was preferable to float the material to the spot, as had been done at 
Alderney, rather than to adopt the method of depositing it from a stage. For 
executing the superstructure, it had been proposed to introduce intermediate 
frames resting on the rubble. Supposing the rubble to sink, which it un- 
doubtedly would do to some extent, then either the intermediate frames would 
receive no support from the substratum, and they must be held in suspension 
by the mainframes, or, on the other hand, if they were sustained by the rubble, 
the continuity and rigid attachment, of the timber-framing could no longer 
exist. In either case, a portion of the strength, which seemed to he antici- 
pated, would be lost. Hence, it was believed, that before the superstructure 
could be proceeded with, the main frames would have to be cut away, so as to 
present an equally yielding base for the superstructure to rest upon. The 
relative advantages of timber and stone for these works were then commented 
upon ; and it was thought, that although the first cost might be reduced, by 
using the former material, yet it would scarcely ever be adopted where heavy 
seas had to be resisted. Again ; if the dimensions of the timber were increased 
so as to withstand heavy seas, the system would be much more expensive than 
had been stated. It should also be remembered, that although timber and 
rubble-stone might be cheaper per cubic foot than stone alone, yet the advan- 
tages were not so great, when the comparison was made by weight. 

It was remarked that the subject of the harbours of refuge, independently 
of the mechanical and engineering part of the question, was of vast importance, 
in a national point of view, whether as relating to the necessary protection of 
the commercial marine, or as connected with the naval defences of the kingdom. 
In order to rendering clear the points to be touched upon, it had been necessary 
to examine those formidable and not very lively documents, the Parliamentary 
Blue-books, and they confirmed the opinion, that all these great works were 
being executed without any efficient responsible supervision or control ; and 
that not only the public and the representatives of the nation, but also the 
Government itself, had been utterly in the dark as to proceedings relative to 
them. The time had now arrived, when these matters should be brought before 
the bar of public opinion, and as it was almost impossible to induce a dispas- 
sionate examination of the subject elsewhere, the Institution of Civil Engineers 
appeared to be the most fitting arena for the discussion of the question. 

The mechanical portion of the subject was first briefly alluded to, by refer- 
ence to the Reports of the several Committees on Harbours of Refuge, com- 
mencing with that of 1845; which, though not absolutely the first, was that 
which first actually examined into the most important points. On the question 
of the recommendation of upright, or of sloping walls, in spite of the aid given 
by scientific and practical men, the committee differed so widely, that a supple- 
mentary report was published, exhibiting the opinions of the dissidents from 
the first blue-book. Now it was submitted, that this difference of opinion had 
chiefly arisen from not having arrived at a clear understanding of the terms 
used, and of the basis of the various arguments employed. 

It would not be necessary now to reopen the question of the theory of the 
waves of oscillation and of translation. It was admitted, that in the case of a 
pure wave of oscillation, the upright wall would receive the least amount of 



actual impact ; and that the wave would he reflected from the surface, at a 
corresponding angle to that at which it impinged; but when that wave became 
a wave of translation, the upright wall was the worst form that could be adopted, 
as it would be struck with the utmost accumulated force of the sea. 

In applying these and other views to practical cases, it must be assumed, 
that the facts were derived from the Blue-book, which, however, like the 
Queen's speeches, appeared to contain everything except the specific information 
sought from them. 

Now, in looking at the plans of the works, as given in these Parliamentary 
documents, the section of the breakwater at Alderney appeared to be of the 
worst possible form. There was a slope, or berin, below low water, then a slope 
of 1 in 7, and then an upright wall ; it was contended that upon this combina- 
tion of forms, the effect of the waves must be most pernicious. 

When there was to be a vertical wall, the slope should be so placed as to 
exhaust the force of the waves before they reached the superposed upright 
wall ; this was judicious, and it was evidence of the correctness of the doctrine, 
that the form of section of sea walls should depend upon local circumstances, 
and should be fixed by the practical judgment of the engineer. At Dover, a 
slope would not be practicable as there were only soft materials at command, 
whereas at Holyhead and at Portland there was abundance of hard material, 
and it was evident that in these latter positions slopes of " pierre perdue ". were 
the proper kind of works to be executed, as they were less expensive and 
required the exercise of less engineering and mechanical skill than upright 
walls. These latter were, doubtless, expensive works, and it was contended 
that if they could not be constructed at a less expense than the pier at Dover, 
which was stated to be now costing £415 per lineal foot, such structures must 
be abandoned. At the present rate of progress, the projected Harbour of 
Refuge, at Dover, would scarcely be completed in less than one hundred years, 
and at an outlay of £5,000,000. But the actual cost would not be represented 
by that amount, as if the interest of that sum was spread over the hundred years 
consumed in the progress of the work, it would, with the principal, amount to 
£40,000,000. Supposing, then, that our ancestors had commenced this harbour 
at Dover in 1759, what would have been its utility as a work of military defence 
during the past prolonged continental struggles, and would not £40,000,000 be 
much more usefully employed in reduction of the National Debt than in a work 
of doubtful utility, either for the commercial marine or for the navy ? If such 
works must occupy even fifty years, they had better not be commenced at all ; 
as by the time they were completed, the perils they were intended to guard 
against would have passed away. The great object, then, must be to devise 
some other and simpler system of construction for works of this kind ; and it. 
was a question whether some such plan of breakwater as those of which draw- 
ings and models were exhibited by Mr. Hays, Mr. Brunlees, or Mr. Johnson, 
could not be adopted with advantage ; those systems appeared to consist of iron 
piles, founded upon Mitchell's screws, and bearing a sheathing of close or 
open timbers, against which the waves would impinge. The system appeared 
to possess certain merits, and, under peculiar circumstances and in properly 
selected localities, could probably be made available, as a considerable length 
could be put down in a short space of time ; and in the hands of experienced 
engineers such a mode of construction might be rendered available for reducing 
the present enormous cost of piers and works intended for the protection of 
shipping. With the diving-bell and helmet, and the Nautilus and other avail- 
able means of securing the putting down of any kind of iron piles, it would 
appear easy if these works were thrown open to the engineering skill of the 
country, to find the means of executing them with much gTeater rapidity and 
at considerably less cost than at present. 

Reverting to the Blue-books, they would be found to reveal many things 
which were not generally even surmised. To the Report of 1845 there was 
appended the signature of Mr. James Walker, past President of the Institution. 
That report stated that the cost of breakwaters, whether constructed of '•' pierre 
perdue," or built as upright walls, would be nearly identical. Now, as a 
commentary on that statement, it must be observed, as far as a Blue-book fact 
could be received, that the pier at Dover had cost £415 per foot, and that at 
Portland less than half that sum. It was further stated that the works at 
Dover were to cost £2,500,000; those at Seaford, 1,250,000; at Portland, 
£500,000, and at Harwich, £60,000. Of these four works so recommended, 
three had been commenced, and two of them had been entrusted to Mr. James 
Walker, himself one of the Commissioners. 

The facts respecting Dover appeared to be, that the first contract was for 
800 ft. extending from the shore, at a cost of £234,000, or £290 per lineal foot ; , 
and the renewed contract in 1854, was for 1,000 ft. at £415,000, or £415 per 
lineal foot, and to be completed in 1864. It must be assumed that Parliament 
sanctioned that work, ordered it to be proceeded with, and voted the money on 
the report of the commissioners; yet, in 1858, on some of the members of a 
Committee of the House, expressing surprise at the slow progress of the work, 
and asking Mr. Walker this question— " Was it known, at the time it was 
decided to make the works at Dover, that it would take half a century to 
make them ? " he replied — " I do not suppose it was. I do not think any idea 
was formed at the time as to the cost, or the mode in which it should be done." 
Hence it might be assumed, that works w r ere authorised, and the money of the 
country was voted away by the Government without any idea being given of 
the time of construction, or of the cost of such works, nor even of the mode of 
their execution. Now mark the result at Dover;— about £400,000 ha, I already 
been expended, and yet it was at times nearly impracticable to euect the 
landing at low water "of the passengers from the small steamers arriving from 
Calais until the outward-bound steamer had left. This inadequate result, after 
such expenditure, was not creditable to the administrative skill of the Govern- 
ment oi the country. 

At Portland, the original approximate estimate was £500,000, which, for the 
rough stone alone, was extended to £558,000. It was however discovered, 
subsequently, that the mass of stone must be wider and deeper, and therefore 



The Artizan, ~] 
March 1 , 1859. J 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



73 



the cost was increased to £932,000 ; and it was stated, that this addition was 
occasioned hy an error of 7 ft. G in. in the depths, which had been determined 
by soundings taken by one of Her Majesty's surveying ships, which had been 
specially deputed to make a chart of Porland Bay. Why an error of this kind, 
involving an expense of £95,000, had been passed over without any public 
notice, remained to be explained by the department of the Government which 
was responsible for it. 

Considerable discrepancy of opinion appeared to exist with respect to the 
value of convict labour, which, it should be remarked, was more extensively 
employed at Portland than at any other place. Nearly all the stone used in 
the works was quarried by convicts; it was then taken by the contractor, 
hauled to the top of the self-acting incline planes (supplied by the Government), 
and was tipped into the sea vertically from a stage erected by the contractor, 
who had merely to dispose of the material supplied to him by the convicts. It 
would, at the first view, have appeared easy to estimate the value of the 
material, and to charge it against the works executed. This, however, did 
not appear to be done. It was averred in the Blue-books relating to the 
Management of Prisons, that the criminal establishment at Portland was self- 
supporting, inasmuch as the labour of the convicts was profitably employed in 
the harbour works. On the other hand, it was stated in the Blue-book 
relative to the Harbours of Refug-e, that this labour did "not save one shilling 
in the work." Wow, between these two statements there was a manifest 
discrepancy, which should be explained, as it was evident that the £30,000 to 
£50,000 annually expended on the convict establishment at Portland should 
produce something. The prison authorities said that the establishment cost 
the country next to nothing, whilst the Admiralty contended that the harbour 
works upon which the convicts were employed were as costly as if free labour 
had been employed. Now, it appeared that both were a little wrong; the 
Inspector of Prisons might perhaps attach more value to the convict labour 
than properly belonged to it ; but it was absurd to say that the quarried stone, 
delivered on the tramway, ready for deposit by the contractor, was valueless. 
Indeed, it might be safely contended that the £930,000, representing the 
ultimate cost of the Portland works, would eventually be increased to 
£1,500,000, when the convict labour and the interest of the money was taken 
into calculation. 

It appeared from the Blue-books, that the cost of the stone, receiving it 
ready quarried and lowering it by inclined planes, erected at the cost of the 
Government, and tipping it into the sea, amounted to between three and four 
shillings per ton. Now this price appeared excessive, as compared to the cost 
of similar works in other positions, and it induced the conviction that, if the 
whole work had been offered to free and open competition, it would have been 
done at a less cost to the country. 

Alluding to the design of the Portland breakwater, it was observed that an 
opening of between 300 and 400 ft. wide had been left, at a certain distance 
from the shore, in such a position as to admit of heavy seas rolling in, to the 
detriment of the anchorage-ground in the harbour, whilst from its position it 
was manifestly useless for sailing-vessels, either entering or leaving, and could 
only afford an advantage of three or four minutes even to steam vessels. 
Besides this opening required elaborately-constructed pier-heads, which, as 
specimens of work, reflected the highest credit on all who were connected with 
the breakwater; but they had cost nearly £100,000, which was a heavy cost 
for a doubtful advantage. Moreover, in any future repairs of the breakwater, 
this opening would be found to be a source of much inconvenience, as well as 
of extra cost. 

The Harbour of Refuge of Aldemey, which was estimated to cost £1,300,000, 
had been placed in a situation where it was nearly valueless, as all shipping 
carefully avoided that part of the channel. 

The works of St. Katherine's Bay, Guernsey, which were shown by the Blue- 
books to have cost £300,000, were even, if possible, still less useful, as if a 
vessel would avoid Alderney it would certainly not go near to Guernsev. The 
works were now stopped, and, after all the expenditure, there was scarcely 
shelter for a few oyster boats. 

(To be continued.) 

February 8, 1859. 
Joseph Locke, Esq., M.P., President, in the Chair. 
The Paper read was On the Performance of the Screw Steam- 
ship "Sahel," fitted with Du Trembley's Combined Vapour- 
engine; AND OF THE SISTER-SHIP " OASIS," WITH STEAM-ENGINES 

worked Expansively, and provided with Partial Surface 
Condensation, by Mr. James W. Jameson. 

Before proceeding with the main object of the paper, which was to record the 
results obtained during twelve voyages of each ship, made for the purpose of 
testing the comparative value of the two systems, the author gave a brief de- 
scription of the combined- vapour engine. The principle of this engine was based 
upon the fact, that the condensation of a liquid, such as water, boiling at a high 
temperature, might be effected by surrounding an external condenser with a 
liquid, such as ether, boiling at a low temperature. Thus, the condensation of 
the vapour of the one might be made the means of generating- the vapour of the 
other ; and a useful effect might be obtained from the heat given out in con- 
densation. The engine, up to a certain point, resembled an ordinary steam 
engine, with surface condensation, except that the surface of the vessel called the 
vopounser, which was also the condenser of the steam, was surrounded by ether 
instead of water. The heat evolved by the condensing steam generated ether 
vapour. This vapour accumulated in the upper part of the vapouriser, and 
was conveyed from thence to a cylinder fitted with a piston, fee, precisely like 
an ordinary steam cylinder, in which the ether vapour exerted its force. From 
this it was conveyed to another external condenser, where it was condensed by 
means of cold water, and was then returned to an air-vessel, in which any air 
that might have entered was separated from the ether. From this vessel it 

12 



again passed to the vapouriser, in which it condensed fresh volumes of the 
steam, and was once more turned into vapour. In a steam-boat with a pair of 
engines, one would be worked with steam in the ordinary way, and the other 
with the vapour of ether. The vapourisers and condensers were composed of a 
number of elliptical copper tubes, fixed into brass tube-plates. The tubes were 
generally 5 ft. in length, l-25th of an inch in thickness, and the bore was a flat 
ellipse, measuring 1 in. by £ of an in. These tubes M. du Tremblev preferred 
to have drawn solid, without any brazed joint or other seam. The tubes after 
having had their ends tinned, were placed in the mould for the tube-plate and 
the molten metal was then run round them, by which a very tight joint was 
made between the ends of the tubes and the plates. Groups of these tubes 
properly fastened together, were placed vertically in a cast-iron case, in which 
the exhaust steam was introduced, so as to surround the outside of the tubes. 
The liquid ether to be boiled off and to condense the steam was placed within 
the tubes ; arrangements being made above the top tube-plate to collect the 
vapour, and to prevent its mixing with the steam that surrounded the exterior 
of the tubes. The condenser was nearly similar to the vapouriser, except that 
the tubes were placed horizontally, and were curved slightly upwards in the 
middle, so that the ether obtained from the condensation of the vapour might 
readily escape from the tubes. 

The author then succinctly alluded to the experiments made by Mr. Rennie 
on board the ship Du Tremhley, in the year 1853, which led to the application 
of the system in two new ships, the France and the Bresil, of 300 nominal 
H.P., belonging to the " Compagnie de Navigation Mixte," of the port of 
Marseilles. These vessels performed an uninterrupted service for upwards of 
eighteen months, between Marseilles and Kamiesh, during the Crimean war • 
and were so favourably reported upon by M. Meissonier, Ingenieur des Mines' 
and M. Gouin, Ingenieur des Ponts et Chaussees, that it was determined to 
apply the system to seven new ships. Ultimately, however, in consequence of 
the burning of the ship France, in the port of Bahia, and owing to the failure 
of the Brazilian line of steamers after three voyages, the system was only applied 
to three ships on the African line. These vessels were the Sahel, Zouave, and 
Kabyle, of 825 tons displacement, and 180 nominal H.P. 

About the same time the " Compagnie Franco-Americaine," havin"- made 
some incomplete and unsuccessful trials of ether engines, in the ships Jacquard 
and Francois Aracjo, gave up the system. These two engines were then 
arranged to work by steam alone, the tubular apparatus being made use 
of for surface condensers. It was said that by this arrangement such 
favourable results were obtained as to compensate for the suppression of 
the ether. All these circumstances combined induced the two companies 
to engage the services of M. Moreau, to conduct a series of experiments 
to determine the relative economy of the two systems. In his Report he 
endeavoured to prove, that although in the combined engine a consumption 
of 800 lbs. of ordinary Cardiff coal, and 2-16 pints of ether per hour, had pro- 
duced 439-6 indicated H.P., or 2 lbs. per indicated H.P. per hour, yet a result 
almost equal to this might be obtained from engines of the same dimensions, by 
employing steam of the same pressure as in the combined engines, and by 
using a diminished introduction, a greater expansion, and surface-condensers. 
Subsequent experiments corroborated the results arrived at by M. Moreau as 
to the consumption of fuel; but in a reply to that report the accuracy of his 
reasoning and calculations was disputed. The Directors of the " Compagnie 
de Navigation Mixte," however, determined that the plan proposed by M. 
Moreau should be carried out in the ships Oasis and Marabout, also belong- 
ing to the African line ; and this had enabled the present comparison to be 
made. 

The engines and boilers of the two ships Sahel and Oasis, as well as the 
hulls, were identical, except that the boilers of the latter had about one-third 
more heating surface. The voyages, twelve in number, were perfectly similar 
in all respects, and occupied eight months, during- which time about 14,000 
miles were run by each ship. During the experiments the mean indicated 
power was found to be 405 H.P. in the Sahel, and 273 H.P. in the Oasis and 
the Marabout. In the former the total consumption of coal taken on board 
was 3-1 lbs. per indicated H.P. per hour, and in the latter 7-12 lbs. per indi- 
cated H.P. per hour— that of the Oasis being 7-5 lbs., and of the Marabout 
6-75 lbs. These rates of consumption were obtained by dividing the total 
amount of coal used on board for all purposes by the actual number of hours 
under way. They, therefore, included the quantity consumed in getting up 
the steam, as well as that used for cooking, &c. The rate of consumption was 
also affected by the inferior quality of the fuel frequently used, by the con- 
siderable waste, and by the great number of hours under steam, compared to 
the hours under way. These rates, though high, did not exceed the usual 
rates for ships in the port of Marseilles, fitted with direct-acting engines of 
the same power. The most economical results obtained in any of that class 
were those of the ship Avenir, belonging to the same Company, in which the 
consumption of fuel, measured in the same way, was 5-4 lbs. per indicated 
H.P. per hour. Tliis agreed very nearly with the account given of the 
Scotia, Anglia, and Cambria mail boats, running between Kingstown and 
Holyhead, in which the consumption was stated to be 5-3 lbs. per indicated 
H.P. per hour. Reference was also made to Professor Rankine's experiments 
on board the Admiral, fitted with double cylinder engines, in which the con- 
sumption was said to be 2iS lbs. per indicated H.P. per hour, or nearly 
50 per cent, more than that of the Kabyle, as determined by M. Moreau. 
Also to some experiments on board the A Iqesiras, a French ship of the line, of 
2,414 indicated H.P., when it was found that with the full pressure of the 
steam the consumption was 3-74 lbs. per indicated H.P. per hour, and with 
the steam cut off at one-third of the stroke, 3-6 lbs. per indicated H.P. per 
hour. The author believed that the ordinary consumption of fuel in marine 
engines was above 6 lbs. per indicated H.P. per hour; that comparatively few 
worked so low as 5 lbs., and none under 4J lbs., taking the gross consumption 
for a whole year. 
An examination of the tabular records of the experiments made with the two 



74 



Institution of Civil Engineers. — Reviews and Notices of New Books. 



March 1, 1659. 



ships Sahel and Oasis, gave the following results, in favour oi the combined 
vapour-engines. First, a weight and space available for 50 additional tons of 
carn-o, or an increase of one-sixth; secondly, a diminution in the consumption 
of fuel of 40 per cent. ; and thirdly, an increase of one-ninth in the speed of 
the ship. The attendant disadvantages were,— the first cost of the apparatus, 
the difficulty of condensing the ether, during very hot weather, the losses 
arista" 1 from leaks, which occurred from time to time in the vapouriser, and 
the expense and danger of the liquid employed necessitating constant care, 
and a more efficient engineer than an ordinary steam-engine. Still, notwith- 
standing all these inconveniences, the actual saving was such as to merit 
attention. The additional expense required to fit the Sahel with a combined 
engine, instead of a common steam-engine, would not exceed £4,000. Such a 
ship on the African line could accomplish from twenty to twenty-four voyages 
per annum, or run from '20,000 to 24,000 miles, and economise, as compared to 
the Oasis, 1,000 tons of coal, of the value of £1,600. From this would have to 
be deducted the value of the ether consumed, say £409, and £400 as a sinking- 
fund to pay off the extra expense incurred, or together £809 ; leaving a nett 
economy of £761. But to this must be added the profits arising from the 
additional cargo capable of being carried ; this could not be estimated at less 
than £700, so that there resulted a nett economy of £1,491, a sum more than 
sufficient to pay an interest of G per cent, per annum on the capital required to 
purchase such a ship. 

The number of accidents which had occurred during five years' experience 
had been but three. The first happened on board the ship France, when lying- 
in the port of Messina. This arose from an escape of ether, caused by a work- 
man having trodden upon and broken a weak copper pipe under the bilge 
water, and which was therefore out of sight. The ether having accumulated 
in the engine-room, was accidentally ignited, when a great flame filled the 
engine-room, and extinguished itself in a few moments, without producing 
any disorder, or leaving any trace of the fire. The second accident, winch 
caused one death, occurred on board the ship Bresil, when in the dry dock at 
Marseilles. This accident was also occasioned by a workman entering the 
engine-room with a naked light, against express orders, and setting fire to the 
gases of the ether floating in the room, the vapouriser being open at the time 
for cleaning. The third accident was the most serious, and the most fatal to 
the development of the system : this was the burning of the ship France, in 
the port of Bahia, before alluded to. It was now well known that this had been 
caused by discharging at night a number of cases containing ether, not 
belonging to the provision of the ship. One of the cases was broken, the 
liquid spread, and ignited at one of the lanterns, setting fire to the hold, at 
some distance from the engine-room. Thus, these accidents all occurred when 
the engines were not at work, when the fires were extinguished, and the ships 
were in port. No accident had happened to the ships while at sea, and_ no 
extra insurance had ever been paid on the ships on account of their containing 
ether, even after the burning of the ship France. 

In conclusion, it was remarked, that the difficulty of condensing the ether 
would not take place in latitudes where there was not an excessively high tem- 
perature, nor if a liquid with a higher point of ebullition was employed. The 
ixjcasional leakage of the vapouriser was a purely practical defect, which 
would, no doubt, be easily remedied. As, therefore, a great economy of fuel 
had been shown to result from the combined system, it remained to be seen 
whether the inconveniences mentioned were such as to limit its general 
extension. It was thought possible that a cheap non-inflammable liquid 
might be discovered, and that the cost of the apparatus might be still further 
reduced; as experiments, made by Mr. Bramwell, seemed to lead to the 
belief that the surface of the vapouriser might be considerably decreased. The 
extensive scale on which the system had already been employed, and the 
favourable manner in which it had been reported upon by different engineers, 
was the Author's reason for bringing the subject under the notice of the 
members. M. Du Trembley was most anxious that his invention should be 
better known to English engineers, in the hope that they would co-operate in 
removing the existing defects, and in rendering its application more certain 
and practicable. 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



J. M. L. (Newcastle).— We have in preparation something which will meet your views. 

J. W. C. (Hotwells, Bristol).— We have answered your inquiry respecting the pumps, by 
post. 

J. W. C. (Leeds).— The information shall be forwarded to you in due time— that is to say, 
the information you ask for. 

K. Hayn (Grabow, near Stettin). — We have made inquiry, but regret that we are 
unable at present to obtain for you what you seek. Naval architects are plentiful, 
and many excellent draughtsmen are without employment ; but we will not forget you 
should the opportunity occur. 

W. L (Roclulnlc).— We are unable to discover anything concerning the subject of your 
inquiry of the 15th ult. ; but if you will forward the printed form of receipt given for 
your subscription, the plate, Number 120, shall be forwarded. Send your address. 

J. K. (Clifton).— You shall hear in due time. 

R.— Mr. Taylorson's address is Port Glasgow, Clyde. Mr. T. recently read a paper upon 
his diagonal system of ship-building, at the United Service Institution. 

O. Dingier (Ars sur Moselle).— We have had the parcel returned to us, it having been 
refused by the French Post Office. 

H.Wimshurt and others.— We are compelled to defer the publication of several letters 
until next month, when we will reserve space for them. 

We must crave indulgence at the hands of very many of our correspondents whose com- 
munications remain unanswered, but we hope to be able to entirely clear off arrears in 
our next. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 

Cows d'Astronomie, d V Usage des Officiers dc la Marine Imperiale. 

Par E. P. Dubois. Paris : Arthus Bertrand, Editeur, Libraire de la Societe 

de Geographie, Rue Hautefeuille, 21. 

This work, intended for the use of officers in the Imperial French navy, is 
one of the ablest treatises on astronomy which has been published for many 
years ; for whilst the subject is treated throughout in a thoroughly scientific 
manner with great ability, there is so much of the popular style of teaching 
retained as to render it not only a valuable, but also an easy study-book. 

One of the features of this work which recommends it particularly to the 
attention of the student in science, is the admirable portion of the work devoted 
to descriptions of the various instruments employed for astronomical purposes. 

The Construction of Wrought-Iron Bridges, embracing the Practical 
Application of the Principles of Mechanics to Wrought-Iron Girder 
WorJt. By John Herbert Latham, M.A., Civil Engineer, Fellow of Class 
College, Cambridge. Macmiilan and Co., Cambridge, and Henrietta Street, 
London. 1858. 

We are sorry that we have not been able to devote that amount of time and 
attention to the perusal of Mr. Latham's work, since it was forwarded to us so 
recently, as to enable us to do justice to it in our columns for the present 
month. Suffice it, however, to state, that the author, in addition to possessing 
high mathematical attainments, has had practical experience in determining 
the correctjoroportions of girder bridges, and such-like structures, for the late 
Mr. Rendel, M.I.C.E. ; and the author, in his preface, laments the broad 
chasm existing between theoretical writing and practical mechanica lexperience, 
and he adds, — 

" Of late years the properties of iron have become more and more known and 
defined ; and the resources and accuracy of our workmanship render a very 
close analysis of the strains upon a structure capable of being carried out both 
soundly and economically. It is therefore especially satisfactory to see the 
chasm between the literature of our highest experience and highest reasoning 
really closing. But how great a gap still exists between the abstract theorems 
and rudimentary figures in the highest mathematical books of our universities 
and elsewhere, and the explanations of our practice, the elaborated repetition 
of experiments, and expensive plates-in the most practical engineering books ! 
The object of the present treatise is to exhibit the application of mechanical 
theory, in as simple working forms as possible, to those points of girder- work 
in which that application is proved practically valuable." 

In the hasty glance which alone we have been able to afford to the present 
volume, we are enabled to judge of the amount of valuable analytical know- 
ledge which Mr. Latham has, in addition to his mathematical acquirements, 
brought to bear upon the subject under treatment; and we hope, at some very 
early date, to be able to cite some passages as examples, and to contrast thein 
with the views and writings of some of the authors who have preceded him in 
the treatment of the same subject. 

Miscellaneous Papers on Mechanical Subjects. By Joseph Whitworth, 
F.R.S. London: Longmans'; Manchester: J. and J. Thompson. 
The high reputation of Mr. Whitworth as a mechanician of the first order is 
a guarantee for the sound and practical character of the work which he has 
modestly published under the above title ; for, although the volume is made up 
of a number of papers upon various subjects — connected with mechanical 
engineering particularly and mechanical science generally — some of the papers 
possess merit and matter sufficient to form the text for even a larger volume 
than that now before us; and, in the hands of an enterprising book-maker, 
there is no doubt that the matter contained in the 175 pages would have been 
spread over or diffused through very many times more than that number of 
pages. The student in mechanical science and the practical mechanic will each 
find much that is very useful to them in Mr. Whitworth's volume of miscel- 
laneous papers on mechanical subjects. 

Adcock's Engineers' Pocket Book for the year 1859. London : Simpkin, 

Marshall, and Co. 

Numerous improvements have been effected in this useful companion to the 
engineer since we last noticed it ; and we are glad to perceive that the original 
character of a pocket-book is maintained by the retention of the portion devoted 
to the diary and cash- account. 

Description of Griffiths' Patent Screw-Propeller. London: M. Soul. 1858. 
Mr. Griffiths' screw-propeller is so well known to most of our readers, and 
the advantages possessed by his construction of propeller over various other 
forms now so generally admitted, that it is unnecessary for us to do more than 
state that the Author, in the pamphlet before us, describes his invention and 
its advantages minutely, and illustrates it with a sheet of copper-plate 
engravings of his Improved Patent Screw- Propeller ; and he adds a number of 
certificates and testimonials, each speaking to the advantage of employing 
Griffiths' propeller. 



The Artizan, "1 
Mai-ch 1, 1859. J 



List of New Books. — Correspondence. 



75 



Becent Practice in the Locomotive Engine. By D. K. Clark and Z. Col- 
burn. Blackie and Son. 1859. 

The new part just issued maintains the reputation of the authors. The 
excellencies of the new series of Railway Machinery, referred to in our previous 
notices, are fully justified by the further issue which is now before us. 
The Carpenter and Joiner's Assistant. Blackie and Son. Parts 15 and 1G. 
This very excellently illustrated series of examples relating to Constructive 
Joinery, and the excellent textual matter accompanying the same, exceeds in 
practical usefulness any work hitherto published purporting- to treat of the 
same subjects. The selection of illustrations is only equalled by the admirable 
manner in which they are produced. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND NEW EDITIONS OF BOOKS. 

BAKER (T.) — Elements of Mechanism, explaining the Practical Constructions of 

Machines for the use of Students in Engineering (Illustrated). 2nd edit., with remarks 

by Nasmyth, 12mo, cloth, 2s. Gd. OVeale.) 
BAKEWELL (F. C.) — A Popular History and Description of the most Remarkable Inven- 
tions during the present Century. Post 8vo, pp. 310, cloth, 8s. 6d. (Houlston.) 
DOUGLAS (H.)— On Naval Warfare, with Steam. By Gen. Sir Howard Douglas. 8vo, pp. 

170, cloth, 8s. 6d. (Murray.) 
CONNINGTON (E. T.)— A Handbook of Chemical Analysis (adapted to the unitary 

notation), 4th edit., 7s. 6d. : also Tables of Qualitative Analysis to accompany the Hand- 
book, 2s. (id. (Longman.) 
LIEBIG (J.)— Letters on Chemistry, in its relations to Physiology, Dietetics, Agriculture, 

Commerce, and Political Economy. 4th edit., revised by John Birth. 8vo, pp. 503, 

cloth, 7s. 6d. (Walton.) 
LAYTON (W.)— Builders' Price -book for 1859: containing about 20,000 prices, corrected 

according to the present state of materials and labour. Cloth, 4s. (Knott.) 
MOORE (A.)— Handbook of Railway Law, containing the Public Railway Acts from 1838 

to 1858, with Introduction, containing Statistical and Financial Information, Notes, 

Forms, &c. ; and Analytical Index, pp. 520. Cloth, 10s. Od. (W. H. Smith.) 
NAUTICAL MAGAZINE for 1858, — On subjects connected with maritime affairs. 8vo, 

pp. 700. 13s. 6d. (Simpkin.) 
HOW TO FORTIFY LONDON AND NULLIFY CHERBOURG.— 12mo, Is. (Freeman.) 
LUMLEY (W. G.)— The New Sanitary Laws : that is, The Public Health Act, 1848 and 

1858; and other various statutes connected therewith. 12mo, pp. 506, cloth, 10s. (Shaw.) 
HEADLEY (O. D.)— Who Invented the Locomotive Engine ? with a Review of " Smiles" 

Life of Stephenson." 8vo, cloth, 4s. Gd. (Ward and Lock.) 
MURCHISON (R. I.)— SUuria : the History of the oldest Fossiliferous Rocks and their 

foundation; with a sketch of the distribution of Gold over the Earth, 3rd edit., cloth, 

42s. (Murray.) 
DOWSING (W.) — The Timber Merchant and Builder's Companion ; Weights and Measures 

of Deals from one to a thousand pieces, with relative price each size bears per lineal 

foot to any given price per Petersburg hundred ; and other intormation in buying and 

selling foreign timber. (Simpkin.) 
FARADAY (M.) — Researches in Chemistry and Physics. 8vo, pp. 500, cloth, 15s- 

(Tavlor and Francis.) 
1IAWLINSON (R.) — Designs for Factorv, Furnace, and other tall Chimney Shafts. 

Cloth, £3 3s. (Weale.) 
WHITWORTH (I.)— Miscellaneous papers on Mechanical subjects. 8vo, pp. 188, cloth, 5s. 

(Longman.) 
WILSON (G.)— Electricity and the Electric Telegraph ; to which is added the Chemistry 

of the Stars. (Traveller's Library), 12mo, Is. (Longman.) 
WILSON (G.}— The Progress of the Telegraph, sewed, Is. (McMillan.) 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

[We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of oar Correspondents.']— -Ed. 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — Trusting to your well-known willingness to record improvements 
tending to economy of fuel in steam engines, I beg to enclose herewith a 
tabular statement oi' the performance of a small screw steamship, fitted by me 
in 1857 with a new boiler and improved surface-condenser. 

The arrangements introduced were far from what I consider complete, in 
consequence of original defects in the construction of the engines,— and every 
engineer knows the difficulty of making a patched job perfectly satisfactory. 
I was also required to leave the ordinary injection-condenser and air-pump 
undisturbed, so that if my arrangements 'failed recourse could be had to the 
old system ; this obliged me to cut contracted additional exhaust outlets on 
each cylinder. 

I mention these circumstances, as they must influence the result, and 
therefore be allowed as reasons why the economy was not greater. 

If I had had the means of fitting an air-pump of the usual capacity, the 
vacuum would have averaged 27 to 28 in. This, however, could not be con- 
veniently done ; the present air-pump is horizontal, single-acting, attached 
directly to the engines, and is only one-third of the usual capacity for engines 
of 50 H.P. nominal, or 190 H.P. indicated. 

There are two cylinders direct acting, each 18 in. diameter, and 21 in. stroke. 
The steam is admitted for 4-10ths of the stroke, and cut off by separate expan- 
sive valves. 

The boiler is cylindrical, has 1,000 sq. ft. of heating surface, and 33 sq. ft. of 
fire grate. 

The surface, in the surface-condenser, is between one-third and one-half of 
the heating surface of boiler, and occupies about l-20th of boiler space. 

The indicated power was calculated from some forty diagrams taken at sea 
in regular work; and it is not difficult for any engineer to check the actual 
power, as all the chief particulars are accurately given in this letter and the 
statement. 

It will be seen the average consumption of coal per indicated H.P. per hour 
is 2,063 lbs. ; and I think you will admit this is an economical result, especially 
when we consider this vessel was not fitted by our friends on the Clyde. 

I only claim for this result, the credit fairly due to success in economising 
fuel to a certain extent. But with new engines, I can insure any shipowner 
an average consumption o/'li lbs. of coal per indicated H.P. per hour; that 
is 100 H.P. engines, indicating four times, or 400 indicated H.P. will require 
from 5 to 6 cwt. per hour. . 

I am aware there are at the present time many engineers directing their 
attention to the economy of fuel in marine-engines, and I heartily wish them 
success. There is no reason why jealousy should prevent a free exchange of 
opinion, and I give simply the result of my own experience. 
1 am, Sir, yours obediently, 

J. Frederick Spencer. 

Adelaide Place, London Bridge, Vlth February, 1859. 

P.S. The owner of the Alar, Mr. H. P. Maples, of Arthur-street East, 
will I am sure bear testimony to the correctness of these statements. 

P.P.S.— It must not be forgotten that the above statements are the results 
of twelve months regular work, and not of mere trial-trips ; and that the 
distance traversed is about equal to a voyage to Australia and back. 



IRON SCREW STEAMSHIP "ALAR," 50 H.P. 

Average Indicated H.P. 190. — Engines fitted xoith J. F. SPENCER'S Fresh Water Arrangements. 
ABSTRACT STATEMENT OF VOYAGES BETWEEN THE PORTS OP SHOREHAM, SUSSEX, AND ST. HELIER'S, JERSEY. 





Year. 


Totals. 


Averages. 






No. of 
Sailings. 


Time 

running 

under Steam. 


Running 
Distance. 


Total 
Coal 
Consump- 
tion. 


Running 
Coal 

Consump- 
tion. 


Gauges. 


Revo- 
lutions. 


Speed 

per 

Hour. 


Time 
of each 
Passage. 


Coal 
consumed 

each 
Passage. 


Running 
Coal con- 
sumption 
each 

Passage. 


Running 
Coal con- 
sumption 
per Hour. 


Quality 


Month. 


Steam. 
Lbs. 


Vacuum. 
Lbs. 


of 
Coal. 




No. 


Hrs. Ms. 


Knots. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


No. 


Knots. 


Hrs. Ms. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Cwts. 




November .... 
December 

February .... 


1857 

1858 
33 

33 
» 

33 
3) 


8 

9 

9 

8 

9 

9 

14 

17 

18 

17 

17 

16 


148 -25 
186 -40 
139 -55 
127 -55 
144-35 
179-40 
231 -32 
274 -13 
284 -55 
281-25 
281-5 
299-45 


1,310 
1,560 
1,360 
1,200 
1,400 
1,510 
2,170 
2,570 
2,740 
2,590 
2,620 
2,630 


30 - 5 

32-5 

28- 

24- 

28-5 

33-5 

48-5 

53-5 

65-5 

62-5 

62- 

66-5 


26 -5 

28- 

23-5 

20- 

24- 

29- 

41-5 

45- 

56-5 

54- 

53-5 

58-5 


39- 

37-4 

40- 

38-3 

38-5 

39- 

37-8 

36-7 

35- 

33- 

37- 


12-06 

12- 

12 -06 

12- 

12- 

12- 

12-2 

12-3 

12-3 

12-1 

12-1 

12-1 


107 

105 
108 
106 
108 
110 
108 
110 
108 
105 
106 
105 


8-82 

8-36 

9-75 

9-37 

9-7 

8-4 

9-37 

9-38 

9-61 

9-2 

9-32 

8-77 


18-33 

20-44 

15-32 

16- 

16- 

19-57 

16 -32 

16-8 

15-40 

16-40 

16-39 

18-44 


3-8 

3-6 

3-11 

3- 

3-16 

3-7 

3-46 

3-14 

3-64 

3-67 

3-65 

4-15 


3-31 
3-11 

2-61 

2-5 

2-66 

3-22 

2-94 

2-64 

3-14 

3-17 

3-15 

3-65 


3-57 
3- 

3 -as 

3-13 

3-32 

3-23 

3-58 

3-28 

3-96 

3-84 

3-8 

3-93 


) Nixon's 
( Duffryn 

I 


July 


) 


September .... 


( Llanelly 
West Hartley 


Summary. . 


151 


2580 -5 


23,660 


535-5 


460. 


37-26 


12-1 


107-16 


9-17 


17 -15 


3i 


3 


3* 





N.B.— The information given above is carefully compiled from the Captain and Engineer's Logs, and the coal also checked by the total quantity supplied. 



13 



76 



Recent Legal Decisions. 



r The Artizan, 
L March 1, 1859. 



RECENT LEGAL DECISIONS 

AFFECTING THE ARTS, MANUFACTURES, INVENTIONS, &c. 
Under this heading we propose giving a succinct summary of such deci- 
sions and other proceedings of the Courts of Law, during the preceding month, 
as may have a distinct and practical bearing on the various departments treated 
of in our Journal : selecting those cases only which offer some point either of 
novelty, or of useful application to the manufacturer, the inventor, or the 
usually — in the intelligence of law matters, at least — less experienced artizan. 
With this object in view, we shall endeavour, as much as possible, to divest our 
remarks of ail legal technicalities, and to present the substance of those decisions 
to our readers in a plain, familiar, and intelligible shape. — Ed. 

Masters and Workmen. — Inefficient Machinery.— A case of some im- 
portance, as involving the liability of employers in cases of accidents arising from defective 
machinery, &c, was heard (22nd January ult.) before Sheriff Strathern, in the Glasgow- 
Small Debt Court. The plaintiff, a "shanker," claimed damages for personal injuries 
received by him on the 15th December ult. in the " Breaky " Sinking Pit, near Plains, for 
which defendant was contractor. Whilst in the latter's employment as a " shanker," a 
wire connected with the clag-door "having broken, and occasioned the plaintiff's fall to 
the bottom of the pit, whereby he was seriously injured, and rendered unable to work for 
several weeks." The sheriff decided that the law was quite clear that masters were bound 
to have sufficient machinery supplied to their workmen ; that it was held in the case of 
Buist and Co., the fact of machinery giving way is prima facie evidence of deficiency ; and 
that the defender (defendant), to elude liability, was bound to have proved its efficiency, 
particularly in the present instance, where it was in evidence that, prior to the day of 
the accident, several complaints had been made by the workmen about the wire in ques- 
tion ; some of them having left the work because no redress had been accorded to them. 
Alluding to the fact, also proved, that, in other sinking-pits, wire is not used, but a chain or 
" muzzle," he the sheriff, wished it to be particularly understood, that if, from a parsi- 
monious view, masters hesitated to furnish suitable and proper appliance, their plea of 
non-liability will not avail them. Decree for plaintiff — £5 damages, with expenses. 

Parchment or Paper? — A special case, on an information filed by the Attorney- 
General against Mr. Barry, to recover penalties for carrying on business as a paper-maker 
at Abbey Mills, Brompton, was argued in the Court of Exchequer, 27th January ult. The 
question heing, whether the article manufactured by defendant was liable to duty as paper. 
At the trial, a verdict had been entered for the Crown, subject to the opinion of the Court 
of Exchequer, whether the material was to be regarded as paper or parchment? For the 
Crown it was contended that the article was paper, within the meaning of the Act of 
Parliament; and, as such, liable to duty. For the defendant it was urged that it was not 
paper, because it was manufactured of animal, and not of vegetable matter : that its 
appearance was different from, and it was applied to different, purposes than paper ; and, 
further, that if it were liable to duty at all, it was only liable to the lesser duty on parch- 
ment. The invention, for which letters-patent were granted to Mr. John Harcourt Brown, 
of Arthur's Seat, Aberdeen, was for "Improvements in the manufacture of artificial skins," 
the object being to produce artificial skins for the manufacture of parchment or such like 
articles, and leather ; and consists in employing the cuttings or other parts of hides and 
skins, by reducing the same to pulp ; and, then, by rollers or pressure, to produce sheets. 

Designs Registration Act. — The "Druid" Mantle. — A mantle-manu- 
facturer of Oxford Street, was (5th February ult.) summoned before Mr. Bingham, at 
Marlborough Street Police Office, "for exposing for sale an article of manufacture of which 
another in the trade was the registered proprietor, and the design of which was registered 
in pursuance of the Designs Copyright Act 5 and 6 Vict. c. 100, and numbered 114, 231, 
after being served with notice by such registered proprietor, that his consent had not been 
given, &c." Proof of service of such notice, and the certificate of registration, proof of 
identity with registered pattern, &c, having been put in, the magistrate, under the cir- 
cumstances urged by the defendant in explanation — (namely, that he had bought the 
original at another establishment, and that if he was a copyist, it was not from the 
[registered] original) — inflicted a fine of Is., and the costs, £7. Another " Mantle Firm " 
were (same day) also summoned by the same registered proprietor, under precisely similar 
circumstances. In this case it was ultimately arranged that each defendant should pay Is. 
and costs, fixed at £i in each case. 

The Sardinia and Algeria Submarine Cable has become the subject of 
litigation abroad and at home. The Mediterranean Submarine Telegraph Company, repre- 
sented by Mr. Brett, some time since entered, it appears, into a contract with Messrs. 
Newall and Co., for laying down this cable ; the contract stipulating that in case of any 
dissension arising, arbitrators should be chosen by a court of law, their decision to be final. 
When the cable was delivered, the Company refused to receive it, on the ground that only 
one of the four wiresjwas capable of transmitting despatches perfectly. The contractors, on 
the other hand, maintained that all the four wires were perfect. An arbitration therefore 
hecame necessary ; but whilst the company insisted that it should take place in France, 
Messrs. Newall and Co. required it to be in England. Recently the company applied to 
the Civil Tribunal to order the nomination of experts. Messrs. Newall raised the objection 
that the tribunal had no jurisdiction, inasmuch as the agreement was made in England, 
between Englishme/t, that the conditions indicated that the parties had intended to have 
recourse to English Courts, and that they (Newall and Co.) had in consequence commenced 
legal proceeding in England, to which Brett had put in an appearance. The Tribunal, 
however, decided that as the company was a French one, and had its office in Paris, the 
French courts had full j urisdiction ; and it ordered the case to be gone into on the merits 
in a fortnight. 

Threshing Machines — Damages for Non-delivery. — In the Court of 
Queen's Bench (31st January ult.), Mr. Justice Crompton, by consent, fixed at £300 the 
amount of damages to be assessed in an action (Sneed v. Ford) brought by a farmer for loss, 
&c, arising from the non-delivery of a threshing-machine according to contract. The 
question raised had been, whether the plaintiff could recover as damages the injury which 
his corn had sustained by lying on the land, and the expense of kiln-drying it afterwards ; 
it being intimated to the defendant at the time the machine was ordered, that if it was not 
delivered by the stipulated day, — the 14th of August — the defendant would be under the 
necessity of hiring one. For defendant it was contended, that the proper measure of the 
damages was the cost of hiring another machine. Lord Campbell, on the argument of the 
rule to enter the verdict for merely nominal damages, held that the plaintiff was entitled 
to recover damages for what were the natural consequences of the defendant's breach of 
contract, and which were in the contemplation of the parties at the time of the contract. 
It did not appear that the plaintiff could have hired another machine ; and besides, the 
defendant had induced him to wait from time to time, in expectation of the arrival of his 
machine. The damage done to the wheat, and the cost of drying it, were the natural 
consequences of the defendant's breach of contract, and the proper measure of damages. 
It was ultimately arranged that Mr. Justice Crompton should fix the amount of damages 
to be assesssd on this principle. The result we have given above. Rule accordingly. 

The Liverpool Waterworks.— In the Bail Court (Sittings in Banco, before Mr. 
Justice Erie), 31st January ult., a satisfactory adjustment of this dispute was effected. 
An indictment had been preferred against the Corporation of Liverpool for improperly 
interfering with a public highway in the construction of their waterworks, and not making 
a proper road in lieu thereof. The defendants had been convicted, and a rule had been 
obtained ordering them to pay a large fine, with a view of compelling them to make a new 



and sufficient road. The matter had been referred; and the referee now stated that a road 
had now been made to his satisfaction. The prosecutors therefore consented that the rule 
being made absolute, a nominal fine only (viz., of one shilling) should be imposed. Rule 
absolute accordingly. 

Are Locomotives, propelled by steam or other mechanical power, on a particular road, 
in legal sense,— a "nuisance"? This question will shortly have to be decided, as in a 
recent case, in V. C. Sir W. P. Wood's Court — (Attorney General v. the South Yorkshire 
Railway and River Dun Navigation Company), an injunction was granted (2Cth January 
ult.), " upon the undertaking of the relators" (in this information) " to prefer any indict- 
ment against the defendants at the next assizes — to restrain the defendants from running 
locomotive engines propelled by steam or other mechanical power across the South Parade 
(in Thome) : the defendants to admit upon the trial of the indictment, that they have run 
locomotive-engines across the South Parade for the ordinary purposes of their traffic." 

Glazing Woollens, &c.— Question of Infringement of Patent. — An 
appeal case (Brook and another v. Alton) in error, from the Court of Queen's Bench was 
(1st February ult.), argued before the Lord C. J. and a full court. The plaintiff relied on. 
his patent for the manufacture of woollen fabrics and finishing woollen yarn or hair by per- 
pendicular friction and rotatory motion, and beating, which produces a glassy appearance 
on woollen threads. The defendant opposed the patent on the ground that he had pre- 
viously obtained a patent for manufacturing cotton and linen yarn by a glutinous solution, 
which produced the same glassy appearance in cotton, thread, and fabrics manufactured 
as in the plaintiff's patent. At the trial the jury found a verdict for the plaintiff: but the 
Court of Queen's Bench had entered the verdict for the defendant. The Court (1st 
February ult.) affirmed the decision of the Court below. 

Kateability of Docks to relief of the poor. In a recent case argued in the Court 
of Queen's Bench (the Queen on the prosecution of the churchwardens and overseers of 
Churton v. the Tyne Improvement Commissioners), the question raised was, whether the 
Northumberland docks, in the River Tyne, were liable to be rated to the relief of the poor. 
On the part of the commissioners it was contended that they were exempt, from ratea— 
bility on the ground that they had no beneficial occupation, the whole of what they re- 
ceived in dues being applicable to <public purposes ; on the otherMiand, the respondent 
parish relied on the decision in the Birkenhpad Dock case. Lord Campbell thought that 
the dock rates in question were not applied to a public purpose, such as the post-office, or 
anything done under the Government of the country ; and that the case was that of the 
Birkenhead Docks, to the principle of which case he thought the court ought strictly to 
adhere. The other judges being of the same opinion, judgment was given for the re- 
spondent parish. 

Canal Navigation.— Expense of Locks.— Question of Kates.— In another 
case (the Queen v. the Coventry Canal Navigation Company), argued in the Queen's Bench, 
31st January ult., the question was whether the expense of maintaining two locks, in the 
respondent (rating) parish, amounting to £105, was to be deducted from the gross earnings 
(£185) by the canals in that parish, in ascertaining the rateable value ; or whether that 
expense ought to be thrown upon the whole line of the canal. Lord Campbell's judgment, 
and that of the Court, was in favour of the latter view. He also observed, that there was 
considerable difficulty in applying the rule laid down in the Parochial Assessment Act to 
canals and railways, passing through many parishes, a species of property rapidly in- 
creasing in amount, which did not seem to have been in contemplation when the act 
passed. The difficulty, indeed, called for the interference of the legislature. Reverting to 
the present case, he saw no difficulty in applying similar rules of rating " whether the 
companies were carriers themselves, or received their profits in the shape of tolls for 
using the means of conveyance which they furnished to the public, without furnishing the 
vehicles to convey, or the moving power." Judgment for the respondents (the parish). 

Winnowing and Dressing Machines.— Question of Infringement op 
Patent. — In the Queen's Bench (sittings at Nisi Prius, Westminster, before Lord Campbell 
and a special jury, 3rd February ult.) an action— Nalder v. Clayton — was tried, involving 
the question whether the defendant had infringed the plaintiff 's patent for certain machines 
for winnowing and dressing grain. — Adjourned. 

Liability of Engine Drivers. — At the High Court of Justiciary, Edinburgh, 
7th February ult., an engine-driver on the North British Railway, was charged with 
" culpable homicide " (manslaughter) and " culpable violation, or neglect of duty." On 
the evening of the 20th October last, accused was driving a special goods'-train from Edin- 
burgh to Galashiels, and at Heriot station his train ran into a cattle-train, which was some 
minutes in advance, whereby the guards' van, attached to the cattle-train, was broken in 
pieces ; and the drover, who was travelling in the van, was thrown out and so injured that 
he died the next day, and another drover severely bruised. It was also proved that the 
signal to stop was duly exhibited from the distance-post, and that accused was aware of the 
cattle-train being immediately in advance of the goods'-train. Defence, that, owing to 
existence of fog, the Heriot signal-light could not be seen from the usual place ; and that, 
immediately seeing the signal, he used every means in his power to bring his train to a 
stop; that no fog-signals were used to give him intimation that the line was obstructed, 
&c. The jury, by a majority, found him " guilty," but strongly recommended him to the 
leniency of the Court, owing to the extenuating circumstances in the case. The Lord 
Justice Clerk, in passing sentence of six months' imprisonment, remaked that the accident 
had arisen from the prisoner's violation of the regulations that had been issued for his 
guidance,* and that he hoped the occurrence would be a warning to him, not from any 
ideas of his own, or any calculations of chances or probabilities, to disregard the specific 
and imperative injunctions laid upon him. 

[Note. — The manager of the railway had been called to prove that, according to the 
regulations of the Company, it was prisoner's duty in dark and foggy weather to have a 
head-lamp attached to the engine, to move with great caution and slowness, and, on 
approaching a station, whether the danger-sigaal was on or not, to bring his train so under 
control that, on seeing the signal, he might be able to bring it up.] 

Railway Coal-Traffic— Side Stations.— In the case of the Rhymney Railway 
Company v. the Taff Vale Railway Company— Court of Common Pleas, 31st January ult. 
— cause was shown against a rule for an injunction, under the Railway and Canal Traffic 
Act, enjoining the defendants to afford to the plaintiffs due and reasonable facilities for 
carrying, forwarding, and delivering their coal traffic at the junction, by making a proper 
side station there. At the suggestion of the Chief Justice, it was ordered to be referred to 
some competent engineer to decide what was requisite, and what ought to be done to 
accommodate the traffic, which, in the article of coals, was said to be very great. 

Compensation for Railway Injuries. — In the Court of Exchequer (3rd Feb- 
ruary ult.), the plaintiff (Mr. Wood, a boot and shoe maker) recovered £475 damages 
against the London and North- Western Railway Company for injuries received by reason 
of a coal -train running into a passenger-train, by which plaintiff was travelling, whereby 
his head was severely injured, and other physical hurts inflicted. Plaintiff likewise 
claimed compensation for consequent loss in his business. The Company, in this case, 
admitted their liability, refraining from offering any adverse evidence ; thus leaving the 
amount of damages as the only question for the consideration of the jury. 

In another Action for Railway' Injuries (Gayler v. the Eastern Counties 
Railway), tried in the Court of Exchequer, 2nd February ult., the plaintiff recovered 
£400 damages for injuries to the spine, sustained on 12th September last, by reason of the 
train in which plaintiff (who is shopman to a cheesemonger) was a third-class passenger, 
running into a truck at Tottenham, where the truck, by the force of the collision, was 
thrown up, falling across the rail which divides the compartments of the third-class 
carriages, and injuring plaintiffs back. In this case the facts were admitted, and the sole 
question was as to the amount of compensation. 



TheAktizan, 1 
March 1, 1859. J 



Notes and Novelties. 



77 



Steam Printing-machines.— Legal Decisions.— In the Common Pleas (7th 
February ult.) an action (Turnbull and another v. Tallis,) was brought by plaintiffs, 
lodging-house keepers in Arundel Street, Strand, against the printer of the "Illustrated 
News of the World," " Daily Telegraph," Sec, for a nuisance caused by the working of a 
steam and printing-machine belonging to the defendant. The press, in question, was one 
of Hoe's American Machines, of great power; and being placed on the ground floor instead 
of on the basement, was alleged to cause such amount of vibration as to endanger plaintiff's 
premises, and, further, "that no one could sleep in the house" in consequence of the 
incessant rumbling caused by the engine, &c. These allegations being in great measure 
denied, on behalf of the plaintiff, a somewhat curious incident occurred— the Lord Chief 
Justice suggesting that some of the. jury should visit the premises, and sleep there. On the 
8th February ult.", the hearing of the case being resumed, three of the jury said they had 
visited the premises as his lordship had suggested, and two of them stated that they did not 
find any extraordinary vibration or annoyance from the noise of the machine. On the 
other hand, the third juryman was of opinion that there was great vibration ; and that the 
noise from the machine and engine was an intolerable nuisance. It was, finally, agreed 
that a nominal verdict should pass for the plaintiff for 40s. ; defendant undertaking to adopt 
such measures as might be suggested by a competent person, to whom the matter should be 
referred, to put an end, as far as possible, to the inconvenience complained of. 

Railway Damages.— In the Court of Exchequer (10th February ult.), Bowling v. 
The South Eastern Railway Company. The plaintiff, who is high bailiff of a County Court 
in Kent, brought his action for injuries received by him on the 9th of August last, when 
on the train approaching Ramsgate, a sudden squall of wind arose, and catching the train, 
it was driven into the station, the buffers striking the wall and causing a violent shock, by 
which many of the passengers suffered contusions ; plaintiff was thrown violently forward and 
much bruised. The defendants paid £5 into Court. The Lord Chief Baron, in summing 
up, laid it down as law, in reference to some observations made by plaintiff's counsel, that, 
although in estimating damages the station in life and the age of the plaintiff might properly 
be taken into account, the jury had nothing to do with the question whether a man was a 
bachelor, or a married man, or a widower, and whether he had nine children or none. 
Verdict for plaintiff— damages, £50. 

Steamer Collisions. — In the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (10th 
Tebruary ult.), an appeal against a decision of the High Court of Admiralty (Gisbone, 
appellant, v. the Anglo-French Steamship Company) was heard, and decided against the 
appellant. The collision occurred on the loth April last (9.30 p.m.) oft' Yarmouth, about 
6 miles southward of the Newark light vessel, between the Prussian ship Thomas, and the 
British screw-ship Ernestine, of which respondents — the Anglo-French Steam Company — 
were owners. The result was that the Ernestine foundered. It was submitted, on behalf 
of appellants, that if the Ernestine had kept the course she was steering, when her lights 
were first seen by the Thomas, she would have passed on the port side of the Thomas, 
whether the helm of the latter was ported or not. Further, that the collision was occasioned 
by those on board the Ernestine having starboarded, instead of keeping their course, or 
ported their helm. For respondents, it was contended that no blame could be attached to 
them ; and that the collision was attributable to the appellants— the ship Thomas. Their 
lordships were of opinion that the Thomas had contributed to the accident by porting her 
helm, and was in fault. They therefore dismissed the appeal, with costs. 

Calender Machine.— In the Court of Common Pleas (14th February ult.), the 
plaintiff (Everhard) sued Messrs. Sawyer and Strange for £45, the price of a " calender " 
supplied to them for the purpose of mangling, in a superior manner, the table-linen used 
by them at the Crystal Palace. Plaintiff is an engineer and millwright in Bethnal Green, 
and agreed to supply the machine for .£45,— made it, and set it to work. A tooth of a cog- 
wheel was broken in the fixing, but a new wheel was afterwards supplied, and the machine 
worked well. For the defence, it was stated that there were several defects in the machine, 
such as the broken cog, and an iron cylinder not having been properly bored. The prin- 
cipal complaint, however, was, that a wooden roller had patches fastened on it by wooden 
pegs, and had cracks in it which rendered it unfit for its purpose, and which cut the cloth. 
The roller also was so heavy that it could not practically be worked, and only a few cloths 
had ever been passed through. Some of these were produced in Court for inspection by 
the jury, as was also the roller. There was scientific evidence to the effect that the machine 
was not efficient. The jury found a verdict for the defendants. 

Liability of Railway "Gangers."— Neglect to post Signals.— On the 
14th February ult., at Bath, a " ganger," employed on the Great "Western Railway, was, 
at the instance of the Directors, fined £2, by the magistrates, at the Guildhall, in that 
City, for having, in disobedience to orders, on the Saturday preceding, placed what is 
called a " trolley," loaded with ballast, upon the line, at Sydney Gardens, without sending 
a signal-man back a mile with a red flag, the consequence of which was, that the down 
goods train ran into the " trolley " and smashed it to pieces. 



NOTES AND NOVELTIES. 

OUK "NOTES AND NOVELTIES" DEPARTMENT.— A SUGGESTION TO OUR 
READERS. 
We have received many letters from Correspondents, both at home and abroad, thanking 
us for that portion of this Journal in which, under the title of " Notes and Novelties," we 
present our readers with an epitome of such of the " events of the month preceding" as 
may in some way affect their interests, so far as their interests are connected with any of 
the subjects upon which this Journal treats. This epitome, in its preparation, necessitates 
the expenditure of much time and labour ; and as we desire to make it as perfect as 
possible, more especially with a view of benefiting those of our engineering brethren who 
reside abroad, we venture to make a suggestion to our subscribers, from which, if acted 
upon, we shall derive considerable assistance. It is to the effect that we shall be happy 
to receive local news of interest from all who have the leisure to collect and forward it to 
us. Those who cannot afford the time to do this would greatly assist our efforts by 
sending us local newspapers containing articles on, or notices of, any facts connected 
with Railways, Telegraphs, Harbours, Docks, Canals, Bridges, Military Engineering, 
Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, Boilers, Furnaces, Smoke Prevention, Chemistry as 
applied to the Industrial Arts, Gas and Water Works, Mining, Metallurgy, &c. To save 
time, all communications for this department should be addressed, " 18, Salisbury-street, 
Adelphi, London, W.C.,"and be forwarded, as early in the month as possible, to the 
Editor. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
Mr. W. G. Armstrong, C.E., of Newcastle-on-Tyne, the celebrated mechanical 
engineer, and inventor of the rifled cannon, which has recently performed so satisfactorily, 
propelling very heavy shot, with the highest attainable accuracy, at enormously long 
ranges, has just been knighted by Her Majesty (24th February), and is therefore now 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.E., &c., &c. 



The Smoke Nuisance— [AsrHALTE.] — At the Glasgow Western Police Court 
(10th January ult.), an asphalte manufacturer was fined 20s. for having, the previous day, 
allowed a quantity of smoke to escape from one of his machines. 

Tramways in Ireland are, in all probability, about to be constructed on a national 
scale, and with the sanction of the Legislature, as a means of facilitating internal commu- 
nication, a Bill for that purpose having been brought into the House of Commons, whereby 
persons are to be authorised to promote tramway companies, to subscribe capital therefor, 
and when half the cost has been subscribed, to apply for leave to construct works ; also to 
memorialise grand juries on the subject. 

The Shipping Losses of France, sustained in 1858 (by shipwreck, fire, colli- 
sions, and other causes), amounted to 444 vessels, of which 103 were engaged in long 
voyages — the remainder in the shipping trade. Total loss (according to the Debats), 
during the last seven years, amounts to 2,973 vessels, of which 12G have never been 
heard of. 

The Navy Estimates for the Year 1850-00 (issued 14th February ult.) present 
a net increase, as compared with last year, of £961,810. Total sum required, £8,259,299, 
against, for last financial year, £7,106,181. 

The New Crane, recently erected at the Glasgow Steamboat Wharf, was recently offici- 
ally tested in presence of Bailie Gray and the master of works, with a weight of 12 tons of 
pig iron. After the iron was about 3 ft. off the ground, and just as itwas about to be turned 
round, one of the links in the chain snapped, and, says the " Glasgow Advertiser," down 
came the mass of metal to the ground, but without doing any injury. 

The Victoria Revenue Estimate for the present year is composed of the fol- 
lowing items : — 

£ s. a. 

Customs 1,777,000 O 

Gold (Licenses, &c.) 60,000 O O 

Ports and Harbours 26,000 O 

Proceeds of Sale of Crown Lands 750,000 O 

Licenses (viz., Assessment on Stock, De- 
bentures, Licenses, ditto to Publicans, 

Spirit Merchants, and Brewers) 342,000 

Postage 97,000 

Fees 59,000 

Fines, &c 15,000 O 

Miscellaneous (formed principally of Taxes 
on the Chinese of £58,000 ; Railway In- 
come and Water-rate, 125,000 ; Electric 
Telegraph, £18,500, &c.) 258,000 

£3,384,000 
The Largest Mast-piece of Timber ever, perhaps, imported has arrived in 
the Commercial Docks, Rotherhithe. This mast contains 28 loads, weighing about 33 tons, 
is nearly as straight as a ruler, and without a knot, being 139£ ft. long, and39J in. square. 
When felled it measured 316 ft. to the branching top ; and for 150 ft. was without any 
branch at all. It was squared to 41 in., but reduced to 31J in. to admit of its entering the 
ships bowport. As regards quantity, it would give 3,502 cubic ft., or 70 loads 2 ft. as 
squared : or 116 loads as round timber. It would saw into -2,050 boards 41 in. wide J in. 
thick, and 12 ft. long. If laid out quite close, it would cover 72,000 square yards, or 
1 acre 1 rood 2 chains 6 poles 10 yards, or about 2J acres. As a tree, it must have stood 
half as high again as the monument before it branched out. This mast, it is said, is 
destined to be raised as a flag-staff at Windsor. 

The Duty on Paper, in the year ending 31st March last year, amounted to 
£1,130,638, against in preceding year, £1,138,880. 

The extensive Tar Refiners' Premises of Messrs. Potter, Burt, and Co., 
Millwall, were (between 4 and 5 o'clock a.m., 4th February ult. (almost totally destroyed by 
fire. Cause unknown. 

The extensive Ropery of Messrs. Glaholm and Robson, in Hendon-road, near 
Sunderland, have also been destroyed by fire. The whole of the works, engines, engine- 
house, factory, roving and spinning machines, warping, winding, and twisting machines, 
destroyed. Walls and all the substantial portions of the very extensive buildings a com- 
plete wi'eck, and mass of debris. 

The Patent Waterpoof [Leather-cloth] Factory of Messrs. Spill and Co., 
on Stepney-green, was (25th January ult.) destroyed by fire. The building, over 100 ft. 
long, was burned to the ground ; and the drying-room, vast stock of leather-cloth, ma- 
chinery, &c, severely damaged. 

The National Patent Steam-fuel Company's contributories were, by decree 
of Vice-Chancellor Kinderslev, called upon to pay £1 15s. per share on the 10th February, 
1859. 

The Official Value of the Imports of France during the thirty years 
preceding and up to 1856, amounts, according to the recent returns of the Commissioners 
Of Customs, just published, to 32,235,000,0001'.; and the EXPORTS to 33,908,000,000f. 

The Card-board from Wood ["Carton Bois"] Company-, started in 1855, 
with a nominal capital of three millions of francs, 86,000 only of which was subsequently 
paid up, are in progress of " liquidation"— winding-up. A recent meeting of the share- 
holders approved the report of the liquidators appointed ; from which it appears that the 
losses have exceeded the capital, receipts, &c, by 27,707f., and that an unsuccessful 
attempt had been made to dispose of the company's works by public auction at the upset 
price of 60,000f., subsequently reduced to 10,000f., at which reduction, however, no 
purchaser was found. 

EXPORTS IN 1S.38.— The Board of Trade returns for the past year, issued 19th February 
ult., show the declared value of the exports of the produce of the United Kingdom to have 
been £116,614,331, or £5,451,776 less than those of 1857. 

In the Shipment of Iron and Steel (last year) there has been a falling-oft to 
the extent of £2,270,031. 

In Woollen, Silks and Hardware, a decrease respectively of £92o,39», 
£793,238 and £735,764. 
In Machinery - , a decrease of £279,680. 

Bray's Traction-Engines, now constructing by Messrs. F. and J. Hughes, at 
their factory at New Cross, for service at the dockyards of Woolwich and Keyham wcre^ 
16th February ult., by leave of the authorities, inspected by M. Tianson, inspector of 
steam machinery, in the service of H.M. the King of Sardinia. 

Total Accidents from Factory Machinery (Factory Inspector's reports for 
the hair-year ending 31st October, 1858, just published (19th February ult.)— 880 to males, 
922 to females ; total 1,802— of which 31 were fatal. 

Informations laid for Breaches of the Factory Acts (in same period) 
522, of which 182 withdrawn on payment of costs, and 340 followed by convictions.' Total 
amount of fines inflicted, £476 5s. ; of costs, £233 Is. 6d. 

The Shipping of the United Kingdom in 1858, according to the return 
printed 19th February, ult., of the number of ships employed in the trade of the United 
Kingdom (i.e "in trading in, from, and to Great Britain and Ireland"), last year, con- 
sisted of 19,209 sailing-vessels of 3,956,038, tons, against 18,429, ia 1857. Steamers (in 
1858), 862, of 369,204 tons against (in 1857) 899 ditto. 

Rodger's Patent Small Pea Anchor. — A gratuity of 500Z. is to be voted to 
Commander Wm. Rodger, on account of this invention, which is now generally used in the 
navy. 



78 



Notes and Novelties. 



r The Artizan, 
L March 1, 1859. 



Lowering Ships' Boats.— Mr. Clifford, the inventor of the improved apparatus for 
this purpose, is likewise to have a vote of 300?. as a reward. 

Main Drainage Works and the Railways. — The London, Tilbury, and 
Southend Railway Company, have agreed, through their engineer, to the proposition of the 
main drainage committee, to carry the main drainage worts across the Ballsing branch 
of the railway, on condition that the said levels of the soffits of the construction be respec- 
tively 8 feet and 18'5 feet above the datum of the section : and that the works over the 
railway be carried over in such manner as may be approved by him, the Board paying to 
the Company, the sum of 5.000Z. as compensation for all loss and inconvenience, and for 
executing the necessary alterations of the railway— the openings over the railway being, in 
each case, not less than 25 feet span on the square. 

RAILWAYS, &c. 
The "Ottoman" [Smyrna and Aidin] Turkish Railway (Chairman, Sir 
Macdonald Stephenson,) is still proceeding rapidly. The works upon the 40 miles out of 
Smyrna, constituting the first section of this line (the first commenced in the Turkish 
Empire) being in a very forward state, that section will, probably, be opened in September 
next. About 3,000 men, of different nations, are at present energetically employed on the 
works. The second, or tunnel-section, is also in rapid progress. The third section, to 
Aidin, offers less engineering difficulties than the rest; and its speedy completion is 
confidently promised. 

The Total Receipts on Railways in the United Kingdom, for the year 1858, 
were £23,763,765 on 9,5G8 miles (including- some canals), against £24,162,405 on 9,171 miles, 
1857 (also including- some canals), showing a decrease on the whole of about £400,000. The 
expenditure of capital on those railways amounted, in the aggregate, to £315,950,000; 
being at the rate of £33,000 per mile. 

The 1'acific [American] Railway.— The Special Committee of the House 
(advices to the 18th January ult.) had voted down all propositions respecting the immediate 
construction of this line. 

A Fatal Railway Accident occurred (inquest held 29th January ult.) at the 
Camden Goods Station of the London and North-Western Line, to a number-taker, whilst 
on duty with his foreman, under the arch at Chalk Farm. An engine detached from some 
coal-waggons, having been shunted, ran back down the line. The buffer of the front 
truck struck deceased, who fell across the rail, and six of the wheels passed over his body, 
tilling him on the spot. Verdict, " Accidental death." 

Spanish Railways.— The receipts for the 1st week in 1859 show an increase of 
26,407 francs, as compared with corresponding week of 1858. 
Lombard Lines, for ditto, an increase of 109,102 francs. 
Austrian, for ditto, an increase of 16,893 francs. 

Mediterranean. — On the Line from Toulon to Nice, the preliminary works 
have been commenced at L'Esterel. Their object is to ascertain the probable expense of the 
three tunnels required at this spot. 

Orleans.— The works have commenced on the Savenay to Redon Section of the 
Bretagne Line. A junction of the Breton Line with the Gare de Nantes, is seriously 
spoken of. 

The [Proposed] " Metropolitan Railway" with a City Terminus has 
made another step in advance. At a recent meeting of the Ward of Farringdon-without, 
the Committee appointed to consider the site of the undertaking, reported in favor of the 
scheme. 

The West London Railway Bill (for a railway across the River Thames to the 
West-end of London and Crystal Palace Line, and to the South Western at Battersea) has 
(22nd January ult.) passed the examiners on standing orders. 

The Buffalo and Lake Huron Railway directors have been authorised to 
borrow the £50,000 required for the outlay of 1859 on 8 per cent, debentures. 

at the Plymouth Station of the South Devon Railway the enlarge- 
ment requisite for the traffic of the new lines proceeds rapidly. The rails are laid for the 
Cornish line to enter, and other additions are in progress. 

Victorian Railways.— The sum of £8,000,000 is required, by the Victoria Govern- 
ment for the construction of railways between Melbourne and the principal centres of popula- 
tion upon the gold-fields. At one time (within the last few years) the cartage of stores to Sand- 
hurst, a distance of about 120 miles from Melbourne, cost £160 a ton ; and even at this 
rate, it appears the cartage did not pay. The amount was swallowed up in lost cattle, ruined 
horses, smashed wheels, broken poles, spoiled and pilfered loads, and the thousand and one 
other items of absolute loss and waste consequent on the want of means of due facility of 
transit. 

An Express Engine off the Rail.— An alarming accident, happily unattended 
with loss of life, occurred, Sunday evening 2Srd January ult., at the Manchester, Sheffield, 
and Lincolnshire Railway to the Great Northern express train, London for Sheffield and 
Manchester. Train consisted of two guards' vans and three first and second-class car- 
riages; and, when at a curve between the Kiveton Park and Woodhouse junction stations, 
about 8 miles from Sheffield; it ran off the line— proceeded about 100 yards, tearing up 
and breaking the rails, and fearfully jolting the passengers. The engine eventually rolled 
over, lodging on the side near the top of the embankment. Coupling-chains broken in the 
fall, carriages fell over; and, remaining linked together, were thrown, one across the line 
of rails, and the other on the edge of the embankment. Head guard severely cut and 
bruised — three (of the fourteen) passengers much injured. Driver and stoker ditto. Train 
asserted to have been going at its usual speed of 40 miles an.hour — others say at 50 or 60 — 
to make up behind-time. Engine and tender much broken, carriages also ; the ends and 
sides of several being smashed in — wheels and springs bent and strained, &e. Cause of 
accident variously assigned to breaking of a crank connected with axle of engine — to a 
defect in the rails— curve in the line, &c, &c. 

The Goods Station at Keith, on the Great Northern of Scotland Railway, was, 
Sunday evening 30th January ult., burnt to the ground. Rumours of incendiarism, as the 
cause of the disaster, are afloat in the neighbourhood. 

The London Bridge and Charing Cross (proposed) Railway, is intended to join 
the South-Eastern Railway near London Bridge, passing, in a westerly direction, near 
Union Street, and the Waterloo Station of the South-Western Railway, and over the 
Thames to Hungerford Market. The line, in its course, will cross the thoroughfares leading 
to and from Southwark, Blackfriars, and Waterloo Bridges, close to which, stations will be 
provided. Estimated cost of the line and stations, £800,000. Proposed line sanctioned by 
the Directors of the South-Eastern Railway Company. It is urged (we think with justice) 
that a railway station close to the great thoroughfare of the Strand, near Charing Cross, 
and communicating with all the railways south of the Thames, will be a great public 
convenience, and tend greatly to relieve the streets of traffic to and from the stations at 
London Bridge. 

A Collision occurred on the Great Western Railway (half-past seven evening of 31st 
January ult.), between the Shiffnal and Oaken Gates Stations, 17 miles from Wolverhampton. 
An engine caught some waggons imperfectly shunted upon the siding about half-way 
between the two stations. Locomotive tender and first carriage thrown off the rails, and 
right across the line. Passengers much shaken (six or eight being severely bruised). The 
through-traffic interrupted for several hours. 

Crossing Rails. — A fatal accident took place (1st February ult.) from this cause. 
The 8-15 a.m. express-train from Southport to Manchester was approaching the Dixonfield 
Station, at a reduced speed, in order to stop at the Aston Junction, when the guard's van in 



the rear got off the rails. The van swung against a bridge, and was considerably shattered. 
Brake-rod, underneath the carriage, next to the van, broken. Injury to carriage itself 
but trifling. One of the passengers in a second-class carriage, however, persisted in getting 
out of the carriage in search of his hat, which the wind had blown off. Whilst on the down- 
rails, a train from Manchester came by, at a rapid speed, and he was literally dashed to 
pieces. 

The Northern of Spain, the statutes of which have recently been legalised by the 
Spanish Government (capital 100,000,000 fr.), is intended by means of the Trunk-line, and 
its projected (Government) Branches, to traverse the whole of the North of Spain, from 
Madrid to Irun, to the Point of Galicia, and all the ports of the first order, on the sea- 
board, Bilbao, Santander, Gijon, La Corogne, Vigo, thus supplying a route for the com- 
merce of the interior of Spain with the Spanish Antilles and the North of Europe ; and 
bringing Madrid into direct communication with the entire network of European railroads . 

The Galveston to Houston and Henderson, at the head of the line from the 
Gulf of Mexico to New York, is in progress. 6,000 debentures (100 dollars or 530 francs 
each), have been issued for the construction of the third section. The two first sections 
(71 kilometres), forming the junction of Galveston Bay with Harrisburg and Houston, now 
in full activity, form, with the two railroads (the Central Texas and Brazos Colorado), a 
length of 272 kilometres, at present open for traffic. 

The Guillaume Luxembourg Line, according to the convention just concluded 
between the Government of the Grand Duchy and the Railway Company, and sanctioned by 
the States of Luxembourg, is now circumscribed to three principal sections, stretching, 
respectively, from Luxembourg to Treves (Prussia), Thionville (France), and Arlon 
(Belgium). The final completion of these lines is expected in 1859. 

From Lintz to Budweis (in connection with the great " Empress-Elizabeth Line,") 
the directors propose the construction of a railroad. 

New South Wales. — The Railway Loan Bill, providing for the construction of 
railways on the Southern, Northern, and Western lines of the colony, by funds to be raised 
by debentures, has passed the Colonial (Sydney) Legislative Houses. — Advices to 16th 
December ult. 

The Melbourne and Hudson's Bay Railway Company, at their last half-yearly 
meeting, declared a dividend at the rate of 14 per cent, per annum out of profits (£25,917) 
for the six months. 

Great Western. — Gross receipts on capital account to 31st December last, 
£23,601,485; ditto expenditure, £23,237,554, leaving balance of £363,931. Item in 
above accounts for expenditure on main lines and working stock, £10,903,785. 

Great Southern and Western Railway of Ireland. — Receipts for the 
half-year ended 31st December last, £173,389, against corresponding half-year of 1857, 
£176,863, showing a decrease of £3,473. 

Central Swiss. — The works are completed on the Aarbourg-Herzogenbuchsee- 
Berne and Herzogenbuchsee-Bienne lines. The meti'ical division of the railway, by means 
of milestones and numbering, has been completed on the other side of Hauenstein ; and 
when the tunnel is finished, the same operation will be continued on the Olten-Bale line. 
All the lines now open for traffic are affiliated by telegraph wires. Rolling stock consists 
of twelve locomotives (light-passenger), from the Esslingen Works— driving-wheels 5 ft. 
English ; twelve other locomotives, to be delivered by same factory, in the course of this 
year (heavier build, driving-wheels 4 ft. in diameter). By contract with M. E. Kessler, 
the latter are to be constructed as "mountain locomotives" (similar to those of the 
Soemmering), with six driving-wheels (coupled), and 8£ ft. diameter. To be applicable 
indifferently, either as tugs, to surmount the ridges on each side of the Hauenstein, or for 
dragging of goods' trains on other portions of the lines. They are to be capable of 
receiving, when empty, about 3S tons weight, and, on incline of 1 in 100, to draw a dead 
load of 4,800 cwt. (quintaux), exclusive of locomotive and its tender; and, on an incline of 
2 in 100, a dead load of 2,700 tons. To be delivered in early part of 1859. Six other loco- 
motives are also ordered by the Company, trom their head works at Olten, on similar 
model ; two of these are for use of their line ; the four others ordered by the " Jura 
Industriel Company." The fifty-seven passenger carriages, and 210 goods' vans, ordered 
for the lines recently opened, have been delivered, the axles and wheels, for the most part, 
obtained from England. In anticipation of the opening of the Hauenstein tunnel, sixty 
new goods' vans, and ten first and second class carriages (eight-wheels), have been ordered 
of J. C. Reifert and Co., at Bockenheim, and of the Company's head factory at Olten. 

The " Swiss Railway Waggon Factory," at Schaffhouse, has undertaken the 
construction of ten passenger carriages, with additional first-class seats, for the above 
Company. 

Spain. — The Section of the Cordova and Seville Line, from Seville to 
Lora del Rio (about 35 kilometres), is to be opened in April or May next. 

From Seville to Cadiz.— This line is to be inaugurated by the Queen in person, 
about the same time. 

The Commission of the Cortes has unanimously pronounced for the appropriation 
of two milliards of reals for works of public utility (railways more especially). 

La Corogne to Lugo. — The town of La Corogne has declared its intention of taking 
upon itself the cost of this section of the Galieian line. 

France.— The Orleans Railway Company, have decided on building a new 
and more extensive depot at Charmont, between Laroche Chalais and Angouleme, to meet 
the increased goods and passenger traffic, from the communes of the cantons of LaVal- 
lette and Blanzac, and the department of La Dordogne. Works to commence early in 
March. 

Western of France.— The Argentan to Mezidon Section was opened on 
the 1st February ult., thus establishing a direct communication between Cherbourg and all 
the chief sea-ports. 

India. — The Madras Line has now, on their South-Western Line and Branches, and 
the North-Western Line, 40 engineers. 

The Branch Line from Coimbatour to the Neilgherry Hills is nearly 
completed. Greatest difficulty experienced in completing, has arisen from the want of 
sleepers ; but a large supply of that article, both in iron and wood, is being sent out from 
Enaland. 

The Madras and Beypore Line, when completed, will save passengers, who 
may land at the last-named port, two or three days' voyage, superseding the necessity of 
their having to proceed round Cape Comorin ; a great convenience, especially during the 
north-east monsoon, when it is so difficult to land at Madras, that passengers have 
frequently to go on to Calcutta. 

Coal v. Coke, for Locomotives.— On the East Lancashire Line, for the last half- 
year, the actual saving, from the use of coal instead of coke, is announced as having been 
£1,680. 

Ceylon.— On this railway, 8,000 additional hands have been employed, without causing 
any rise in the rate of wages paid by the Planters, as was at first dreaded. Average rate 
of wages (for efficient work), 7d. per day. For the permanent way, a large supply of 
sleepers, at from 4s. 6d. to 5s. each, have been received from New South Wales. 

TELEGRAPH ENGINEERING, &C. 
Ocean Telegraphy. —In Mr. Allen's New Submarine Cable, the 
metallic strength is placed in the centre of two folds of guttapercha; which are again 
covered by a mixed material as tough as leather, the total weight being 10 cwt. to the mile, 
and only 2 cwt. in sea water. Specimens of the new cable were recently produced, and the 
principle explained by the inventor (a telegraph engineer), at a meeting of the chief ship- 
owners and merchants at the Underwriters' Rooms, Liverpool. 



The Artisan 
March I, 1859. 



?] 



Notes and Novelties. 



79 



The British Telegraph Company (Limited). — The Liquidator proposes to 
•transfer the property of this line to the British and Irish Magnetic Company. 

The Bed Sea Telegraph Cable. — On the 28th January ult. the screw-steamers 
Impirator and Imperatrice, having on board this new cable, sailed from Liverpool for 
Suez. 

Uninsulated Wire immersed in Water has been lately, and, as it is said, success- 
fully, tried as a conductor of electricity. Some recent experiments on this head have been 
made in the presence of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, in Phoenix Park, upon an uninsu- 
lated wire, upwards of 100 yards in length, immersed in water, and through which signals 
were freely 6ent. The experimenter not only sent messages through the core of the wire, 
but through the conductor and the outside metal covering of the rope simultaneously. The 
inventor, consequently, thinks that even in the case of the copper in the Atlantic cable 
being severed, he could still transmit signals along the outer covering of spiral wires [?]. 

Telegraph Wires. — Within the space of two months, in which the single wire of 
the electric telegraph has been laid between Stokesley and Pickton, on the North Yorkshire 
and Cleveland railway, a distance of 7 miles, no fewer than 8 partridges, 2 snipes, 1 wood- 
cock, and 1 grouse have destroyed themselves by flying against the wire. 

The Mediterranean Extension Cable.— On the 7th February ult. it was 
officially announced (in London) that electrical communication between Cagliari and Malta 
had been resumed,—" Cause of interruption not yet explained." The cable recommenced 
working at Malta at 7-15 p.m. on the 4th February ult., after an obstruction of 45 days. 

The Operations of taking-up and Eepairing the Malta and Cagliari Cable 
up to 28th January ult. are thus described by Mr. Webb, the civil-engineer of the 
Mediterranean Extension Telegraph Company, who reports (in substance) to the Naval 
Commander-in-chief Vice-Admiral Fanshawe, from on board the steamer Elba, 5th 
February, ult. as follows :— On 16th, 17th and 18th January, made electrical tests from 
Malta to discover distance of fault. Calculations pointed to a spot 15 nautical miles 
south-west (by compass) off Maritimo. 20th. Commenced dredging for cable on Adventure 
Bank, off Granitola, to pick up the fault. Evening of 20th, the cable was hooked, and 
hove up in 43 fathoms ; Cape Granitola east-by-north-half-north, distant 16 miles. 
By cutting and testing found fault was towards Cagliari. More accurate tests showed 
fault to be only about 24 to 26 statute miles off. Picked up about 20 nautical miles 
of cable, when it parted at the bottom, on evening of the 21st, being under a wreck 
or rock— exceedingly probable that this is the original fault. Dredged for cable 
seawards of the spot where it parted, and obtained it on the 25th. Found cable 
perfect to Cagliari ; fault probably, therefore, in short piece (about l£ mile) between spot 
where cable was hooked and where it parted — probably at actual spot where it parted, 
that is, 15 miles south-west-quavter-west off Maritimo, in 100 fathoms water, and 175 
nautical miles of cable from Malta. Obtained Cagliari end, and spliced on 3 miles of 
stout cable, and paid it out very slackly from forwards towards Malta. At 4.30 a.m. on 
the 26th, cable parted at the bottom. Very little lift on. Concludes that cable during fall 
of ship got tightly wedged in some crevice and, on the rise of the ship, of course parted. 
[Subsequently (see above) repairs completed and electrical communication re-established.] 

The Electric Telegram announcing the safe delivery of the Princess Frederick of 
Prussia, reached Windsor Castle, from Berlin (28th January ult.), in six minutes after the 
the occurrence. 

Alexander, Syria, and Constantinople. — The 27 political difficulties in con- 
nection with this telegraph line were (28th January ult.) officially announced to have been 
surmounted at Constantinople. 

The Atlantic Telegraph Cable has presented no satisfactory sign of recovery 
since our last notice— viz., that the words "Henley" and "you understand,'' had (now 
about a month since) been received at the station at Newfoundland, and for a time revived 
the hopes that successful means had been found to restore the cable to working order. 
Unfortunately, a subsequent comparison of dates has shown that on the day these words 
reached Newfoundland, the station on this side the Atlantic, namely, at Valentia, was 
locked up and deserted, and that the supposed signals, therefore, were merely due to the 
constant and perplexing vagaries of earth currents. 

The faulty portion of the immerged Cable is still conjectured to exist at about 
220 statute miles from shove, or somewhere upon the now well-known submarine mountain- 
range which divides the deeps of the Atlantic from the comparatively shallow waters of the 
Irish coast : at the top of this ridge it is now conjectured that the cable remains suspended 
upon some projecting points of the steep; its insulation being gradually injured, if not 
actually destroyed, by its own weight. Instead of this ridge being, as it has been often 
stated to be, a mere " sloping bank," the result of two soundings taken upon it— one at 
the bottom and another at the top— shows a difference in elevation of 7,300 ft. 

Sydney and Bathurst [N. S. Wales]. — For the establishment of an electric tele- 
graph between these points, £10,500 have been voted by the Colonial Legislature. — Advices 
to 16th December ult. 

New Telegraph Lines between France and England. — The Paris 
Monitcur has recently published an Imperial decree approving of the contract entered into 
between the Minister of the Interior and the company represented by Sir J. E. Car- 
michael and Mr. J. W. Brett, for the construction in July, 1859, of a submarine cable- 
line between Boulogne and Folkestone. The Company also engages, during the continuance 
of the cession (for thirty years) on the demand of the French Government, to establish and 
work, within a delay of one year, a line from Havre to a part of the English coast here- 
after to be fixed on] ; and another between the English Channel islands and the coast of 
France, at some part between St. Malo and Cherbourg. Telegraphic communication by the 
lines of the Company, may be, at any time, suspended by the French Government without 
giving rise to any claim for indemnity. All the apparatus on the French coast to be 
exclusively worked by persons to be appointed by the French government and to be paid by 
the Company. The rate of charge by the new line from Boulogne, not, in any case to 
exceed that demanded by the first one from Calais. 

Ked Sea Telegraph. — Captain Pullen continues his surveys for the best line of 
submergence of a submarine cable. Mid-channel from Suez to Perim, on sounding, found 
to be " soft at bottom" — and from Suez to Jabal Teer, ditto; but " rock" from thence to 
Perim. Greatest depth, on this line, 1,050 fathoms — has also sounded the whole extent of 
the sea, in shore, and within the reefs on the eastern side : and the same from Suez to 
Suakin on the western side. Speaks favorably of a line now being surveyed from Suakin 
to Perim — as being, by far, the preferable route; the bottom, throughout, being more even, 
and the soundings considerably less. 

Telegraph Prevention of Railway Accidents,— The Lancashire and York- 
shire Eailway and some other Companies, have recently extended their respective tele- 
graph-systems, throughout their lines, on a new plan described as speedy and simple, and 
which is said to^answer perfectly. When a train, for instance, leaves Wigan for Bolton 
and Manchester, Wigan telegraphs to Hindley " train on"— and puts up the danger- 
signal or Semaphore, to prevent any train passing the station till Hindley telegraphs back 
" line clear" — which will be done as soon as the train has passed the station. Wigan then 
drops the signal, the Semaphore being raised at Hindley, which will also have telegraphed 
to Westhoughton ; and the trains, both on the up and down-lines are thus handed from 
station to station along the line, with great facility : and as the stations are seldom above 
3 or 4 miles apart, the new system enables trains to run at intervals of even five minutes, 
without, as it is alleged, the possibility of collision. 

Anglo-Austrian (Alexandria) Line.— The Chancellor of the Exchequer (17th 
February ult.) announced in the House of Commons that the terms upon which a conven- 
tion with the Austrian Government, for the establishment of a line of telegraph to 
Alexandria, will probably be concluded, have been settled, and, when concluded, it would 
be laid upon the table. 



MARINE STEAM ENGINEERING, SHIPBUILDING, &c. 

The " Mersey," 40, Screw, in Portsmouth Dockyard Steam-basin is progressing 
rapidly. Her screw (Maudslay) is a fine specimen of metal casting. Owing to its enor- 
mous size and weight (about 14 tons), it has been divided into three portions. The two 
blades are cast with flanges, and screw on to the centre boss with nuts and screws, render- 
ing it so portable as to be easily taken apart, in the event of accident ; also a great advan- 
tage in stowing spare blades. The Mersey is the most powerful frigate in the world at present ; 
her broadside will throw solid shot or 10-in. shell; her " fighting quarters" are 18 ft. 
between the ports ; can carry eight days' coaling at full speed (average 14 knots per hour). 
Tonnage, 4,000; cost, £200,000 Fitted with Clifford's Patent Boat-lowering gear on 
both sides. 

The "Howe" Screw Steam-siiip of the line, now building in Pembroke Dock- 
yard, is so far advanced that she can be sent afloat this summer. This magnificent first- 
class man-of-war carries 130 broadside guns, and one pivot gun. She is larger than the 
Duke of Wellington, being designed to carry more than 4,000 tons. 

The "Great Eastern," according to present announced arrangements, will make 
her first trial-trip (about the middle of July) from Weymouth to the middle of the Atlantic, 
to test her qualities, under all possible conditions of sail and steam. 

The Trial-trip of the "Nepaul" Screw Steam-ship took place 29th 
January ult, from Southampton Docks, to test her speed at the measured mile. Average 
speed (of four trials), about 12J knots per hour; draught of water at the main, 15£ft. ; 
vacuum, 24; steam, 21 ; revolutions, 74 ; power, 200; capacity rated at 1,000 tons; has 
six life-boats hanging over her bulwarks. Will proceed to Marseilles on 1st April, and 
carry mails and passengers thence to Alexandria. 

Capt. Kynaston's Life-boat Hooks were tried recently, in the presence of 
Admiral Kingcombe, &c, on board the Boris screw steam-ship, 32, when in the channel, 
in a heavy sea, while the ship was going 11 to 12 knots. The boat is reported to have been 
disconnected and hoisted in with perfect success. 

The " Doris " New Screw Steam-ship, 32, whose trial-trip we noticed in our 
last, was, on that occasion, in charge of Captain Risk, of the Devonport Steam Reserve, 
and of Mr. Dinner, Inspector Afloat of Steam Machinery. She is fitted with trunk engines, 
by Messrs. Penn and Son, of 800 H.P. Working pressure, 20 lbs., with 52 revolutions. 

The " Atlas," 91, Screw-steamer of the line, now building at Chatham Dock- 
yard, will, in all probability, be launched during the present year, when she will be 
attached to the Channel Squadron. 

The " Tasmanian " Royal Mail New Iron Screw Steam-ship, 2,440 
tons, B.M., built at Port-Glasgow, in 1858, for the European and Australian Royal Mail 
Steam Packet Company, fitted with three trunk cylinder engines, by Inglis and Co., was 
(27th January ult.) put up for public sale at Lloyds' Captains' Room. A bid not being 
obtained, the vessel was withdrawn from public sale. 

The " La Place," French Steam-corvette, narrowly escaped destruction from 
an accident that befell her on the 14th ult., in the China seas. She had approached the 
Chusan Islands, with a strong breeze and during a thick fog, and, instead of entering, as 
was thought, into the regular passage, got into a place where there was no outlet, and 
struck on a bank of mud. A boat was lowered, to take a hawser ashore; but she was 
swamped in an instant, and three men drowned. For two days and nights her situation 
continued to be critical, as the vessel sank deeper and deeper. Subsequently (1st Decem- 
ber), some Chinese junks, sent from Shanghai to her relief, took on board the guns, 
ammunition, ballast, and heavy stores from the corvette; thus lightened, she rode easier, 
and by means of an anchor, carried out at high water, she was hove afloat in about 
8 fathoms. Her hull and engines had not received any material injury. 

Steam-power and the Navies of Europe.— In the recent Royal Speech on the 
opening of Parliament, Her Majesty is made thus to allude to one of the great changes 
consequent on the progress of science and machinery. " The universal introduction of 
s{eam-power into naval warfare will render necessary a temporary increase of expenditure 
in providing for the reconstruction of the British navy; but I am persuaded that you," 
[the Commons], " will cheerfully vote whatever sums you may find to be requisite for an 
object of such vital importance as the maintenance of the maritime power of the country." 

The "Windsor Castle," 112, was (3rd February ult.) lashed to the jetty at Devon- 
port, in order to try her machinery. 

Iron Ships and Compass Errors.— A new instrument for ascertaining and cor- 
recting the local errors to which compasses are peculiarly liable on board iron steam-ships 
has been lately invented by Mr. R. Eardly Pinke.y, a chief officer in the Peninsular and 
Oriental Company's service. It consists of a chronometer-box, hung on jimballs, having 
over the top a "dumb-card," (similar to Friend's pelorus), and an "equatorial" (or sun) 
dial, which, by means of a graduated arc at the side, can be adjusted to the latitude of the 
place. The observer, with a watch set to the apparent time, or time of the ship, causes the 
shadow of the dial to fall on the part of the instrument representing the time. One portion 
of the cross will then be in the direction of the true meridian of the place ; consequently 
all true bearings can be ascertained at once — all magnetic bearings, by applying the known 
variation for the place of observation. The instrument may be used in any part of the ship ; 
the only adjustment required, being to put the lubber line towards the ship's head ; then 
by placing the dumb-card to correspond with the meridian, or the magnetic meridian, as 
may be desired, the difference between its indication and that of the compasses on board 
will be the errors, for which allowances must be made. 

French War Steamers in Commission.— The Minister of Marine, in a recent 
dispatch (22nd January ult.) has ordered the following steam-ships, at present in the port 
of Brest, to be put " in commission," by which, he is at some pains to explain, he means 
" to be made ready for sea at a moment's notice ;" all her works of construction, repairs 
armament, &c, being completed. The steam-frigates Caff'arelU, Panama, Descartes, 
Orenoque, Danal, Amazone, d'Assas, Caton, Chimere, and Montezuma ; the auxiliary, 
screw-ships Turenne, Dugucsclin, Breslau, V Imperial, Tilsit, Vim, and Wagram ; the 
steam corvette Gasscndi; the transports Garonne, Monges, and Forbin ; and the floating- 
battery Congreve. As to the auxiliary screw-ships Louis XIV., Tagus, Dugay Trouin, 
Jean Bart, and Duqxiesne; and the steam-frigate Ardente, he says he does not speak, as 
he considers those vessels as completed with respect to the repairs of their boilers and 
engines. 

Steamer Collision.— The screw-steamer Sultana, when coming out of the Humber 
at 5-30 a.m., on the 30th January ult., came in contact with a smack which was entering 
the river, and which instantly went down in very deep water. She was believed to be 
manned by two men and a boy. The steamer lost her bowsprit, and remained near the 
spot for some time, but could find no trace of the crew. 

Her Majesty's Screw Steam Frigate "Curacoa," 31 (from Spithead to 
Plymouth) (3rd February ult.), to embark Lord Lyons and suite, came in contact, on 
the 4th, 3 p.m. (20 miles off Durlestone Head), with the schooner Flcta, of Shoreham, to 
Cardiff, in ballast ; the latter received considerable damage, but arrived (same day) at 
Portsmouth. 

The " Avon" Brazilian Mail Steamer was forced, on her recent voyage, to 
put back (5th February ult.), to Lisbon with her main-shaft broken " clean off." The 
passengers and mails were to be sent home by the Peninsular and Oriental Alhambra. 
The Avon has since (14th February ult.), arrived at Southampton. 

The Niger Exploring Screw Steamer " Sunbeam" (one of the small (steel) 
steamers engaged in the Niger expedition, arrived (7th February ult.), at Liverpool, with 
a cargo of palm-oil. 



80 



Notes and Novelties. 



T The Artizan, 
:L March 1, 1859. 



Her Majesty's Ikon Screw Steam Store-Ship " Supply," recently under 
repairs, on return from shipment of antiquities from Halicarnassus, in Boudrun Bay, was 
(4th February ult.), undocked at Woolwich, and reshipped her boilers. 

The Paddle-wheel Steam-vessel " Banshee," lately on a surveying com- 
mission in the north, was (13th February ult), docked at Woolwich, to be overhauled and re- 

The " Fairy" Royal Screw Steam Yacht, having completed repairs to her 
hull, in No. I dock, at Portsmouth, was (3rd February ult.), towed round to the steam- 
basin to receive her boilers and machinery. 

Her Majesty's Steam-Yacht " Victoria and Albert," was removed from 
her harbour-moorings at Portsmouth (same day) to the steam basin, to undergo her annual 
overhaul and renovation. 

The Indus Steam-Flotilla. — The trial-trip of a model steamer, constructed for 
this new enterprise, from the design of Mr. Scott Russell, was (7th February ult.), made 
down the river in presence of several scientific parties and of some of the directors of the 
Scinde and Punjab railways. The requirements for Indian river-navigation, especially 
during the dry season, are somewhat, apparently, incongruous — viz., great power, high 
speed, ample stowage for cargo — with less than 2 ft. draught of water. The boat re- 
sembles the American river steamers, flat bottomed, square-shaped, and with a deck- 
house, which almost covers the entire vessel. Length over all 200 ft. ; breadth, 38 ft. ; 
draught of water, 1 ft. 10 in. ; average speed (as a passenger-boat) 13 miles an hour :— and 
with boats containing 500 tons cargo in tow, average speed (on the Indus) 8 miles an hour. 
'Two longitudinal wrought-iron girders run the whole length of the vessel, rising nearly 
10 ft. above the deck, so as to form the walls of the deck-cabins. The girders constitute 
the main strength of the hull. Engines of, nominally, 120 H.P., constructed to work up to 
400 : but in reality, in the indicator, give more than 600. On Mr. Russell's 3-cylinder 
principle. Her draught on trial-trip 1 foot 10 in.: forward, scarcely 29 in. Experimental 
trip considered satisfactory. 

The " Winans" or Cigar-shaped [American] Steam-Ship, built by tho 
Messrs Winans, of Ferry Bar, South Baltimore, has, according to the Baltimore papers, 
made a successful trial-trip. With a pressure of about 56 lbs. of steam to the aq. in. (about 
half the capacity of the engine), a speed of 12 miles an hour was obtained. The points of 
the bow and stern barely touched the water; and the even progress of the vessel caused no 
commotion of the waves, but left a smooth wake, like a groove. Ventilation below decks 
perfectly preserved during running of the machinery ; thermometer never rising above 65° 
Fahrenheit. Another paper gives 14 miles an hour, with a moderate head of steam, as the 
speed attained. 

A Disastrous Steamer Collision at Sea occurred 8th February ult., about 
1 a.m., 13 miles from Fleetwood, between the steamer PrincePatrich, of that port, and the 
iron schooner Elfin, from Liverpool for Ardrossan, loaded with 226 tons of pig-iron, and 
9 souls aboard. At moment of collision (6 or 8 miles S.W. of Walney Island), speed of 
steamer, 10 miles per hour; that of schooner, 8 miles per hour. Schooner cut almost in 
two ; filled immediately, and went down in about two minutes, with all on board. The 
master, his wife and child, and two men, went down with her and perished; remainder of 
crew (four men) escaped by grasping hold of steamer's bows. The Prince Patrick (one of 
the largest steamers on the line running daily between Fleetwood and Belfast) considerably 
damaged ; her plates of iron on the water-line, on the port bow, for several feet from the 
outer- water, being ripped open, the water rushing into her fore-compartment; but further 
ingress prevented by bulkheads. Put back to Fleetwood to repair damage. Conjoint loss 
(of schooner, and damage to steamer), estimated at between £3,000 and £4,000. Cause of 
collision not yet ascertained. On the 9th, the Elfin was lying with part of her spars above 
water, in above 12 or 13 fathoms, Valney Light bearing E.N.B., the Wyre Lights, S.E.J S.; 
no tidings of the missing bodies. 

The Loss op the " Czar " Screw Store-ship (See " Notes and Novelties " for 
(February ult.) was the subject of inquiry and explanation in the House of Commons, when 
the First Lord of the Admiralty stated that the conduct of commander of H.M. steam-sloop 
Virago (who saw the Czar, go ashore off the Lizard, in the middle of the day of January 
22nd, but continued her course without making any attempt to succour the crew, fourteen 
of whom perished), had (after due official inquiry) met with the disapproval of the Board 
of Admiralty, who had communicated to the commander in question their opinion "that 
he (the commander) would haveacted with a sounder judgment if he had at least made the 
attempt to rescue the crew of the Czar. 

The " Reconstruction " of the Steam Navy. — In the Naval Estimates for 
1859-60 just issued, is included an "extraordinary" charge of £985,707, as wanted "to 
meet the extraordinary charge to be incurred during the year in consequence of the addi- 
tional work to be undertaken for the building and conversion of ships of war for the steam- 
navy, and providing machinery for the same." The details of this charge, as required for 
" the reconstruction of the navy," are given as follows : — Purchase of timber, masts, deals, 
&c, £82,800 ; of other stores; £17,200; purchase and repairs of Steam Machinery", 
£335,000; for ships, to be built by contract, £252,000. Remainder for wages, viz., over- 
hours, beyond day-pay, provision by ordinary estimate, £131,735; for wages of hired 
artificers, &c, to be employed, £165,972; for additional pay of officers superintending 
shipwrights' labour, £1,000 ; total for wages being £298,707. 

Collision. — The Cunard screw-steamer Jura, for New York, at anchor off Egremont 
(14th February ult., 5 a.m. flood tide, fog thick), was run into by a steamer (said to be the 
Windsor, from Dublin), which latter was attempting to turn in the river. Jura struck 
on the bow ; stern much damaged, and will have to go into dock for repairs. Crew not 
injured. 

The New Australian Steamer Mail-contract by the Peninsular and 
Oriental Company, commenced 16th February ult., by the dispatch of a mail-steamer 
from Sydney for Suez, which was expected to reach the latter port on the 28th March inst. 
The new monthly service from Southampton will commence on the 12th March inst. 

The Super-heating Steam Apparatus— (Plan of Mr. Partridge, Assistant 
Engineer of the Dockyard Factory), for economising the consumption of fuel on ship- 
board, was, by special order of the Admiralty applicable to foreign visitors, inspected in 
Woolwich Dockyard, by M. Vianson, Inspector-General of Steam-machinery, in the service 
of H.M. the King of Sardinia, with the view of introducing the same into the naval 
service of that country. 

MILITARY ENGINEERING, &c. 

Capt. Norton's New Rifle Bullet is undergoing further trials at Chatham. The 
small film of paper with which the bullets are coated is found to lessen the friction which 
the ordinary rifle bullets undergo before they leave the rifle, thereby materially dimi- 
nishing their propelling force, and affecting the accuracy of aim. He discards the ordinary 
" plug " at the base,— one description of bullet having a nail or screw inserted at the base, 
and in the other kind, the hollow for the powder being very large. The trial-range was 
250 yards. The ordinary expanding-shot for the Enfield rifle requires the finest lead for 
casting; but in the paper-coated ball of Capt. Norton any lead will answer. The mould in 
which the newly invented bullets were east, was made bv Mr. Lancaster to correspond 
with the elliptical bore of his rifle. 

A regular School of Gunnery is being formed at Shoeburyness, where a sys- 
tematic teaching of gunnery is to be matured. Evening Lectures have also lately been 
delivered in the Royal Artillery Regimental School, at Woolwich, to the non-commissioned 
officers and gunners of the corps. On a recent occasion the lecturer (Col. Wilford, R.A.) 
said that every company of Artillery should be a school of gunnery, under its own officers. 



The Gunboat Sheds and Slipway at Haslar were officially visited (5th Feb. 
ult.), to test the operation of removing one of the gunboats from under the sheds, and, by 
means of a cradle, tramway, and incline, launching it into the water. The whole opera- 
tion occupied 27 minutes. The previous experiment (on the 2nd February) was effected in 
38 minutes 40 seconds. 

Coast Fortifications. — A London building firm has taken the contract for building 
forts at Higher Tregantle and Antony, which are to be proceeded with immediately. 

Rifled Ordnance (according to French military authorities on the point) can carry 
8,000 metres. 

The Defence of Marseilles appears to be one of the questions now seriously 
occupying the attention of the French Government. The " Messager du Midi " announces 
that the mixed Commission of Public Works have, from motives of economy, rejected the 
project of a breakwater, the cost of which was estimated at not less than 152 millions 
(francs). The creation of new batteries has therefore again come under consideration, 
viz., one on the Point of Eudourne, the fire of which would cross with that coming from 
He des Perdus ; the latter again with the fire of the Fort of If; and the fire of If with that 
of the lie de Pomegue. On the north-east, a battery to be placed on the Cape Couronne, 
would throw its fire across that of Eatoneau. As regards the entrance of the Port, in case 
vessels of war should succeed in getting through one of the passes, they would find them- 
selves between the fires, coming first from the advanced points of the coast; next, those of 
the batteries of La Joliette, the Napoleon Dock, and the contemplated Port d'Attaque. 

IRON Guns. — Government, it is alleged, have completed a contract with three large 
iron companies for a supply of 68-pounders as fast as they can be cast. An important 
contract for gunpowder has also been taken. 

The Chatham " Royal Marine Barracks " are being, by order of the Admi- 
ralty, considerably enlarged, so as to enable them to accommodate several hundred additional 
officers and men. For this purpose adjoining property has been taken possession of, and the 
houses thereon taken down, to afford the required space. 

A New " Incendiary Shell," invented and called by Captain Norton, " the 
liquid-fire rifle shell" lias been (11th February ult), successfully tested at Chatham, 
before several officers of the Royal Engineers. The results of the experiments are stated 
to prove that the shell in question is " one of the most extraordinary projectiles ever in- 
troduced into the art of warfare." In reference to the above, Mr. John Macintosh has 
directed public notice to his recent patent, No. 1,774, for a shell filled with coal-tar naphtha, 
mixed with phosphorus and bisulphuret of carbon, having a bursting-charge sufficient to 
open the shell, which, when exploded, scatters its contents in all directions ; the shower 
of inflammable material, falling among cavalry and troops, causing their immediate dis- 
organisation and destruction. Similar results for shipping, harbours, dockyards, or towns. 
Mr. Macintosh adds, that in 1S53, he offered his invention to the Government; but that 
Lord Panmure, then Minister of War, interdicted the scaling of Ids patent, on the grounds 
of its efficacy and great value; which interdict has since been removed by his lordship — the 
patent has been sealed, and consequently made public. [Are we, from this, to understand 
that Mr. Macintosh claims identity of his shell with that of Captain Norton ?— Ed.] 

French FloatingFBatteries.— The steam line-of-battle-ship, Jcmrnajqics, now 
at Toulon, is to be transformed into a floating-battery on the new principle, of which it 
is to form the model. These new batteries are to be " enormous naval constructions, 
covered with a sheathing of wrought-iron ; but instead of being, like the former ones, 
"wall-sided" — a form which allows the new cylindro-conical balls thrown by the Paix- 
han's and Armstrong guns to penetrate the iron and to explode in the side of the vessel, 
the new floating forts will have their sides built in a curve, and fluted at intervals, so that 
the shot will not, one time in twenty, strike on a flat surface ; and will, consequently, fly 
oft" without doing any injury." As a specimen of the wonders anticipated to result from 
these new war-engines, destined {inter alia) " to render powerless the fortifications which 
command certain important maritime straits, "Galignani" adds " two of these vessels, 
placed on the coast of Ceuta, would completely paralyse the guns of Gibraltar, and would 
be masters of the Pillars of Hercules." 1 I ! 

French (Improved) Gunpowder. — The Minister of Commerce has addressed a 
circular to the chambers of commerce throughout France, informing them that the 
Minister of War has succeeded in manufacturing gunpowder suited for exportation, of a 
better quality than that now used, and the price of which will enable French ship- 
owners to compete with foreigners ; that the experiments in the manufacture of the new 
gunpowder have been made at the powder-mills of St. Chamax, St. Medard, and Du 
Bouehet; it may be sold at 130 fc. the 100 kilogrammes. That further experiments made 
by the director of the Government gunpowder and saltpetre stores show that the same 
gunpowder may be manufactured for 120fr. the 100 kilogrammes, and even cheaper. This 
new gunpowder is composed of 72 parts of saltpetre, 13 sulphur, and 15 charcoal. 

Austrian Guns. — The Wciner Zeitung (February ult.) states that l,0OU guns of the 
largest calibre are to be cast at Mariazell, in Styria, in the course of the present year. 

An Fxplosive Percussion-bolt Signal, another of the recent inventions of 
Captain Norton, has been tried at the head-quarters of the Royal Engineers' establishment, 
Brompton. It is to be used as a military alarum-signal. On being allowed to fall from 
the hand, either on the earth or even on grass, the signal exploded with a sufficiently loud 
report to be heard at a considerable distance. The inventor proposes to apply the same 
principle to signals to be used on railways, so as to enable passenger